For the ISS module, see Zarya
The Zarya spacecraft was a secret Soviet project of the late 1980s aiming to design and build a large, manned, vertical takeoff, vertical landing (VTVL) reusable space capsule, a much larger replacement for the Soyuz spacecraft. The project was shelved in 1989, "on the eve of the Soviet Union's collapse."
After the project was shelved in January 1989, for financial reasons, the name was reused for Zarya, the first of the components of the International Space Station.
The Zarya spacecraft was designed around a bell shaped re-entry section or Descent Module like the Soyuz spacecraft but it did not have a spherical orbital module. It had a smaller service module, also known as an instrumentation and propulsion module.
The Zarya spacecraft would have differed from all previous spacecraft by having an array of a dozen rockets for making a soft landing upon return to Earth, without using a parachute. This would have been much like the McDonnell Douglas DC-X prototype.
The Zarya spacecraft would have brought crew and supplies to Mir, or supplies only in automated mode if need be, and it would also have been a general purpose workhorse for assembling or fixing other spacecraft in orbit.
It would have had a normal crew of two to four, and offered the possibility of carrying a maximum of twelve if used as a Mir lifeboat.
See also 
- ^ a b c Zak, Anatoly (2009-04-29). "Russia mulls rocket power 'first'". BBC News. Retrieved 2011-10-11. "RKK Energia, ... in the 1980s ... worked on a highly classified project to develop a large manned capsule, called Zarya ("Dawn"), for a wide range of civilian and military missions."