Gate to the palace of the emir of Zazzau
|• Sarkin||Shehu Idris|
Early Hausa kingdom
Our most important source for the early history of Zazau is a chronicle composed in the early twentieth century from oral tradition. It tells the traditional story of the foundation of the Hausa kingdoms by Bayajidda, a culture hero and gives a list of rulers, along with the length of their reigns. According to this chronology, the original Hausa or Habe kingdom is said to date from the 11th century, founded by King Gunguma. This source also makes it one of the seven Hausa Bakwai states. Zazzau's most famous early ruler was Queen (or princess) Amina, who ruled either in the mid-fifteenth or mid-sixteenth centuries, and was held by Muhammed Bello, an early nineteenth century Hausa historian and the second Sultan of Sokoto, to have been the first to establish a kingdom among the Hausa.
Zazzau was a collection point for slaves to be delivered to the northern markets of Kano and Katsina, where they were exchanged for salt with traders who carried them north of the Sahara. According to the history in the chronicle, Islam was introduced to the kingdom around 1456, but appears to have spread slowly, and pagan rituals continued until the Fulani conquest of 1808. At several times in its history, Zazzau was subject to neighboring states such as Songhai, Bornu and Kwararafa.
Later Fulani emirate
In December 1808 the kingdom was captured in the Fulani jihad. The Hausa ruler had escaped to Abuja, where he established a state now known as the Suleja Emirate, retaining his independence and the title of "Sarkin Zazzau". The ruler of the modern Zazzau Emirate also uses the title "Sarkin Zazzau" or "Sarkin Zaria". After the jihad, the culturally similar but pastoral or nomadic Fulani intermarried with the more settled Habe farmers, and the people of the Emirate today are generally known as Hausa-Fulani. The government of the Zaria Emirate differed from other emirates created at this time in that offices were rarely hereditary, but were appointed based on merit or obligation.
Rulers of the Hausa kingdom:
|1696||1701||Bako III dan Musa|
|1703||1704||Burema II Ashakuka|
|1704||1715||Bako IV dan Sunkuru|
|1715||1726||Muhamman dan Gunguma|
|1734||1734||Abu Muhammadu Gani|
|1737||1757||Muhamman Abu III|
|1779||1782||Muhamman Mai Gamo|
|1782||November 1806||Ishaq Jatau|
|November 1806||December 1808||Muhammad Makau dan Ishaq Jatau|
Independent Fulani rulers
Rulers of the independent Fulani emirate:
|31 December 1804||17 May 1821||Malam Musa ibn Suleiman Ibn Muhammad|
|June 1821||1835||Yamusa ibn Mallam Kilba|
|1835||18 December 1846||Abd al-Karim ibn Abbas|
|6 January 1847||28 February 1847||Hammada ibn Yamusa|
|15 Apr 1847||Apr 1854||Muhammad Sani ibn Yamusa|
|Apr 1854||Dec 1854||Sidi `Abd al-Qadir ibn Musa|
|Jan 1855||5 Aug 1856||Abd as-Salam ibn Muhammad Ka'i|
|21 Sep 1856||Oct/Nov 1870||Abd Allah ibn Hammada (1st time)|
|22 Nov 1870||Jun/Jul 1873||Abu Bakr ibn Musa (d. 1873)|
|Aug/Sep 1873||Nov/Dec 1878||Abd Allah ibn Hammada (2nd time)|
|26 Dec 1878||Jan 1888||Muhammad Sambo ibn Abd al-Karim|
|Jan 1888||13 Feb 1897||Uthman Yero ibn Abd Allah (d. 1897)|
|17 Apr 1897||Mar 1903||Muhammad Lawal Kwassau ibn Uthman Yero|
Colonial period and later rulers
Rulers of the independent Fulani emirate:
|March 1903||8 April 1903||Sulayman (regent from 11 Sep 1902)|
|8 April 1904||9 November 1920||Ali ibn Abd al-Qadir (d. 1924)|
|1920||1924||Dallatu ibn Uthman Yero|
|1924||1936||Ibrahim ibn Muhammad Lawal Kwassau (b. c.1886 - d. 1936)|
|1936||August 1959||Malam Jafar ibn Ishaq (b. 1891 - d. 1959)|
|September 1959||4 February 1975||Muhammad al-Amin ibn Uthman (b. 1908 - d. 1975)|
|11 April 1975||Shehu ibn Idris (b. 1936)|
- Dan Isaacs (September 28, 2010). "Nigeria's emirs: Power behind the throne". BBC News. Retrieved 2010-09-29.
- Isa Liman (4 January 2010). "Zazzau Emirate Council to Send Man Who Lost Private Part Abroad for Treatment". Daily Trust. Retrieved 2010-09-29.
- E. J. Arnett, "A Hausa Chronicle" Journal of the Royal African Society 9 (1910)
- Muhammad Bello, Infaq 'l-Maysuur, chapter 7, translated Muhammad Shareef, (Sennar, Sudan,2008) http://www.siiasi.org/Chapter%207%20_Infaaq_.pdf
- "Zaria". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2010-09-29.
- M. G. Smith, International African Institute. (1960). "Government in Zazzau, 1800-1950". Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2010-09-29.
- "Traditional States of Nigeria". WorldStatesmen.org. Retrieved 2010-09-01.