Zaranj

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Zaranj
زرنج
Afghan and US officials walking on one of the main streets of Zaranj
Afghan and US officials walking on one of the main streets of Zaranj
Zaranj is located in Afghanistan
Zaranj
Zaranj
Location in Afghanistan
Coordinates: 30°57′36″N 61°51′36″E / 30.96000°N 61.86000°E / 30.96000; 61.86000Coordinates: 30°57′36″N 61°51′36″E / 30.96000°N 61.86000°E / 30.96000; 61.86000
Country  Afghanistan
Province Nimruz Province
District Zaranj District
Elevation 476 m (1,562 ft)
Population (2004)[1]
 • Total 49,851
Time zone UTC+4:30

Zaranj or Zarang (Persian/Pashto/Balochi: زرنج) is a city in southwestern Afghanistan, near the border with Iran, which has a population of approximately 49,851 people as of 2004.[1] It is the capital of Nimruz province and is linked by highways with Lashkar Gah to the east, Farah to the north and the Iranian city of Zabol to the west. Zaranj serves as the border crossing between Afghanistan and Iran, which is of significant importance to the trade-route between Central Asia and South Asia with the Middle East.

History[edit]

Further information: History of Afghanistan

Modern Zaranj bears the name of an ancient city whose name is also attested in Old Persian as Zranka.[2] In Greek, this word became Drangiana. Other historical names for Zaranj include Zirra,[3] Zarangia, Zarani etc.[4]

Achaemenid Zranka, the capital of Drangiana, was almost certainly located at Dahan-e Gholaman, southeast of Zabol in Iran.[5] After the abandonment of that city, its name, Zarang or Zaranj in later Perso-Arabic orthography, was transferred to the subsequent administrative centers of the region, which itself came to be known as Sakastān, then Sijistān and finally Sistān. Medieval Zaranj is located at Nād-i `Alī, 4.4 km north of the modern city of Zaranj.[6] According to the Arab geographers, prior to medieval Zaranj, the capital of Sistan was located at Ram Shahristan (Abrashariyar). Ram Shahristan had been supplied with water by a canal from the Helmand River, but its dam broke, the area was deprived of water, and the populace moved three days' march to found Zaranj.[7]

The area came under Muslim rule in 652, when Zaranj surrendered to the governor of Khurāsān; it subsequently became a base for further caliphal expansion in the region. In 661, a small Arab garrison reestablished its authority in the region after having temporarily lost control due to skirmishes and revolts.[8] A Nestorian Christian community is recorded in Zaranj in the sixth century, and by the end of the eighth century there was a Jacobite diocese of Zaranj.[9] In the 9th century Zaranj was the capital of the Saffarid dynasty, whose founder was the local coppersmith turned warlord, Ya'qub ibn al-Layth al-Saffar.[10] It became part of the Ghaznavids, Ghorids, Trimurids, Safavids and others. Defeated by the Samanids in 900, the Saffarids sank to a position of regional importance, until conquered by Mahmud of Ghazni in 1537.[11] Subsequently Zaranj served as the capital of the Naṣrid (1030-1236) and Mihrabānid (1236-1537) maliks of Nīmrūz.[12]

In the early 18th century, the city became part of the Afghan Hotaki dynasty until they were removed from power in 1738 by Nader Shah of Khorasan. By 1747, Ahmad Shah Durrani made it part of modern Afghanistan after he united all the different tribes and acquired the territories from northeastern Iran to Delhi in India. Under the modern Afghan governments, the area was known as Farah-Chakansur Province until 1968, when it was separated to form the provinces of Nimruz and Farah.[13] The city of Zaranj became the capital of Nimroz province.

Recent developments[edit]

Nimruz Governor's official guesthouse serving official guests visiting Nimruz.

A new highway called Route 606 was built between Zaranj and Delaram in Farah province by the Indian Government's Border Roads Organization at a cost of about US $136 million to open up a link between the deep sea port at Chabahar in Iran to Afghanistan's main ring road highway system which connects Kabul, Kandahar, Herat, Mazar-i-Sharif and Kunduz. The 215-km long highway, a symbol of India's developmental work in the war-ravaged country, was handed over to Afghan authorities by Indian External Affairs Minister Pranab Mukherjee in January 2009 in the presence of Afghan President Hamid Karzai and Foreign Minister Rangeen Dadfar Spanta. "Completion of the road reflects the determination of both India and Afghanistan that nothing can prevent or hinder collaboration between the two countries," Mukherjee said at a function to mark this handover. On the occasion, Karzai said, the completion of the project is a message to those who want to stop cooperation between India and Afghanistan. "Our cooperation will not stop". The Taliban was opposed to this project and launched frequent attacks on the construction workers in an attempt to force the winding up of the work. A total of six Indians, including a Border Roads Organisation driver and four ITBP soldiers, and 129 Afghans were killed in these attacks.

The province has been one of the 7 (Nimruz, Helmand, Kandahar, Uruzgan, Ghazni, Paktika and Zabul) where the Taliban have been recently regrouping. On 14 August 2012 dozens of civilians were killed in Zaranj by several suicide-bombers in a major terrorist attack on the city.[14]

Due to Zaranj's close proximity to Iran, the city relies mostly on Iranian products. With the increase of trade the Afghan Border Police is dealing with a rise in smuggling, particularly illegal drugs and weapons. The overall economic situation is becoming better for the local population of the city. Hundreds of trucks containing merchandise from the Middle East enter the city on a daily basis.

In the last decade, the U.S. Marines and others of the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) have been visiting Zaranj city. The US Marines and other U.S. officials are involved with the Afghan government in major development projects. This includes improvement made to the irrigation network of the city, building of Afghan military and Afghan National Police barracks as well as a hospital and a school.

The city is served by Zaranj Airport, which is also being improved by the United States. US Marines assigned to 3rd Marine Aircraft Wing have been visiting Zaranj since US Marine Base Forward Operating Base Delaram was built in Delaram district of Zaranj. The 3rd Marine Aircraft Wing built two concrete helicopter landing zones on western side of the gravel runway of Zaranj Airport to ease the landing of USMC V-22 Osprey helicopters from 3rd Battalion 4th Marines. The helipads now serve all helicopters landing at Zaranj airport.

Climate[edit]

Zaranj has a hot desert climate (Köppen climate classification BWh) with very hot summers and cool winters. Precipitation is very low, and mostly falls in winter. Temperatures in summer may approach 50 °C (122 °F); the highest reliably recorded temperature is 49.6 °C (121.3 °F), and the lowest is −13.2 °C (8.2 °F).[15]

Climate data for Zaranj
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 24.1
(75.4)
30.6
(87.1)
37.0
(98.6)
45.0
(113)
51.0
(123.8)
49.7
(121.5)
49.3
(120.7)
50.0
(122)
49.7
(121.5)
42.0
(107.6)
36.0
(96.8)
27.8
(82)
51
(123.8)
Average high °C (°F) 14.3
(57.7)
18.7
(65.7)
25.0
(77)
32.6
(90.7)
37.3
(99.1)
42.8
(109)
42.5
(108.5)
41.3
(106.3)
37.0
(98.6)
31.2
(88.2)
23.1
(73.6)
17.7
(63.9)
30.29
(86.53)
Daily mean °C (°F) 6.5
(43.7)
10.0
(50)
15.7
(60.3)
23.3
(73.9)
29.1
(84.4)
33.4
(92.1)
35.0
(95)
32.3
(90.1)
27.2
(81)
21.9
(71.4)
13.1
(55.6)
8.7
(47.7)
21.35
(70.43)
Average low °C (°F) 0.1
(32.2)
2.9
(37.2)
7.7
(45.9)
14.7
(58.5)
20.0
(68)
25.2
(77.4)
27.3
(81.1)
24.9
(76.8)
18.5
(65.3)
12.3
(54.1)
4.8
(40.6)
0.7
(33.3)
13.26
(55.87)
Record low °C (°F) −13.2
(8.2)
−8.2
(17.2)
−5.2
(22.6)
1.0
(33.8)
5.0
(41)
16.0
(60.8)
18.4
(65.1)
13.2
(55.8)
3.9
(39)
−2.7
(27.1)
−7.1
(19.2)
−8.8
(16.2)
−13.2
(8.2)
Precipitation mm (inches) 19.7
(0.776)
9.9
(0.39)
11.2
(0.441)
2.4
(0.094)
0.6
(0.024)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
1.2
(0.047)
1.4
(0.055)
5.1
(0.201)
51.5
(2.028)
Avg. rainy days 3 2 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 11
 % humidity 55 50 44 40 35 29 28 29 33 41 49 54 40.6
Source: NOAA (1969-1983) [16]

Demographics[edit]

Nearly 300 young men and women between the ages of 14 and 30 gathered at the provincial governor's compound in Zaranj to be part of a youth shura in January 2011. The shura was a chance to interact with the local men and women and describe to them how the future of Afghanistan rests in their hands.

According to the Ministry of Rural Rehabilitation and Development (MRRD) along with UNHCR and Central Statistics Office (CSO) of Afghanistan, the population of Zaranj was around 49,851 in 2004. The ethnic groups are as follow: Baloch 65%, Pashtun 34% and Tajik 22%.[1]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Zaranj". Ministry of Rural Rehabilitation and Development. April 2007. Retrieved 2011-01-21. 
  2. ^ Schmitt, Rüdiger (15 December 1995). "DRANGIANA or Zarangiana; territory around Lake Hāmūn and the Helmand river in modern Sīstān". Encyclopædia Iranica. "The name of the country and its inhabitants is first attested as Old Persian z-r-k (i.e., Zranka)in the great Bīsotūn (q.v. iii) inscription of Darius I (q.v.; col. I l. 16), apparently the original name. This form is reflected in the Elamite (Sir-ra-an-qa and variants), Babylonian (Za-ra-an-ga), and Egyptian (srng or srnḳ) versions of the Achaemenid royal inscriptions, as well as in Greek Zarángai, Zarangaîoi, Zarangianḗ (Arrian; Isidore of Charax), and Sarángai (Herodotus) and in Latin Zarangae (Pliny). Instead of this original form, characterized by non-Persian z (perhaps from proto-IE. palatal or *γh), in some Greek sources (chiefly those dependent upon the historians of Alexander the Great, q.v.) the perhaps hypercorrect Persianized variant (cf. Belardi,p. 183) with initial d-, *Dranka (or even *Dranga?), reflected in Greek Drángai, Drangḗ, Drangēnḗ, Drangi(a)nḗ (Ctesias; Polybius; Strabo; Diodorus; Ptolemy; Arrian; Stephanus Byzantius) and Latin Drangae, Drangiana, Drangiani (Curtius Rufus; Pliny; Ammianus Marcellinus; Justin) or Drancaeus (Valerius Flaccus, Argonautica 6.106, 6.507) occurs." 
  3. ^ Ten Thousand Miles in Persia: Or, Eight Years in Irán By Percy Sykes, pg. 363
  4. ^ Vogelsang, Willem (2002). The Afghans. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 162. ISBN 0-631-19841-5. Retrieved 2011-01-21. 
  5. ^ Gnoli (1993).
  6. ^ Schmitt (1995).
  7. ^ Guy Le Strange. The lands of the eastern caliphate: Mesopotamia, Persia, and Central Asia, from the Moslem conquest to the time of Timur. Cambridge geographical series. General editor: F. H. H. Guillemard. reprint Publisher CUP Archive, 1930. Originally published 1905.
  8. ^ Islamic History: A New Interpretation By Muhammad Abdulhavy Shaban
  9. ^ Fiey, Pour un Oriens Christianus, 281
  10. ^ Ariana Antiqua: A Descriptive Account of the Antiquities and Coins of Afghanistan By Horace Hayman Wilson, pg. 154
  11. ^ Bosworth (2011).
  12. ^ Bosworth (2011).
  13. ^ Frank Clements. Conflict in Afghanistan: a historical encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO, 2003. ISBN 1-85109-402-4, ISBN 978-1-85109-402-8. Pg 181
  14. ^ Afghan blasts: 'Dozens killed' in Nimroz province
  15. ^ Extreme Temperatures From Around the World
  16. ^ "Zaranj Climate Normals 1969-1983". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved December 26, 2012. 

Bibliography[edit]

  • Bosworth, C. E., "Sistān ii. In the Islamic period," in Encyclopaedia Iranica (2011).
  • Gnoli, G., "Dahan-e Ḡolāmān," in Encyclopaedia Iranica, vol. 6 (1993), 582-585.
  • Le Strange, G., The lands of the eastern caliphate: Mesopotamia, Persia, and Central Asia, from the Moslem conquest to the time of Timur, Cambridge 1905
  • Schmitt, R., "Drangiana," in Encyclopaedia Iranica, vol. 7 (1995) 534-537.

External links[edit]