Zamora, Michoacán

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Zamora de Hidalgo
Plaza de Armas of Zamora
Plaza de Armas of Zamora
Official seal of Zamora de Hidalgo
Seal
Motto: Cradle of Illustrious Men
Zamora de Hidalgo is located in Mexico
Zamora de Hidalgo
Zamora de Hidalgo
Coordinates: 19°59′N 102°17′W / 19.983°N 102.283°W / 19.983; -102.283Coordinates: 19°59′N 102°17′W / 19.983°N 102.283°W / 19.983; -102.283
Country Mexico
State Michoacán
Foundation January 18, 1574
Government
 • Mayor Alfonso Martínez PAN Party (Mexico).svg
 • Founder Martín Enríquez de Almanza
Elevation 1,580 m (5,184 ft)
Population (2010)
 • City 141,627
 • Metro 186,102
Time zone Central Standard Time
 • Summer (DST) Central Daylight Time (UTC-5)
Zip code 59600-59725
Website http://www.zamora.gob.mx

Zamora de Hidalgo, is a city in the Mexican state of Michoacán. The 2010 census population was 141,627.[1] making it the third largest city in the state. The city is the municipal seat of Zamora Municipality, which has an area of 330.97 km² (127.79 sq mi) and includes many other smaller communities, the largest of which is Ario de Rayón (Ario Santa Mónica). The municipality's population is around 186,102,[1] which makes it the second most populous urban area in the state.

The city of Zamora is an important economic center in the state and the most significant population center between the cities of Morelia and Guadalajara. The city is located on the Tarascan Plateau in the northwestern part of the state, at an elevation of 1,567 m (5,141 ft) above sea level. Zamora is surrounded by the fertile Tziróndaro Valley which is an important agricultural area that exports large amounts of produce to the United States.

Toponymy[edit]

The city was named after the Spanish city of Zamora because the first European settlers to the area were predominantly from the Spanish province of Castilla y León. Zamora is of Iberian origins that can be traced to the Latin "Civitas Murata" meaning "The Walled City" because it is surrounded by high hills. In 1953, the city officially added "de Hidalgo" to honor Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla that declared the village a city during the movement to independence in Mexico.

History[edit]

Cathedral of Zamora from the Spanish Colonial Era in the historic district, Plaza de Armas.
A street of Zamora

Evidence shows the area was first settled around 1500 BC. During the Pre-Columbian Period there were several waves of migrations into the area by surrounding tribes: Pirinda, Nahua, Huetamo, Colima, and P'urhépecha. Zamora sits in theTziróndaro Valley which means "swamp place" in P'urhépecha.[2]

The village of Zamora was founded on January 18, 1574, on the orders of Viceroy Martín Enríquez de Almanza, by Spanish settlers from the Spanish city of Zamora. The Spanish were attracted to the area because of fertile valleys in the region that were well suited for agricultural development.

Zamora was awarded city status by the Constitutional Congress in 1825, ratifying a decision made on November 21, 1810 by the Mexican War of Independence revolutionary leader Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla. During the 19th century, Zamora developed into a great cultural and economic center due to high agricultural productivity and flourishing commerce. On December 10, 1831, Zamora was declared the municipal seat. Later the city's elite began a political movement to create a new state in which Zamora would be the state capital. In 1846, Archbishop Pelagio Antonio de Labastida y Dávalos initiated a clerical separation from Mexico City. By 1862 a new ecclesiastical office was founded, Dioceses of Zamora based in Zamora. The political aspirations to separate from the rest of the state were impeded.

During the Porfiriato the city experienced the fastest economic growth in its history. Between 1854 and 1910, the city experienced rapid economic growth due industrial development, city modernization, technological innovations, and increased agricultural productivity. Zamora was one of the first cities in the state that implemented new technologies like: railroad stations, telegraphs, telephones, electricity, modern water systems. In 1899 the department of transportation connected Zamora by railroad to other important populations centers in central Mexico. At the same time the department of urbanization had an image they wanted for the city which involved many modernization projects throughout the city. During the Porfiriato the city had an architectural renaissance celebrating many vogue European architectural styles. Large civil offices and religious temples were erected during this time that flaunted the economic wealth of the city like: Michoacán Center for the Arts, College of Michoacán, and Obrero de Zamora Theatre. On February 2, 1898 at the feast of Candlemas led by the second bishop of Zamora, Don Jose Ma. Càzares y Martinez the cornerstone of the Cathedral of Our Lady of Guadalupe was laid. During this time many of the city's elite built new homes largely inspired by Victorian and Châteauesque architectural styles.

The Mexican Revolution reached the state in 1911, when those loyal to Francisco I. Madero proclaimed the city and surrounding area their territory. When the state governor resigned the city would continue to be involved in the war. In 1918 the state ratified the state constitution. After the Mexican Revolution, the Cristero War continued to devastate the region's agriculture which had detrimental economic effects to the city. Political hostilities would finally end in the city and vicinity in 1926.

Geography[edit]

Tziróndaro Valley

Zamora de Hidalgo is located in the northwestern part of the state of Michoacán on the Tarascan Plateau at an elevation of 1,567 m 5,141 ft) above sea level. The city is the municipal seat of Zamora Municipality, which has an area of 330.97 km² (127.79 sq mi) and includes many other smaller communities, the largest of which is Ario de Rayón (Ario Santa Mónica).

More specifically the city is found in Tziróndaro Valley (P'urhépecha for "Swamp place"), a large alluvial plain surrounded by mountains with a northeast-southeast orientation. The topography of the region is flat with no slopes greater than 5%. During the Cenozoic the area was a flood plain of the Duero River which deposited large amounts of basalt, breccia, calcareous tuff, tuff, andesite, and rhyolite. The dominant basalt rock found in the area give the soil a rich source of: calcium, magnesium, iron, potassium, and sodium. The soils in the surrounding areas are rich and fertile making the region perfect for agriculture. The soil in the area is classified as pellic vertisol with significant amounts of chromate; the soil is of fine texture with rocky layer containing rocks smaller than 7.5 cm³.[3]

Climate[edit]

The city has a humid subtropical climate (Cwa) with average annual temperature of 18.5°C (65°F). The warmest month is May with an average temperature of 23.3°C (74°F), and the coldest month is December with an average temperature of 14.7°C (59°F). The city has an average annual precipitation of about 900.6 mm (35.4 in) mostly falling during the summer.

Climate data for Zamora de Hidalgo, Michoacán
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 34.1
(93.4)
39.6
(103.3)
38.4
(101.1)
39.0
(102.2)
48.1
(118.6)
40.2
(104.4)
37.0
(98.6)
38.0
(100.4)
37.9
(100.2)
37.8
(100)
36.0
(96.8)
35.3
(95.5)
48.1
(118.6)
Average high °C (°F) 27.4
(81.3)
29.2
(84.6)
31.6
(88.9)
33.4
(92.1)
34.3
(93.7)
32.1
(89.8)
29.6
(85.3)
29.7
(85.5)
29.7
(85.5)
29.6
(85.3)
29.1
(84.4)
27.5
(81.5)
30.3
(86.5)
Daily mean °C (°F) 17.5
(63.5)
19.0
(66.2)
21.4
(70.5)
23.4
(74.1)
24.9
(76.8)
24.3
(75.7)
22.7
(72.9)
22.6
(72.7)
22.5
(72.5)
21.3
(70.3)
19.8
(67.6)
18.2
(64.8)
21.5
(70.7)
Average low °C (°F) 7.7
(45.9)
8.8
(47.8)
11.1
(52)
13.4
(56.1)
15.5
(59.9)
16.5
(61.7)
15.7
(60.3)
15.6
(60.1)
15.2
(59.4)
13.0
(55.4)
10.5
(50.9)
8.9
(48)
12.7
(54.9)
Record low °C (°F) −3.2
(26.2)
−1.5
(29.3)
1.8
(35.2)
4.4
(39.9)
7.5
(45.5)
5.8
(42.4)
9.8
(49.6)
5.5
(41.9)
8.0
(46.4)
1.9
(35.4)
−0.2
(31.6)
−0.9
(30.4)
−3.2
(26.2)
Precipitation mm (inches) 15.9
(0.626)
4.6
(0.181)
5.6
(0.22)
13.0
(0.512)
40.7
(1.602)
150.2
(5.913)
213.6
(8.409)
175.4
(6.906)
153.7
(6.051)
52.1
(2.051)
15.8
(0.622)
16.7
(0.657)
857.3
(33.752)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 1.9 1.4 1.4 2.3 5.6 16.2 21.4 20.8 15.3 6.8 2.0 2.8 97.9
 % humidity 55 52 49 47 49 64 72 71 70 64 61 58 59
Source #1: Servicio Meteorológico Nacional[4][5]
Source #2: Colegio de Postgraduados[6]

Demographics[edit]

Economics[edit]

Education[edit]

Universities

Zamora has six institutes of higher education:

Tourism[edit]

A number of historic buildings dot the city center, built during Spanish colonial times (virreinato) and the 19th century. Some of these monuments are the Temple of San Francisco, the Our Lady of Guadalupe Unfinished Cathedral of Zamora, (second tallest church in Mexico); the church of San Francisco, the church of El Calvario, and the Public Library and the Federal Palace.

One of the main tourist points is the Cathedral of Our Lady of Guadalupe, located over 5 de Mayo Avenue; it is a neo-gothic style architectural wonder that dates from February 2, 1898, this enormous cathedral is expected to reach 105 meters in height when completed, and will be one of the largest churches of its kind on the American continent.

Zamora has several leisure alternatives, periodically Theater of the City of Zamora offers events, as piano recitals, theater, camera concerts and works, also the School of Michoacán A.C. with soothes in Zamora offers to the citizenship diverse cultural events like cycles of films festivals, recitals, concerts and presentations of folkloric dances and events.

Every year in December the Festival of the Chongos zamoranos is held, where the visitor is able to taste gastronomical samples, musical dances and interpretations, as well as the “Poets Meeting” and every 12 of December in Cathedral of Our Lady of Guadalupe and in diverse places of the city. One of nearby best attractions is the Lago de Camécuaro National Park, which is one out of 5 national parks.

Famous Births[edit]

Policy and diplomacy


Arts and culture

  • Eduardo del Río, writer and cartoonist.
  • Enrique Marín, actor.
  • Edgar Gonzalez renowned blogger and architect based in Madrid, Spain.
  • German Osorio entrepreneur and architect with design offices in Mexico and USA based in Tucson Arizona.
  • Carlos Ruvalcaba, writer and journalist, its novels "Vida Crónica" by Alfaguara, Spain; "La Mariposa Bailarina" by Santillana-Alfaguara in Miami, Florida, and "Los Novenarios" by Secretaria de Cultura de Michoacán in Morelia, Mexico.
  • Juan Carlos Mares Elizalde, Frankie (Troker), Currently, he is recognized as one of the most prominent drummers in Mexico because of his complexity and particular sound. At 30 years old, Frankie had already been involved with international artists such as Steven Bernstein, John Medeski, Omar Rodriguez-López, Don Byron, Jay Rodriguez, Alex Machacek, Todd Clouser Alonso Arreola, Iraida Noriega , Gerry Rosado, Alex Otaola, Sara Valenzuela and German Bringas. http://troker.com.mx

Sports

Religion

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía (INEGI). "Censo de Población y Vivienda 2010". Retrieved 2011-03-03. 
  2. ^ "El Estado de Michoacán Epoca Prehispanica" [The State of Michoacan Pre-Hispanic Era] (in Spanish). Morelia, Michoacán: UMSNH. Retrieved June 16, 2010. 
  3. ^ Instituto Nacional de Ecología. "Parque Nacion l Lago de Camécuaro". Retrieved 2011-03-03. 
  4. ^ "Normales climatológicas 1951-2010" (in Spanish). Servicio Meteorológico Nacional. Retrieved January 16, 2013. 
  5. ^ "Normales climatológicas 1981-2000" (in Spanish). Comision Nacional Del Agua. Retrieved January 16, 2013. 
  6. ^ "Normales climatológicas para Zamora, Michoacan" (in Spanish). Colegio de Postgraduados. Retrieved January 16, 2013. 

Francisco Orozoc, MSW. University of Southern California & Ph.D Candidate from UCI.

External links[edit]