Ali ibn Husayn Zayn al-Abidin
|Ali ibn Husayn
علي بن حسين (Arabic)
4th Imam of Twelver and 3rd Imam of Ismaili Shia
4 January 659|
(5 Sha'aban 38 AH)
Kufa, Iraq or Medina, Hejaz
|Died||c. 20 October 713
(12 or 25 Muharram 95 AH)
Medina, Umayyad Empire
Cause of death
|Death by poisoning|
|Jannatul Baqi, Saudi Arabia
|Term||680 – 712 CE|
|Predecessor||Husayn ibn Ali|
|Successor||Muhammad al-Baqir according to the Twelver Shia, Zayd bin Ali according to the Zaidiyyah Shia.|
|Spouse(s)||Fatimah bint Hasan
Zayd ibn Ali
|Parents||Husayn ibn Ali
Lady Shāhzanān (aka Shahr Banu)
Sakinah (Fatima al-Kubra) bint Husayn
Fatima al-Sughra bint al-Husayn
|The Twelve Imams|
Ali ibn Husayn (Arabic: علي بن الحسين ) known as Zain al-Abidin (the adornment of the worshippers)and Imam al-Sajjad (The Prostrating Imam), was the fourth of the Shiite Imams, after his father Husayn, his uncle Hasan, and his grandfather Ali, the Prophet’s son-in-law.
Ali ibn al-Husain was born in Medina, according to most sources in the year 38/658-9.[a] He may have been too small to have remembered his grandfather Ali, who was killed in 40/661, but he was brought up in the presence of his uncle Hasan and his father Husayn, the Prophet’s beloved grandchildren. Many Shiite sources state that his mother was Shahrbanu, the daughter of Yazdegerd, the last Sassanian King of Persia.[b] Thus he was said to be ‘Ibn al-Khiyaratayn’, the ‘son of the best two’, meaning the Quraysh among the Arabs and the Persians among the non-Arabs. According to some accounts, his mother was brought as a captive to Medina during the caliphate of Umar, who wanted to sell her. Ali suggested instead that she be offered her choice of the Muslim men as husband and that her dower be paid from the public treasury. Umar agreed and she chose Ali’s son Husayn.[c] She is said to have died shortly after giving birth to her only son Ali.
In 61/680, when Husayn and many of the male members of his family were killed by the forces of the Umayyad caliph Yazidat Karbala, an event which shook the Islamic world and precipitated the nascent Shiite movement. Zain al-Abidin accompanied his father on the march toward Kufa, but he had fallen deathly ill and was lying on a skin in a tent. Once the Umayyad troops had massacred Husayn and his male followers, they looted the tents, stripped the women of their jewellery, and even took the skin upon which Zain al-Abidin was prostrate. The infamous Shemr was about to kill Zain al-Abidin in spite of his helplessness, but Husayn’s sister Zaynab threw herself on top of him to save him, and Umar ibn Sa'ad, the Umayyad commander, told Shemr to let him be. Zain al-Abidin was taken along with the women to the caliph in Damascus, and eventually he was allowed to return to Medina.
Several accounts are related concerning his grief over this tragedy. It is said that for twenty years whenever food was placed before him, he would weep. One day a servant said to him, ‘O son of Allah’s Messenger! Is it not time for your sorrow to come to an end?’ He replied, ‘Woe upon you! Jacob the prophet had twelve sons, and Allah made one of them disappear. His eyes turned white from constant weeping, his head turned grey out of sorrow, and his back became bent in gloom[d], though his son was alive in this world. But I watched while my father, my brother, my uncle, and seventeen members of my family were slaughtered all around me. How should my sorrow come to an end?’[e]
Historians have mentioned the Imam Ali ibn Husayn's physical features and qualities,
Some Shia scholars have described his face as "shining with the light of the prophets. Hence, his solemnity yielded their faces and foreheads." Other scholars such as al-Shaykhāni al-Qādiri state,
- “The beholders were fixed in gaze at the handsomeness of his face.”
Imam Ali ibn Husayn's solemnity was similar Muhammad, his great-grand father. Furthermore, Muslim ibn Aqaba, Blood-thirsty criminal who violated all Islamic values and manners, admired his (Imam Ali ibn Husayn) solemnity. It is documented that when Muslim ibn Aqaba saw the him, Muslim trembled in fear. However, Muslim ibn Aqaba received Imam Ali ibn Husayn warmly, treated him kindly, honored him, and said to people surrounding him,
- “Indeed ‘Ali Zayn al-Ābidin has the qualities of the prophets.”
Al-Farazdaq, a great Arabian poet, described his solemnity in his ode stating,
- "When he comes to touch the corner of the wall of the
- Kaaba, it almost grasps the palm of his hand.
- He takes care to be modest and he is protected from his terror.
- He only speaks when he smiles."
As he aged, Imam Ali ibn Husayn became thin and weak. The reason being that he worshipped Allah constantly. In addition, the Tragedy of Karbalā drowned him in sorrow, grief, and pain. The sorrows accompanied Imam Ali ibn Husayn till he met the King of all kings (Allah).
There are two inscriptions that Imam Ali ibn Husayn had. The first being “My success is not but by Allah." The second one being “You have known, therefore do.” According to Sharif, the inscriptions showed that Imam Ali ibn Husayn depended on Allah in all his affairs.
He dedicated his life to learning and became an authority on prophetic traditions and Sharia. He is regarded as the source of the third holiest book in Shia Islam after the Quraan and the Nahj al Balagha: the Saḥīfa al-Sadjadiyya, commonly referred to as the Psalms of the Household of Muhammad. Also, Risalah al-Huquq, is a charter of rights attributed to him. Moreover, The Fifteen Whispered Prayers is another work by him. Al-Ḥusayn had many supporters such as Sa'id ibn Jubayr.
He died at the age of 58, in Medina. He was poisoned by Umayyad ruler al-Walid ibn 'Abdi 'I-Malik ibn Marwan through the instigation of the Umayyad caliph Hisham on 25th Muharram 95 AH. He was buried in al-Baqi cemetery in Medina with his uncle, al-Hasan Ibn Ali.
Early Islam scholars
|Early Islamic scholars|
- Other dates mentioned are 33/653-4, 36/656-7, 37/657-8, 50/670
- Her name has also been given as Shah-Zanan, Sulaafa, Ghazaala, and Shahr-Banuya, among others.
- Muh’sin al-Ameen al-A’mili, A’yan as-Sheea’h, Damascus, 1935, IV, 189.
- Quran, 12:84
- From Shaykh as-Sadooq, al-Khisal; quoted in al-Ameen, A’yan, IV, 195. The same is quoted from Bin Shahraashoob’s Manaqib in Bih’ar al-Anwar, XLVI, 108; Cf. similar accounts, Ibid, pp. 108-10
- Ibn al-Sabbāgh, al-Fusūl al-Muhimma, pg. 212
- Sharif al-Qarashi, Bāqir. The Life of Imām Zayn al-Abidin (as). Trans. Jāsim al-Rasheed. Najaf, Iraq: Ansariyan Publications, n.d. Print. Pgs. 1, 14-19, and 21-22
- 1. Kitab Al Irshad, Shaykh Mufid.
- Shabbar, S.M.R. (1997). Story of the Holy Ka’aba. Muhammadi Trust of Great Britain. Retrieved 30 October 2013.
- Shadharāt al-Dhahab, vol. 1, p.104.
- Ibn al-Sabbāgh, al-Fusūl al-Muhimma, p.187
- Shaykh al-Mufid. "The Infallibles – Taken from Kitab al Irshad". Retrieved 2009-05-12.
- A Brief History of The Fourteen Infallibles. Qum: Ansariyan Publications. 2004. p. 111.
- ibn Khallikan. Ibn Khallikan's biographical dictionary 2. p. 209.
- A Brief History of The Fourteen Infallibles. Ansariyan Publications. p. 112.
- Tabataba'i, Muhammad Husayn (1979). Shi'ite Islam. State University of New York Press. p. 201.
- Imam Ali ubnal Husain (2009). Al-Saheefah Al-Sajjadiyyah Al-Kaamelah. Translated with an Introduction and annotation by Willian C. Chittick With a foreword by S. H. M. Jafri. Qum, The Islamic Republic of Iran: Ansariyan Publications.
- Sharif al-Qarashi, Bāqir. The Life of Imām Zayn al-Abidin (as). Translated by Jāsim al-Rasheed. Najaf, Iraq: Ansariyan Publications, n.d. Print. pp. 1, 14–19, and 21–22.
- Dungersi Ph.D., M. M. (December 1, 2013). A Brief Biography of Ali Bin Hussein (as). CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform. ISBN 1494328690.
- Nūr al-Abbsār, pg. 36
- Akhbār al-Diwal, pg. 109
- al-Sirāt al-Sawi fi Manāqib Al al-Nabi, pg.192
- Al-Sirāt al-Sawi fi Manāqib Āl al-Nabi, pg. 192
- Ibn al-Sabbāgh, al-Fusūl al-Muhimma, pg. 187
- Ibn Qutayba, 'Uyyiun al-Akhbār, vol. 1, pg. 302
- Jafri, S.H Mohammad. "The Origin and Early Development of Shi'a Islam,”, Oxford University Press, 2002, p. 166, ISBN 978-0-19-579387-1
- "The Sixth Infallible The Fourth Imam : Ali Ibn Al-Husayn Zaynu'l-`Abidin (Peace be on him)". Brief History of Fourteen Infallibles. World Organization for Islamic Services ( WOFIS). Retrieved 21 July 2014.
- Moosa, Matti (1987). Extremist Shiites: The Ghulat Sects. Syracuse University Press. p. 92. ISBN 9780815624110. Retrieved 21 July 2014.
- Imam Ali Ibn al Husayn (as). Retrieved 21 July 2014.
|last1=in Authors list (help)
- The Quran
- The Great Fiqh
- Sahih al-Bukhari
- Sahih Muslim
- Jami` at-Tirmidhi
- Mishkât Al-Anwar
- The Niche for Lights
- Women in Islam: An Indonesian Perspective by Syafiq Hasyim. Page 67
- ulama, bewley.virtualave.net
- 1.Proof & Historiography - The Islamic Evidence. theislamicevidence.webs.com
- Atlas Al-sīrah Al-Nabawīyah. Darussalam, 2004. Pg 270
- Umar Ibn Abdul Aziz by Imam Abu Muhammad ibn Abdullah ibn Hakam died 829
|Find more about Ali ibn Husayn at Wikipedia's sister projects|
|Quotations from Wikiquote|
|Source texts from Wikisource|
|Database entry Q314978 on Wikidata|
- The life of Imam Zayn al-Abidin (as) by Bāqir Sharif al-Qarashi
- Biography of Imam Zayn al-Abidin on YouTube
- al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya at Humshia.com
- Ketab Al Irshad, By Sheikh Mufid
- Imam Sajjad at Swipnet.se
- Ali ibn Al-Husayn
- The Fourth Imam at Al-Islam.org
- The Fourth Imam at Swipnet.se
- The life of Imām Zayn al ‘Abidin by Bāqir Sharif al-Qarashi.
- Life of Imam az-Zayn al-Abideen as-Sajjad by Dr. Muhammad bin Yahya al-Ninowy .
- A Mobile web app on Imam Zainul Abideen (AS), Sahifa-e-Sajjadiya and Risalat al Huquq, with Urdu and Hindi Translations
- Ali ibn Husayn by Wilferd Madelung, an article in Encyclopædia Iranica
Ali ibn Husayn Zayn al-Abidin
of the Ahl al-Bayt
Clan of the Banu QuraishBorn: 5th Sha‘bān 38 AH ≈ 657 CE Died: 25th Muharram 95 AH ≈ 713 CE
|Shia Islam titles|
Husayn ibn Ali
|4th Imam of Twelver Shi'a Islam
680 – 713
3rd Imam of Ismaili Shi'a Islam
Zayd ibn Ali