Zanzibari cuisine reflects several heterogeneous influences, as a consequence of the multi-cultural and multi-ethnic nature of Zanzibar's and Swahili heritage. It mixes tastes and traditions of Africa, Arab, Portuguese, Indian, British and even Chinese cuisine.
The first inhabitants of Zanzibar were Bantus coming from the mainland, and they were mostly fishers. Their diet thus consisted of primarily seafood, such as tuna, mackerel, lobster, squid, octopus and oysters. Other ingredients and recipes of African origin found in today's Zanzibari cuisine (some of which became widespread during European colonialism) are common beans, sweet potatoes, manioc chips, yam and plaintain.
In the 9th century, Arabs and Persians began colonizing the coast of East Africa as well as the Zanzibar Archipelago, bringing along a more sophisticated cuisine and new ingredients, most notably spices, coconut, mango, citrus and rice. One of the most common zanzibar recipes, the pilau (pilaf) rice (i.e., rice, coconuts, nuts and spices) clearly reflects its Arab origin.
Between the 15th century and the 16th century, the Portuguese quickly conquered most of East Africa, including Zanzibar. The main Portuguese influences on Zanzibari cuisine was the introduction of those that would become major types of staple food in Zanzibar, namely manioc, maize and pineapple.
In 1651 the Portuguese lost control of Zanzibar to the Omani sultanate. The Omanis brought new spices and intensified the commercial relationships between Zanzibar and India; as a consequence, Indian recipes such as chutney, masala, biryani, curry, fish cakes and samoosa (samosa) made it to Zanzibar. Most recipes of foreign origin were adapted to the ingredients that were available on the island, thus giving birth to a largely original "fusion" cuisine.
Around the beginning of the 20th century most of East Africa were colonized by the Germans and the British. Those did not mix with the local population as much as the Arabs, Persians and Indians had done, and their influence on Zanzibari cuisine is less evident; yet, some very common Zanzibari recipes, such as pepper steak, can be generically defined as having an European origin.
After independence, Tanzania established a strong relationship with China; Chinese physicians, engineers, and military consultants came to Zanzibar. Although only a small fraction of today's Zanzibari population has Chinese origins, some recipes and ingredients, such as soy sauce, have began commonplace on the island.
Sorpotel is a recipe of Portuguese-Indian (Goan) origin, consisting in a mix of boiled meat; in Zanzibar this includes tongue, heart and liver. It is cooked with masala (a mix of spices similar to curry), as well as tamarind and vinegar.
- Spice cake
- Date and hazelnut bread
- Pilau meat
- Pepper shark
- Pweza wa nazi