Zebra crossing

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A zebra crossing in Paris, France

A zebra crossing is a type of pedestrian crossing used in many places around the world. Its distinguishing feature is alternating dark and light stripes on the road surface, from which it derives its name. A zebra crossing typically gives extra rights of way to pedestrians.

Characteristics[edit]

A raised zebra crossing in a school zone in Marine Parade, Singapore
These zig-zag lines indicate to UK motorists that they are approaching a pedestrian crossing. It is an offence to stop a vehicle within the lines except when stopping for pedestrians using the crossing.
Crossing guard at a school crossing in the United States

The crossing is characterised by longitudinal stripes on the road, parallel to the flow of the traffic, alternately a light colour and a dark one. The similarity of these markings to those of a zebra give the crossing's name. The light colour is usually white and the dark colour may be painted – in which case black is typical – or left unpainted if the road surface itself is dark. The stripes are typically 40 to 60 centimetres (16 inches to 2 feet) wide. In countries such as the United Kingdom, zebra markings give pedestrians permanent right of way. In other countries they are also used on pedestrian crossings controlled by traffic signals, and pedestrians have priority only when the lights show green to pedestrians.[citation needed]

History[edit]

Although the origin of the name is disputed, it is generally attributed to British M.P. James Callaghan who, in 1948, visited the country's Transport Research Laboratory which was working on a new idea for safe pedestrian crossings. On being shown a black and white design, Callaghan is said to have remarked that it resembled a zebra.[1]

After isolated experiments, the zebra crossing was first used at 1000 sites in the UK in 1949 in its original form of alternating strips of blue and yellow, and a 1951 measure introduced them into law. In 1971, the Green Cross Code was introduced to teach children safer crossing habits, replacing the earlier "kerb drill".

In the United Kingdom the crossing is marked with Belisha beacons, flashing amber globes on black and white posts on each side of the road, named after Leslie Hore-Belisha, the Minister of Transport, who introduced them in 1934. The crossings were originally marked by beacons and parallel rows of studs, and the stripes were added for visibility some 15 years later.


Construction Machine[edit]

DY-HPTP-thermoplastic-zebra-crossing

The zebra crossing line was commonly marked by machine to ensure the efficiency. It was called road marking machine. The machine is one kind of road construction machine widely used in urban roads, highway, parking lots, and squares, which may mark different lines to restrain, guide and warning people. Because the width of road cross line is wider than other traffic lines. The marking shoe of zebra cross marking machine is specially wider accordingly. And it is hand pushed, convenient to change construction direction.[2]

Regional variations[edit]

In the United Kingdom, lollipop men or women (crossing guards) frequently attend zebra crossings near schools, at the hours when schoolchildren arrive and leave. Their widely used nickname arose because of the warning sign they hold up as they stop traffic. It's a large round disc on a long pole and thus resembles a giant lollipop.

In Germany, Scandinavia, and most other European countries, pedestrians have right of way if they are still on the curb but about to enter the zebra crossing.

In North America, zebra crossings are almost exclusively called (marked) crosswalks[3] and often do not incorporate stripes. In some areas, marked crosswalks are the only places where it is legal to cross the road.[4]

In New Zealand, motorists are required to give way to pedestrians. In Auckland, pedestrians wishing to cross the road within 20 meters of a crossing facility (which includes zebra crossings) must use a crossing facility.[5]

A 1998 Swedish study by A Várhelyi at Lund University found that the frequency of giving way at zebra crossings was 5% and drivers typically did not observe the law concerning speed behaviour at the zebra crossing. Speed behaviour in encounters (148 observations), non-encounters with pedestrian presence (642 observations) and situations without pedestrian presence (690 observations) were compared. Three out of four drivers maintained the same speed or accelerated and only one out of four slowed down or braked. The study concluded that encounters between cars and pedestrians at the zebra crossing were critical situations in which the driver had to be influenced before he reached the decision zone at 50 to 40 m before the zebra crossing, in order to prevent "signalling by speed" behaviour.[6]

In the United Kingdom[edit]

In the United Kingdom, it is the law that motorists give way to pedestrians at zebra crossings (Rule 195 of The Highway Code). They were introduced in the late 1940's and '50s to tackle high death rates of pedestrians crossing roads. For over 60 years they have been recognized as a safe place for pedestrians to cross but more recently, some drivers are failing to give way to pedestrians. It is believed that hundreds of people have died at the crossings and thousands more have been injured. This has prompted some councils to install enforcement cameras at the crossings to catch offenders.

In the United Kingdom, a fine of £60 and three licence penalty points is given to those failing to give way at the crossings. Such a penalty has attracted criticisms of leniency when compared to other countries which enforce fines of up to £2,000.[7] For failing to give way at a zebra crossing patrolled by a school crossing patrol ("lollipop man/lady" as they are commonly called), however, the penalty rises to £1,000 and a minimum of three licence points, with the possibility even disqualification.[8] In the UK motorists have to stop for a crossing patrol, even when it is not on a pedestrian crossing.[9][10]

Despite their initial success, by 1960, 500 people died on Zebra crossings in six months. This prompted improvements to the crossings which remain to this day. In 2010, five people died on Zebra crossings and 144 were seriously injured. [2]

Tiger crossing[edit]

A tiger crossing is a variation used in Hong Kong, and formerly (experimentally) in the United Kingdom. It is painted yellow and black. In the UK, it allowed cyclists to cross in a central area of the road without dismounting, and obliged motorists to give way to both cyclists and pedestrians. Aylesbury in Buckinghamshire experimented with tiger crossings in 2006 and 2007, but replaced them with toucan crossings.[11] Switzerland also uses yellow stripes for pedestrian crossings, but unlike the above crossings, cyclists are required to dismount to cross the road.

Problems with British zebra crossings have been discussed by the Cycling Embassy of Great Britain.[12]

In popular culture[edit]

A zebra crossing in Abbey Road, London. This same crossing was featured on the cover of the album Abbey Road by The Beatles

A zebra crossing appears on the cover of The Beatles' Abbey Road album. It made it a tourist attraction, and it has been incorporated into the Abbey Road Studios logo. Since the Abbey Road photo was taken, zigzag lines at the kerb and in the centre of the road have been added to all zebra crossings to indicate the no-stopping zones on either side. The band Shriekback's album Sacred City contains an entire song, "Beatles Zebra Crossing?", about the Abbey Road zebra crossing and its status as a tourist attraction.

There is also a tongue-in-cheek reference to zebra crossings in the science-fiction comedy The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy by English author Douglas Adams, in reference to Man using the improbable creature called the Babel fish as proof of the non-existence of God; the novel says, "Man then goes on to prove that black is white and gets himself killed at the next zebra crossing."

In political protest[edit]

A zebra crossing outside the Russian Embassy, Helsinki painted with a rainbow.

A zebra crossing immediately outside the Russian Embassy in Helsinki was painted in summer 2013 with the colours of the rainbow in protest the Russian government's policy towards lesbian and gay people, the rainbow being one symbol of the LGBT culture. A similar protest has also been made on a zebra crossing near the Russian Embassy in Stockholm, Sweden.

References[edit]

Notes

  1. ^ Country, Black (26 November 2009). "All aboard the road to safety". Black Country Bugle. Retrieved 19 August 2014. 
  2. ^ "DY-HPTP Hand-push Thermoplastic Screeding Pedestrian Road Marking Machine". 
  3. ^ E.g., California Vehicle Code Section § 275.
  4. ^ E.g., California Vehicle Code Section § 21955.
  5. ^ Auckland Transport. "Pedestrian crossings". Aucklandtransport.govt.nz. Retrieved 2014-08-19. 
  6. ^ Várhelyi, A. (1998),"Drivers' speed behaviour at a zebra crossing: a case study", Accid Anal Prev., 1998 Nov, 30(6), pp.731-43: [1]
  7. ^ Millward, David (22 Oct 2008). "Zebra crossing road deaths treble". Telegraph. 
  8. ^ RoSPA (2010-03-04). "School Crossing Patrol - News". Roadsafetywales.co.uk. Retrieved 2014-08-19. 
  9. ^ Qureshi, Yakub (2013-12-18). "Annalise Holt death: Oldham schoolgirl aged 12 who died after being hit by a van at zebra crossing named by police - Mirror Online". Mirror.co.uk. Retrieved 2014-08-19. 
  10. ^ "Lollipop women and men in the firing line (From Daily Echo)". Dailyecho.co.uk. 2012-05-21. Retrieved 2014-08-19. 
  11. ^ Buckinghamshire County Council (2006). "Aylesbury hub Cabinet report" (http). honestjohn.co.uk. Retrieved October 11, 2007. [dead link]
  12. ^ "The problem with (British) zebra crossings | As Easy As Riding A Bike". Aseasyasridingabike.wordpress.com. 11 March 2014. Retrieved 19 August 2014. 

Sources

  • History of Road Safety, Gerald Cummins
  • The History of British Roadsigns, Department for Transport, 2nd Edition, 1999

External links[edit]