||This article needs additional citations for verification. (March 2008)|
|English: A Toast|
Original manuscript of "Zdravljica", written in the Bohorič alphabet
National anthem of
|Also known as||Zdravica|
|Lyrics||France Prešeren, 1844|
|Music||Stanko Premrl, 1905|
"Zdravljica" (English: "A Toast") or "Zdravica", written in 1844 and published with some changes in 1848, is a poem by the Slovene Romantic poet France Prešeren, considered the national poet of Slovenes. On 27 September 1989, it became the national anthem of Slovenia.
"Zdravljica" is a drinking song and a carmen figuratum because the shape of each stanza resembles a wine cup. In it, the poet declares his belief in a free-thinking Slovene and Slavic political awareness. It has been interpreted as a promotion of the idea of a united Slovenia, which the March Revolution in 1848 elevated into a national political programme.
With the act on the national symbols of Slovenia, passed in 1994, the eponymous melody by Stanko Premrl, written after the lyrics of the seventh stanza of the Prešeren's poem, emphasising internationalism, has been defined as the anthem.
Censorship did not allow for the poem to be printed. Later Prešeren himself intended to include it in his poem collection Poezije (Poems), and to that end omitted the third stanza ("V sovražnike 'z oblakov / rodú naj naš'ga treši gróm") in order to save the rest. However the censor (fellow-Slovene Franc Miklošič in Austrian service) saw in the fourth stanza ("Edinost, sreča, sprava / k nam naj nazaj se vrnejo") an expression of pan-Slavic sentiment and therefore did not allow its publication either. Prešeren believed the poem would be mutilated without both the third and the fourth stanza and decided against including it in the Poezije. The integral version was first published after the March Revolution when the censorship was abolished. It was published on 26 April 1848 in the newspaper Kmetijske in rokodelske novice, edited by the conservative Slovene leader Janez Bleiweis.
"Zdravljica", in the composition of Premrl, was adopted as the anthem on 27 September 1989 by the Socialist Republic of Slovenia before the breakup of Yugoslavia. Therefore, it was the anthem of the Socialist Republic of Slovenia, the Republic of Slovenia as a constituent republic of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia from 8 March 1990 to 25 June 1991, and of the Republic of Slovenia as a sovereign state.
The question about whether the entire "Zdravljica" or only its seventh stanza constitute the national anthem of Slovenia is still unresolved. According to the Article 6 of the Constitution of Slovenia, valid since 1991, the national anthem of Slovenia is the entire "Zdravljica". According to the Act Regulating the Coat-of-Arms, Flag and Anthem of the Republic of Slovenia and the Flag of the Slovene Nation, valid since 1994, the national anthem of Slovenia is its seventh stanza and the web pages of the National Assembly cite the 7th stanza as the anthem of Slovenia. In practice, mostly only the seventh stanza is sung and reproduced as the national anthem.
Jernej Letnar Černič, a law expert and university lecturer, wrote in September 2010 that the act contradicted the constitution and therefore the entire Zdravljica should be considered the anthem. Slovene writer Boris Pahor suggested that using a combination of verses of the seventh and the second stanza as the national anthem, as the second stanza mentions Slovenes, whereas the seventh stanza doesn't. This proposal was also supported by Janez Janša.
|Prijatlji! odrodile,||The vintage, friends, is over,|
|so trte vince nam sladkó,||And here sweet wine makes, once again,|
|ki nam oživlja žile,||Sad eyes and hearts recover|
|srce razjásni in oko,||Puts fire into every vein.|
|ki utopi||Drowns dull care|
|v potrtih prsih up budi!||And summons hope out of despair.|
|Komú narpred veselo||To whom with acclamation|
|zdravico, bratje! čmo zapét'?||And song shall we our first toast give?|
|Bog našo nam deželo,||God save our land and nation|
|Bog živi ves slovenski svet,||And all Slovenes where'er they live,|
|brate vse,||Who own the same|
|kar nas je||Blood and name,|
|sinov sloveče matere!||And who one glorious Mother claim.|
|V sovražnike 'z oblakov||Let thunder out of heaven|
|rodú naj naš'ga trešči gróm,||Strike down and smite our wanton foe!|
|prost, ko je bil očakov,||Now, as it once had thriven,|
|naprej naj bo Slovencov dom;||May our dear realm in freedom grow.|
|naj zdrobé||May fall the last|
|njih roké||Chains of the past|
|si spone, ki jim še težé!||Which bind us still and hold us fast!|
|Edinost, sreča, sprava||Let peace, glad conciliation,|
|k nam naj nazaj se vrnejo;||Come back to us throughout the land!|
|otrók, kar ima Slava,||Towards their destination|
|vsi naj si v róke sežejo,||Let Slavs henceforth go hand-in-hand!|
|de oblast||Thus again|
|in z njo čast,||Will honour reign|
|ko préd, spet naša bode last!||To justice pledged in our domain.|
|Bog žívi vas Slovenke,||To you, our pride past measure,|
|prelepe, žlahtne rožice;||Our girls! Your beauty, charm and grace!|
|ni take je mladenke,||There surely is no treasure|
|ko naše je krvi dekle;||To equal maidens of such race.|
|naj sinóv||Sons you'll bear,|
|zarod nov||Who will dare|
|iz vas bo strah sovražnikov!||Defy our foe no matter where.|
|Mladenči, zdaj se pije||Our hope now, our to-morrow -|
|zdravica vaša, vi naš up;||The youths - we toast and toast with joy.|
|ljubezni domačije||No poisonous blight or sorrow|
|noben naj vam ne usmŕti strup;||Your love of homeland shall destroy.|
|ker po nas||With us indeed|
|bode vas||You're called to heed|
|jo sŕčno bránit klical čas!||Its summons in this hour of need.|
|Živé naj vsi naródi,||God's blessing on all nations,|
|ki hrepené dočakat dan,||Who long and work for that bright day,|
|da, koder sonce hodi,||When o'er earth's habitations|
|prepir iz svéta bo pregnan,||No war, no strife shall hold its sway;|
|da rojak||'Who long to see|
|prost bo vsak,||That all men free,|
|ne vrag, le sosed bo mejak!||No more shall foes, but neighbours be.|
|Nazadnje še, prijatlji,||At last to our reunion -|
|kozarce zase vzdignimo,||To us the toast! Let it resound,|
|ki smo zato se zbrat'li,||Since in this great communion|
|ker dobro v srcu mislimo;||By thoughts of brotherhood we're bound|
|dókaj dni||May joyful cheer|
|naj živí||Ne'er disappear|
|vsak, kar nas dobrih je ljudi!||From all good hearts now gathered here.|
- Božič, Dragan (3 November 2010). "Katero kitico č'mo kot himno zapet'" [Which Stanza Should We As the Anthem Sing?] (in Slovene). Retrieved 14 February 2011.
- Mamić, Tino (17 July 2010). "Slovensko himno zapisal na "škrtoc"" [He Wrote the Slovenian Anthem on a Paper Bag]. Primorske novice (in Slovene) (163). p. 13.
- Jesenovec, Stanislav (January 2011). "Cultural Trails: Symbols of State". Sinfo Magazine (Government Communication Office). p. 43. ISSN 1854-0813.
- Jesenovec, Stanislav (17 February 2009). "Pesniku toplo, skladatelju vroče" [Warm to the Poet, Hot to the Composer]. Delo.si (in Slovene). ISSN 1854-6544.
- Lotnar Černič, Jernej (24 September 2010). "Himna Slovenije je Zdravljica in ne samo njena sedma kitica" [The Anthem of Slovenia is "Zdravljica" and not only its Seventh Stanza]. IUS-INFO. Retrieved 14 February 2011.
- Škrinjar, Klara (3 September 2012). "Zdravljica v političnem in pravnem primežu" [Zdravljica in the Political and Legal Vice]. Delo.si (in Slovene).
- "France Prešeren: Zdravljica". Government of Slovenia. Retrieved 16 September 2009.