Zakir Hussain (politician)
|3rd President of India|
13 May 1967 – 3 May 1969
|Prime Minister||Indira Gandhi|
|Vice President||Varahagiri Venkata Giri|
|Preceded by||Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan|
|Succeeded by||Varahagiri Venkata Giri (Acting)|
|Vice President of India|
13 May 1962 – 12 May 1967
|Preceded by||Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan|
|Succeeded by||Varahagiri Venkata Giri|
|Governor of Bihar|
6 July 1957 – 11 May 1962
|Chief Minister||Krishna Sinha
Deep Narayan Singh
|Preceded by||R. R. Diwakar|
|Succeeded by||Madabhushi Ananthasayanam Ayyangar|
8 February 1897|
Hyderabad, Hyderabad State,
(now in Telangana, India)
|Died||3 May 1969
New Delhi, Delhi, India
|Alma mater||Aligarh Muslim University
University of Delhi
Humboldt University of Berlin
Zakir Hussain pronunciation (help·info) (Urdu: ذاکِر حسین, Telugu: జాకీర్ హుస్సైన్), ; 8 February 1897 – 3 May 1969) was the 3rd President of India, from 13 May 1967 until his death on 3 May 1969. An educationist and intellectual, Hussain was the country's first Muslim president. He previously served as Governor of Bihar from 1957 to 1962 and as Vice President of India from 1962 to 1967.
Zakir Hussain was also co-founder of Jamia Milia Islamia, serving as its Vice Chancellor from 1928. Under Hussain, Jamia became closely associated with the Indian freedom movement. He was awarded the Bharat Ratna, India's highest national honour, in 1963.
Family and early life
Zakir Hussain was born in an ethnic Pashtun Bangash family in Hyderabad, Telengana, India. His family migrated from Hyderabad to Kaimganj, where Hussain grew up. Hussain's father, Fida Hussain Khan, died when he was ten years old; his mother died in 1911 when he was fourteen. Dr. Zakir Hussain was father to two daughters, Sayeeda Khan and Safia Rahman. Fida Hussain and Naznin Begum had seven sons-
- Muzaffar Hussain Khan; started his judicial career in Hyderabad but died of tuberculosis at the young age of 28. Eminent linguist and the 5th Vice Chancellor of Jamia Millia Islamia, Professor Emeritus Masud Husain Khan is his son.
- Abid Hussain Khan; died young of tuberculosis.
- Zakir Hussain
- Zahid Hussain Khan; died young of tuberculosis.
- Dr. Yousuf Hussain Khan; professor at Osmania University Hyderabad and Urdu’s renowned critic who later became Pro-vice-chancellor at Aligarh Muslim University.
- Jafar Hussain Khan; died young of plague.
- Dr. Mahmud Husain Khan; who served as Vice-Chancellor of Dhaka University from 1960 to 1963, and of Karachi University from 1971 until his death in 1975. He was appointed Minister of State for both Defence and Foreign Affairs in 1949, before serving as Minister for Education from 1952 to 1953 in Pakistan.He was the father of Anwar Hussain a famous compare and former Managing Director of Pakistan Television Corporation.He is the father-in-law of General Rahimuddin Khan, the Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee of the Pakistan Army and the longest-serving Governor of Balochistan. Rahimuddin Khan later served as Governor of Sindh in 1988. Rahimuddin Khan's son-in-law is Ijaz-ul-Haq, son of General Zia-ul-Haq, the sixth President of Pakistan.
Zakir Hussain attended Islamia High School, Etawah, and was then educated at the Anglo-Muhammadan Oriental College, now Aligarh Muslim University, where he was a prominent student leader. He received his doctorate in economics from the University of Berlin in 1926.
In 1915, at the age of 18, he married Shah Jahan Begum. His grandson Salman Khurshid, a Congress politician, was the former Foreign Minister of India.
Hussain, then only 23, was among the small group of students and teachers who founded a National Muslim University, first founded in Aligarh on Friday 29 October 1920 then shifted to Karol Bagh, New Delhi in 1925, then after shifted again on 1 March 1935 in Jamia Nagar, New Delhi and named it Jamia Millia Islamia (a central university). He subsequently went to Germany to obtain a PhD from the Frederick William University of Berlin in Economics. While in Germany, Hussain was instrumental in bringing out the anthology of arguably the greatest Urdu poet Mirza Assadullah Khan "Ghalib" (1797–1868).
He returned to India to head the Jamia Millia Islamia which was facing closure in 1927. He continued in that position for the next twenty-one years providing academic and managerial leadership to an institution that was intimately involved with India's struggle for freedom from the British Rule and experimented with value-based education on the lines advocated by Mahatma Gandhi and Hakim Ajmal Khan. During this period he continued to engage himself with movements for educational reforms in India and was particularly active in the affairs of his old alma mater the MAO College, now the Aligarh Muslim University. During this period Hussain emerged as one of the most prominent educational thinkers and practitioners of modern India. His personal sacrifice and untiring efforts to keep the Jamia afloat in very adverse circumstances won him appreciation of even his arch political rivals like Mohammed Ali Jinnah.
Soon after India attained independence, Hussain agreed to be the Vice chancellor of the Aligarh Muslim University which was facing trying times in post partition India because of active involvement of a section of its teachers and students in the movement for creation of Pakistan. Dr Hussain, again, provided leadership during a critical phase of the history of the University at Aligarh from 1948–1956. Soon after completing his term as Vice Chancellor he was nominated as a member of the Upper House of Indian Parliament in 1956, a position he vacated in 1957 to become Governor of the State of Bihar.
After serving as the Governor of Bihar from 1957 to 1962, and as the second Vice President of India from 1962 to 1967, Hussain was elected President of India on 13 May 1967. In his inaugural speech he said that the whole of India was his home and all its people were his family. During his last days, the issue of nationalization of banks was being hotly debated. The bill, in the end, received presidential consent from Sh M Hidayatullah, (acting president) on 9 August 1969.
Hussain died on 3 May 1969, the first Indian President to die in office. He is buried along with his wife on the campus of Jamia Millia Islamia in New Delhi.
- Zakir Husain, Encyclopædia Britannica Online, 12 February 2012, retrieved 13 May 2012
- "History under threat". The Hindu. 10 October 2011. Retrieved 10 December 2012.
- Sharma, Vishwamitra (2007). Famous Indians of the 21st century. Pustak Mahal. p. 60. ISBN 81-223-0829-5. Retrieved 18 September 2010
- "Zakir Hussain". Retrieved 10 December 2012.
- Zia-ul-Hasan Faruqi (1999) Dr. Zakir Hussain: Quest for Truth APH Publishing, India
- Fārūqī, Z̤iāʼulḥasan (1999). "Dr. Zakir Hussain, quest for truth". Chapter 2 – Islamia High School Etawah. APH Publishing. Retrieved 20 October 2010.
- Jai, Janak Raj (2003). Presidents of India: 1950-2003. New Delhi: Regency Publications. p. 52.
- "After controversy, crowning glory for Khurshid". The Hindu. 29 October 2012. Retrieved 10 December 2012.
- Zakir Saheb by Hakim Syed Zillur Rahman, Zakir Sahab Zatti Yadain, Edited by Dr. Abid Raza Bedar, Khuda Bakhsh Oriental Library, Patna, 1993, p. 165-168
- Zakir Sahab Aur Hakim Ajmal Khan by Hakim Syed Zillur Rahman, Dr. Zakir Hussain Khan – Hayat, Fikr Aur Aman, Edited by Professor Abdul Ghaffar Shakil & Dr. Khaliq Anjum, Karnataka Urdu Academy, Bangalore, 1999. p. 157-174
- Zakir Sahib ki Insan Dosti by Hakim Syed Zillur Rahman, Dr. Zakir Hussain Hayat wa Khidmat, Khuda Bakhsh Oriental Library, Patna, 2000, page 97-108
- Shashi Thoroor The Great Indian Novel, page 347
- "DETAILS OF MEDIA PERSONS ACCOMPANYING THE PRESIDENT IN HIS/HER VISITS ABROAD SINCE 1947 TO 2012". The President's Secretariat. Retrieved 5 June 2013.
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R. R. Diwakar
|Governor of Bihar
Madabhushi Ananthasayanam Ayyangar
|Vice President of India
Varahagiri Venkata Giri
|President of India