Zalcitabine

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Zalcitabine
Zalcitabine.svg
Systematic (IUPAC) name
4-amino-1-((2R,5S)-5-(hydroxymethyl)tetrahydrofuran-2-yl)pyrimidin-2(1H)-one
Clinical data
AHFS/Drugs.com monograph
Pregnancy cat. D (AU) C (US)
Legal status POM (UK) -only (US)
Routes Oral
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability >80%
Protein binding <4%
Metabolism Hepatic
Half-life 2 hours
Excretion Renal (circa 80%)
Identifiers
CAS number 7481-89-2 YesY
ATC code J05AF03
PubChem CID 24066
DrugBank DB00943
ChemSpider 22498 YesY
UNII 6L3XT8CB3I YesY
KEGG D00412 YesY
ChEBI CHEBI:10101 YesY
ChEMBL CHEMBL853 YesY
NIAID ChemDB 000006
Chemical data
Formula C9H13N3O3 
Mol. mass 211.218 g/mol
 YesY (what is this?)  (verify)

Zalcitabine (2′-3′-dideoxycytidine, ddC), also called dideoxycytidine, is a nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NARTI) sold under the trade name Hivid. Zalcitabine was the third antiretroviral to be approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of HIV infection and AIDS. It is used as part of a combination regimen.

Zalcitabine appears less potent than some other nucleoside RTIs, has an inconvenient three-times daily frequency and is associated with serious adverse events. For these reasons it is now rarely used to treat human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and it has even been removed from pharmacies entirely in some countries.[citation needed]

History[edit]

Zalcitabine was first synthesized in the sixties by Jerome Horwitz[1][2] and subsequently developed as an anti-HIV agent by Samuel Broder, Hiroaki Mitsuya, and Robert Yarchoan at the National Cancer Institute (NCI). Like didanosine, it was then licensed because the NCI may not market or sell drugs. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) thus licensed it to Hoffmann-La Roche.

Zalcitabine was the third antiretroviral to be approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of HIV infection and AIDS. It was approved on June 19, 1992 as a monotherapy and again in 1996 for use in combination with zidovudine (AZT). Using combinations of NRTIs was in practice prior to the second FDA approval and the triple drug combinations with dual NRTIs and a protease inhibitor (PI) were not far off by this time.

The sale and distribution of zalcitabine has been discontinued since December 31, 2006.[3]

Mechanism of action[edit]

Zalcitabine is an analog of pyrimidine. It is a derivative of the naturally existing deoxycytidine, made by replacing the hydroxyl group in position 3' with a hydrogen.

It is phosphorylated in T cells and other HIV target cells into its active triphosphate form, ddCTP. This active metabolite works as a substrate for HIV reverse transcriptase, and also by incorporation into the viral DNA, hence terminating the chain elongation due to the missing hydroxyl group. Since zalcitabine is a reverse transcriptase inhibitor it possesses activity only against retroviruses.

Pharmacokinetics[edit]

Zalcitabine has a very high oral absorption rate of over 80%. It is predominantly eliminated by the renal route, with a half-life of 2 hours.[4]

Drug interactions[edit]

Lamivudine (3TC) significantly inhibits the intracellular phosphorylation of zalcitabine to the active form, and accordingly the drugs should not be administered together.[4]

Additionally, zalcitabine should not be used with other drugs that can cause peripheral neuropathy, such as didanosine and stavudine.[4]

Adverse events[edit]

The most common adverse events at the beginning of treatment are nausea and headache. More serious adverse events are peripheral neuropathy, which can occur in up to 33% of patients with advanced disease, oral ulcers, oesophageal ulcers and, rarely, pancreatitis.[4]

Resistance[edit]

Resistance to zalcitabine develops infrequently compared with other nRTIs, and generally only occurs at a low level.[5] The most common mutation observed in vivo is T69D, which does not appear to give rise to cross-resistance to other nRTIs; mutations at positions 65, 74, 75, 184 and 215 in the pol gene are observed more rarely.[4][5]

Sources[edit]

  1. ^ J. P. Horwitz, J Chua, M DaRooge et al (1966). "Nucleosides. IX. The formation of 2′,3′-unsaturated pyrimidine nucleosides via a novel β-elimination reaction". Journal of Organic Chemistry 31: 205. doi:10.1021/jo01339a045. PMID 590081. 
  2. ^ Oral account of the history of AZT, d4T and ddC by Jerome Horwitz and Hiroaki Mitsuya in the documentary film I am alive today - History of an AIDS drug.
  3. ^ HIVID (zalcitabine) tablets. Dear Health Care Professional Letter. (June 2006)
  4. ^ a b c d e HIVID (zalcitabine) tablets. Product information. (September 2002)
  5. ^ a b Moyle GJ. Use of viral resistance patterns to antiretroviral drugs in optimising selection of drug combinations and sequences. Drugs 1996;52:168-185

Further reading[edit]

  • Yarchoan R, Mitsuya H, Broder S. AIDS therapies. Scientific American 1988;259(4):110-9.
  • Harvey Stewart C. in Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences 18th edition: (ed. Gennard, Alfonso R.) Mack Publishing Company, 1990
  • Rang H.P., Dale M.M., Ritter J.M.: Pharmacology, 3rd edition. Pearson Professional Ltd, 1995.
  • Mitsuya H, Broder S. Inhibition of the in vitro infectivity and cytopathic effect of human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy virus-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV) by 2',3'-dideoxynucleosides. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1986;83:1911-5.
  • Yarchoan R, Perno CF, Thomas RV, et al. Phase I studies of 2',3'-dideoxycytidine in severe human immunodeficiency virus infection as a single agent and alternating with zidovudine (AZT). Lancet 1988;1:76-81.
  • Mitsuya H, Yarchoan R, Broder S. Molecular targets for AIDS therapy. Science 1990;249:1533-44.
  • NIH Bio and Oral History of Samuel Broder describing the development of anti-HIV drugs: http://aidshistory.nih.gov/transcripts/bios/Samuel_Broder.html
  • NIH Bio and Oral History of Robert Yarchoan describing the development of anti-HIV drugs: http://aidshistory.nih.gov/transcripts/bios/Robert_Yarchoan.html
  • Moyle G. A re-evaluation of zalcitabine. Expert Opin Investig Drugs 1998;7:451-62