Zapovednik

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Zapovednik (Russian: заповедник, plural заповедники, from the Russian заповедный, "sacred, prohibited from disturbance, committed [to protect], committed [to heritage]") is an established term on the territory of the former Soviet Union for a protected area which is kept "forever wild". It is the highest degree of environmental protection for the assigned areas that are strictly protected, and maybe restricted to the public.

The closest English term is "scientific nature reserve" or literally nature sanctuary (compare to animal sanctuary), however zapovediks are not necessarily connected with nature only as there could be historical-cultural, historical-archeological, and other types of zapovedniks of cultural or natural heritage.

The term was used in the former Soviet Union and still is in the Russian Federation as well as in some of the other 14 former Soviet republics. Human use is generally limited to scientific research or educational purposes. However, many reserves have areas with different degrees of protection, and sometimes other activities (such as grazing) are permitted to a certain extent. Zapovednik refers to the reserve, staff and infrastructure.

Other types of protected areas include national nature parks, zakazniks (refers to "state game reserve" because a limited authorized hunting is also allowed there ), nature monuments (often individual trees, geological exposures, or other small areas) etc. Some zapovedniks are recognized as biosphere reserves (biosphere sanctuaries).

In Russia there are 101 zapovedniks covering about 330,000 square kilometers (130,000 sq mi), or about 1.4% of the country's total area. They include everything from isolated patches of steppe to large tracts of Siberia and the Arctic, and range in size from Galich'ya Gora at 2.31 km² (570 acres) to Great Arctic State Nature Reserve at 41,692 square kilometers (16,097 sq mi). The Russian Ministry of Natural Resources oversees 99 of the zapovedniks. Il'menskiy is, however, administered by the Russian Academy of Sciences, and Galich'ya Gora by Voronezh University.[1]

Theory of zapovednost'[edit]

The theoretical justification for the zapovedniks is known as zapovednost' (заповедность) - strictly meaning 'the state of being protected in a zapovednik'. It was developed in the 1890s and early 20th century, principally by the soil biologist V.V.Dokuchaev.

The fundamental idea is the exclusion of people and the prohibition of economic activity, the only exceptions being non-intrusive access allowed to scientists and rangers.[2] Zapovedniks are intended to be parcels of untouched natural ecosystems that can be studied as etalony (эталоны) or standards with which to compare managed ecosystems, such as are created in agriculture and forestry.[3] To this end, zapovedniks need to be large enough to be self-sufficient, with a complete range of trophic levels up to the top predators.[4]

In 1910 the theory of zapovednost' was taken a step forward by I.P.Borodin, who argued that zapovedniks should not be established piece-meal, but as a planned system of reserves including samples of all the main natural regions in the country.[5]

In the 1940s Aldo Leopold understood the need for zapovednik-type reserves: "While even the largest wilderness areas become partially deranged, it required only a few wild acres for J.E.Weaver to discover why the prairie flora is more drought-resistant than the agronomic flora which has supplanted it." The answer was that the wild prairie had a much more complex, and more efficient, root system, and this could only have been discovered by studying the undisturbed natural ecosystem.[6]

Of course it would be difficult, if not impossible, to establish a 'perfect' zapovednik today, entirely natural and self-sufficient, especially in view of downstream effects involving pollution and greenhouse gases. Nevertheless many Russian zapovedniks are a good approximation to the ideal, and have been operating as scientific institutions for many decades.

History[edit]

The first zapovedniks were set up in the steppe region of the Russian Empire in the 1890s. Some at least were equipped with research stations. Dokuchaev was the guiding spirit behind these early zapovedniks. Steppe was chosen for the first zapovedniks on account of the rapid disappearance of virgin steppe as it was ploughed up, and because it was thought that ploughing might be exacerbating the effects of drought; clearly research was needed in order to understand the steppe and how it could be best exploited.[7]

The applied-science motivation for setting up zapovedniks was continued in the first state-organized zapovednik. Barguzin Nature Reserve was established by the tsarist government in 1916 on the eastern shore of Lake Baikal. Its purpose was to protect and study a population of sable - a valuable species, which was declining due to hunting for its fur.[8] Other zapovedniks appear to have been set up at about the same time but either lapsed (e.g. Sayan) or did not receive formal recognition until later (e.g. Kedrovaya Pad').[9]

Lenin's nationalization of the land in 1917 and 1918 created a legally favourable environment for the Soviet zapovednik system, since problems with securing large areas of land for this purpose from private owners immediately disappeared.[10] Fortunately[weasel words] Lenin appears[weasel words] to have had a genuine interest in nature protection,[neutrality is disputed] and this perhaps partly explains why permission was granted promptly for the creation in 1919 of Astrakhan Zapovednik in the Volga Delta on the north-western shore of the Caspian Sea.[11]

The legal recognition of zapovedniks was put on a firm basis by a measure 'On the Protection of Nature Monuments, Gardens and Parks', signed into law by Lenin in 1921.[12] Although creation of zapovedniks went ahead, the legislation also allowed for national parks, though for some reason none was set up in the Soviet Union for another half century.

By 1933 there were 15 state zapovedniks in Russia,[13] and by 1995 115 had been established. The average area of new zapovedniks declined from 780 km² in 1916-25 to 110 km² in 1936-45, and then rose to 5,060 km² in 1986-95.[14] In 2007 there were 101 operating zapovedniks, reflecting a small number of new ones opened since 1995, but also two periods of closures and contraction of the system. The first of these was planned by A.V.Malinovski and carried out in 1951, with a view to turning the zapovedniks into 'commercial-and-research' institutions, as well as releasing substantial areas of protected forest for commercial exploitation.[15] Over the next 10 years the zapovednik system recovered somewhat, but in 1961 Nikita Khrushchev criticized it, famously referring to a film about Altay Zapovednik in which a scientist was shown watching a squirrel gnawing a nut.[16] Six zapovedniks were closed, and others were amalgamated or reduced in area.[17]

Although the ideal zapovednik is an institution with an extensive area of unspoilt natural ecosystems used only for scientific research, and a resident staff of scientists and rangers, the history of many zapovedniks has in fact been rather different, sometimes involving closure, exploitation (including felling of forest), and eventual reopening. Even so, some zapovedniks have had an almost 'unblemished' history, and most retain the original vision of being scientific research institutions not catering for public recreation.

Environments protected[edit]

Map of zapovedniks in Russia

It is not easy to summarize the coverage of ecosystems protected by zapovedniks, but a rough idea can be gained by counting the number of reserves in the main natural-vegetation zones. On the map these are, from north to south:

  • Arctic desert (treeless; no continuous vegetation cover) and tundra (treeless; small shrubs, sedges, mosses)
  • taiga (coniferous boreal forest with admixture of birch and other deciduous trees)
  • deciduous forest (discontinuous zone dominated by oak and other deciduous species)
  • steppe (treeless, dominated by forbs in the north and grasses in the south).

This is a highly simplistic classification: each major zone is divided into subzones, and there are transitional vegetation types. Moreover many zapovedniks, especially if in a transitional zone or covering a range of altitudes, will contain examples of several vegetation types.

With those qualifications, the numbers of zapovednik sites (some zapovedniks occupy widely dispersed sites, some of which are here counted separately) in the different zones are as follows: Arctic desert and tundra - c.15; taiga - c.40; deciduous forest - c.13; steppe - c.30. About half a dozen are predominantly montane, especially in the Caucasus. Komandorsky and Wrangel Island are remote islands. A few are mainly wetlands.

Management and uses[edit]

Although the principle of zapovednost' stipulates no economic use, in practice zapovedniks have often been required to contribute to the national economy. Voronezh Zapovednik, for instance, bred European beavers for reintroduction to other areas in support of the fur industry.[18] Several zapovedniks have also been regarded as a breeding ground for other commercially valuable fur-bearing animals, such as sable and desman, allowing them to spread into neighboring unprotected areas to support commercial trapping.[19]

Non-intervention management is difficult to practise in steppe zapovedniks, which are often far too small to support a self-sustaining ecosystem including wild herbivores (such as saiga) that may have been migratory. Resort is sometimes made to various mowing regimes, which however cannot satisfactorily replace natural processes insofar as it does not recycle nutrients and organic matter through the herbivore and carnivore food chain, and cannot replicate trampling effects.

An important activity in all zapovedniks is regular monitoring of seasonal events (phenology). This is now standardized in a programme of observations known as the Chronicle of Nature (Летопись природы). The name was suggested by A.N.Formozov in 1937 although a monitoring programme was being developed by V.N.Sukachev in 1914 and G.A.Kozhevnikov in 1928.[20] Instructions for conducting the Chronicle of Nature are periodically updated.[21]

Under the pressure to become self-financing, some zapovedniks have tried at various times to develop ecological tourism - usually in the reserve's buffer zone, so avoiding infringement of the principle of zapovednost'. In some cases tourism does however become a serious problem on account of the proximity of recreation centres, e.g. at Teberdinsky Zapovednik in the Caucasus. The Dombai recreation center, long a favorite Russian alpine skiing destination, is located near the center of the zapovednik, and the impact of tourism in the area as more Russians and foreigners come to visit has created pressure on the preserved ecosystems around it.

International significance of the zapovednik system[edit]

The anthropogenic impact on the environment - due to pollution, climate change and ultimately human population growth - is generating increasingly serious problems, the solution of which will depend on a better understanding of the biosphere than we already have. To provide conditions in which such an understanding can be developed, it is essential to preserve as far as possible intact examples of natural ecosystems, and the zapovedniks are the only large system of protected areas created primarily for this purpose. In the case of soil erosion, for example, it is only by comparing soil formation and loss rates from intact steppe or prairie and from the same kind of land under intensive agriculture that we can appreciate how destructive of natural capital the latter often is.[22]

Regular long-term monitoring of natural phenomena in zapovedniks has also provided a baseline set of data which is now valuable for assessing how anthropogenic pressure, primarily through climate change, is affecting natural ecosystems. Since the latter perform essential functions such as carbon sequestration and nutrient cycling, it is obviously important to know how these ecosystem services are being affected by anthropogenic pressure.[23] There is an argument for establishing a well funded global network of zapovedniks in order to increase our understanding of anthropogenic pressures on all the natural ecosystems of the world.

List of zapovedniks in Russia[edit]

Name Location Size
km² (sq. mi.)
Year founded Notes
Altai Altai Republic 8812 (3402) 1932 Part of Golden Mountains of Altai World Heritage Site.
Astrakhan Astrakhan Oblast 668 (258) 1919 Consisting of 3 areas in Volga River delta at the Caspian Sea
Azas Tyva Republic 3340 (1290) 1985
Barguzin Buryat Republic 3744 (1446) 1916 Part of Lake Baikal World Heritage Site.
Basegi Perm Krai 380 (147) 1982 In central Urals on Basegi Range
Bashkirski Bashkortostan Rep. 496 (192) 1930 Consisting of 2 sites in the southern Urals
Bastak Khabarovsk Krai 918 (354) 1997
Baikal Buryat Republic 1657 (640) 1969 Located on terraces of south shore of Lake Baikal in Khamar-Daban Range
Baykal-Lena Irkutsk Oblast 6599 (2548) 1986 Part of Lake Baikal World Heritage Site, includes the headwaters of the Lena River west of Lake Baikal
Belogore Belgorod Oblast 21 (8) 1999
Bogdinsko-
Baskunchakski
Astrakhan Oblast 185 (71) 1997 In western part of the Caspian lowland on the left bank of Volga River, includes Lake Baskunchak (largest salt lake in the country)
Bolon Khabarovsk Krai 1036 (400) 1997
Bolshaya Kokshaga Mari El Republic 216 (83) 1993
Bolshekhekhtsir Khabarovsk Krai 454 (175) 1963 Isolated highland region (Bolshoy Khekhtsir) near confluence of Amur and Ussuri Rivers
Botcha Khabarovsk Krai 2670 (1031) 1994 Includes the Botcha River basin in the northern Sikhote-Alin Mountains
Bryansk Forest Bryansk Oblast 122 (47) 1987
Bureya Khabarovsk Krai 3580 (1382) 1987 Includes mountains between Pravaya Bureya and Levaya Bureya Rivers
Caucasus Krasnodar Krai
Republic of Adygea Rep.
2803 (1082) 1924 Part of Western Caucasus World Heritage Site
Central Black-Earth Kursk Oblast
Belgorod Oblast
51 (20) 1935 Consisting of 6 sites of forests and steppes dissected by ravines
Central Forest Tver Oblast 214 (83) 1931
Central Siberia Krasnoyarsk Krai 10220 (3946) 1985 Consisting of taiga on the western slopes of the Central Siberian Plateau
Cherny Zemli Kalmykia Rep. 1219 (470) 1990
Dagestan Republic of Dagestan Rep. 191 (74) 1987 Consisting of 2 sites along the Caspian Sea coast
Dalnevostochny Morskoy
(Far-East Marine)
Primorsky Krai 643 (248) 1987 Consisting of 3 marine areas and 12 islands in the Sea of Japan
Darwin Vologda Oblast
Tver Oblast
1127 (435) 1945
Dauriya Chita Oblast 448 (173) 1987
Denezhkin Kamen Sverdlovsk Oblast 782 (302) 1991 Originally founded in 1946 with 1350 km2 but not operational between 1960 and 1990
Erzi Ingushetia Rep. 60 (23) 2000
Galichya Gora Lipetsk Oblast 2.30 (0.89) 1925 From 1952 to 1970 it was an experimental farm; consisting of 6 sites in the Don River basin
Great Arctic Krasnoyarsk Krai 41692 (16097) 1993 Includes 7 sites on mainland and islands of Taymyr Peninsula
Gydan Yamalo-Nenets Okrug 8782 (3391) 1996 Located on peninsulas and islands in Kara Sea, includes 718 km2 of sea
Ilmen Chelyabinsk Oblast 304 (117) 1920 Established as a mineralogical reserve in the southern Urals
Jerginski Buryat Republic 2379 (919) 1992 Includes the upper Barguzin River in the Barguzin Range
Jugjurski Khabarovsk Krai 8600 (3320) 1990 Includes coastal ridges and some islands of Sea of Okhotsk
Kabardino-Balkarski Kabardino-Balkaria 828 (320) 1976 Consisting mostly of glacier and bare rock in Caucasus Mountains
Kaluzhskiye Zaseki Kaluga Oblast 185 (71) 1992
Kandalaksha Murmansk Oblast 705 (272) 1932 Consisting of the coast and islands around White Sea and Kola Peninsula
Katun Altai Republic 1520 (587) 1991 Includes the upper Katun River in the Altay Mountains; part of Golden Mountains of Altai World Heritage Site
Kedrovaya Pad Primorsky Krai 179 (69) 1925 Includes mountains and valley of Kedrovaya River
Kerzhinski Nizhny Novgorod 469 (181) 1993
Khakasski Khakassia Rep. 2680 (1035) 1991 Formed from the merger of Little Abakan and Chazy in 1999
Khanka Primorsky Krai 393 (152) 1990 Consisting of part of Khanka Lake and its surroundings on the Chinese border
Khingan Amur Oblast 972 (375) 1963 Includes part of Malyi Khingan Range on the border with China
Khopyor Voronezh Oblast 162 (63) 1935 Consisting of forests and steppes along the Khopyor River
Kivach Karelia Rep. 109 (42) 1931
Kologrivski Forest Kostroma Oblast 589 (227) 2006
Komandor Kamchatka Krai 36487 (14088) 1993 Includes the Commander Islands off the coast of Kamchatka Peninsula in the Pacific Ocean
Komsomolsk Khabarovsk Krai 645 (249) 1963 Originally near Komsomolsk-on-Amur then relocated to mountainous area west of Amur River in 1980
Koryak Koryak Okrug 3272 (1263) 1995 Includes lowland and highland sites of lakes, bogs, and tundra in the north of Kamchatka Peninsula
Kostamuksha Karelia Rep. 475.69 (183.66) 1983 In 1990 it was joined with protected areas in Finland to form transborder Friendship Nature Reserve
Kronotski Kamchatka Krai 11420 (4409) 1934 Part of Volcanoes of Kamchatka World Heritage Site.
Kurils Sakhalin Oblast 654 (253) 1984 Includes 3 sites on Kuril Islands and Kunashir Island
Kuznetski-Ala-Tau Kemerovo Oblast 4130 (1595) 1989
Lapland Murmansk Oblast 2784 (1075) 1930 Includes mountains, taiga, and tundra of Kola Peninsula
Lazovski Primorsky Krai 1209.89 (467.13) 1940 Formerly called Sudzukhinski and originally part of Sikhote-Alin reserve
Lena Delta Sakha (Yakutiya) Rep. 14330 (5533) 1985 Includes the Lena River delta on the Arctic coast of the Laptev Sea
Little Sosva Khanty–Mansi Okrug 2256 (871) 1976 Includes part of the former Kondo-Sosva reserve
Magadan Magadan Oblast 8838 (3412) 1982 Includes 4 sites around northern coast of Sea of Okhotsk
Mordovski Mordovia Rep. 322 (124) 1936
Nenets Nenets Okrug 3134 (1210) 1997 Includes part of the Pechora River delta and some islands of the Barents Sea
Nizhnesvirsky Leningrad Oblast 416 (161) 1980 Includes bogs and forest of the shores of Svir River and Lake Ladoga
Nora Amur Oblast 2112 (815) 1998
North Osetia North Ossetia–Alania 295 (114) 1967 Consisting of north slope of Great Caucasus Mountains
Nurgush Kirov Oblast 57 (22) 1994 Includes floodplain of Vyatka River, with numerous channels and ox-bow lakes
Oka Ryazan Oblast 557 (215) 1935 Includes bogs, forest, and dunes along the Oka River
Olyokma Sakha (Yakutiya) Rep. 8471 (3271) 1984 Includes hills and mountains on the right bank of Olyokma River
Orenburg Orenburg Oblast 217 (84) 1989 Consisting of 4 sites of hills and steppe in the southern Urals
Pasvik Murmansk Oblast 146 (56) 1992 Includes taiga in the Paz River basin near the Norwegian border
Pechora-Ilych Komi Republic 7213 (2785) 1930 Includes part of the Virgin Komi Forests World Heritage site
Pinezhsky Arkhangelsk Oblast 515 (199) 1974 Consisting mostly of taiga along the Pinega River
Polistovsky Pskov Oblast 380 (147) 1994 Includes part of the largest raised-bog system in Europe (Polisto-Lovatskaya)
Poronaysky Sakhalin Oblast 567 (219) 1988 Consisting of 2 sites of taiga lowland and hills on Sakhalin Island
Prioksko-Terrasny Moscow Oblast 49 (19) 1945 Includes unusual meadow-steppe vegetation ('Oka Flora')
Prisurski Chuvash Rep. 91 (35) 1995
Privolzhskaya Forest-steppe Penza Oblast 84 (32) 1989 Consisting of 5 sites in a forest-steppe zone
Putorana Krasnoyarsk Krai 18873 (7287) 1988 Includes mountains, taiga, tundra, and lakes in northern Siberia
Rdeysky Novgorod Oblast 369 (142) 1994 Borders with Polist Zapovednik; part of largest raised-bog system in Europe
Rostov Rostov Oblast 95 (37) 1995
Sayano-Shushenski Krasnoyarsk Krai 3904 (1507) 1976 Includes part of the Sayan Mountains
Shulgan-Tash Bashkortostan Rep. 225 (87) 1986 Formerly part of Bashkirski Zapovednik
Sikhote-Alin Primorsky Krai 4010 (1548) 1935 Part of Sikhote-Alin World Heritage Site
Sokhondo Chita Oblast 2110 (815) 1973
Stolby Krasnoyarsk Krai 471 (182) 1925 Includes part of the Sayan Mountains
South Urals Bashkortostan Rep. 2530 (977) 1978 Includes part of the southern Ural Mountains
Taymyr Krasnoyarsk Krai 17819 (6880) 1979 Includes part of the northernmost forest in the world, Lake Taymyr, and Arctic desert on spurs of the Byrranga Mountains
Teberda Karachay–Cherkessia 850 (328) 1936 Consisting of 2 sites of forest and glaciers in the Caucasus Mountains
Tigirekskiy Altai Republic 407 (157) 1999
Tunguska Krasnoyarsk Krai
Evenkia
2970 (1147) 1995 Site of the 1908 Tunguska event
Ubsunurski Depression Tyva Republic 3230 (1247) 1993 Part of Uvs Nuur basin World Heritage Site, together with Uvs Nuur State Nature Reserve in Mongolia
Upper Taz Yamalo-Nenets Okrug 6313 (2437) 1986 Includes bogs and taiga on the upper portion of the Taz River
Ussuri Primorsky Krai 404 (156) 1932 Includes western spurs of Sikhote-Alin Mountains draining into the Ussuri River
Vishera Perm Krai 2412 (931) 1990 Includes part of the northern Urals in the Vishera River basin
Visim Sverdlovsk Oblast 135 (52) 1946
Vitim Irkutsk Oblast 5850 (2259) 1982 Consisting mountains of the Kodar Range in the Vitim River basin
Volga-Kama Tatarstan Rep. 101 (39) 1960 Consisting of 2 sites of forest along Volga River
Voronezh Voronezh Oblast 311 (120) 1927 Includes half of Usmanski Forest along the Voronezh River
Vorona Tambov Oblast 103 (40) 1994 Includes forest, steppe, and wetlands in the Vorona River valley
Wrangel Island Chukotka Okrug 22260 (8595) 1976 Part of 'Natural System of Wrangel Island Reserve' World Heritage Site
Yugan Khanty–Mansi Okrug 6490 (2506) 1982
Zeya Amur Oblast 994 (384) 1963 Includes part of the Tukuringr Range and the Zeya River basin
Zhiguli Samara Oblast 231 (89) 1927 On Samarskaya Luka Peninsula and islands in Volga River
Source:"Current zapovedniks of the Russian Federation". Russian Nature Press Information Service. Retrieved 2008-01-24. 

UNESCO protection[edit]

Biosphere reserves[edit]

Since 1978, more than thirty of Russia's nature reserves have been designated by UNESCO as biosphere reserves.[24]

World Heritage Sites[edit]

Some of the nature reserves in Russia are also protected by the UNESCO as natural World Heritage Sites:

Typically, a nature reserve occupies only a part of the much larger World Heritage site.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • Filonov, K.P. & Nukhimovskaya, Yu. D. (1990) Letopis' prirody v zapovednikakh SSSR: metodicheskoye posobiye. Moscow: Nauka. ISBN 5-02-005470-4.
  • Kokorin, A.O., Kozharinov, A.V. & Minin A.A. (2001) Climate Change Impact on Ecosystems. Moscow: WWF. ISBN 5-89932-024-9.
  • Leopold, Aldo (1968) Sand County Almanac. London (&c): Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-500777-8.
  • Montgomery, D.R. Dirt: the Erosion of Civilizations. Berkeley (&c): University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-24870-8.
  • Shtil'mark, F.R. (2003) History of the Russian Zapovedniks 1895-1995. Edinburgh: Russian Nature Press. ISBN 0-9532990-2-3.
  • Volkov, A.E. (ed.) (1996) Strict Nature Reserves (Zapovedniki) of Russia: Collection of Chronicle of Nature data for 1991-1992. Moscow: Sabashnikov Publishers. ISBN 5-8242-0051-3.
  • Weiner, D.R. (1999) A Little Corner of Freedom: Russian Nature Protection from Stalin to Gorbachev. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-23213-5.
  • Weiner, D.R. (2000) Models of Nature: Ecology, Conservation & Cultural Revolution in Soviet Russia (2nd edition). Pittsburgh Pa: University of Pittsburgh Press. ISBN 0-8229-5733-7.
  • Zapovedniks, under "Russian Protected Areas," at russianconservation.org, retrieved December 19, 2005.

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Tsentr dickoy prirody
  2. ^ Shtilmark (2003) p.2.
  3. ^ Weiner (2000), p.91.
  4. ^ Shtilmark (2003), pp.12-13.
  5. ^ Shtilmark (2003), pp.17-18.
  6. ^ Leopold (1968), pp.196-7.
  7. ^ Shtilmark (2003), pp.10-13;Weiner (2000), p.12.
  8. ^ Shtilmark (2003), p.25.
  9. ^ Shtilmark (2003), pp.24-25.
  10. ^ Shtilmark (2003), p.29.
  11. ^ Shtilmark (2003), p.30; Weiner (2000), p.27.
  12. ^ Shtilmark (2003), p.34; Weiner (2000), p.28.
  13. ^ Weiner (2000), p.251.
  14. ^ Shtilmark (2003), p.206.
  15. ^ Shtilmark (2003), p.118; Weiner (1999), p.102.
  16. ^ Shtilmark (2003), p.135; Weiner (1999), p.296.
  17. ^ Shtilmark (2003), p.137.
  18. ^ Shtilmark (2003), p.71.
  19. ^ Shtilmark (2003), p.67.
  20. ^ Shtilmark (2003), pp.67, 84, 96; Volkov (1996), p.9.
  21. ^ Filonov & Nukhimovskaya (1990).
  22. ^ Montgomery (2007), pp.150-8, 172-4.
  23. ^ Kokorin et al.
  24. ^ List of biosphere reserves / Europe

External links[edit]