||This article needs additional citations for verification. (March 2012)|
|- City -
Administrative Okrug of Moscow
Zelenograd on the 2011 map of Moscow
|Administratively subordinated to||Moscow|
|Area||37.22 km2 (14.37 sq mi)|
|Population (2010 Census)||221,712 inhabitants|
|Density||5,957 /km2 (15,430 /sq mi)|
|Time zone||MSK (UTC+04:00)|
|Founded||March 3, 1958|
|City status since||January 15, 1963|
|Postal code(s)||124xxx|
|Dialing code(s)||+7 (495), (499)|
Zelenograd (Russian: Зеленоград; IPA: [zʲɪlʲɪnɐˈgrat], lit. green city) is a city, which, along with the territories and settlements under its jurisdiction, forms one of the administrative okrugs of Moscow - Zelenogradsky Administrative Okrug (ZelAO). It is located 37 kilometers (23 mi) from the center of Moscow proper along Leningradskoye Shosse highway. The city color is green and its emblematic animal is the squirrel (more precisely Sciurus vulgaris).
Before 1989 Zelenograd was a de facto closed city in some aspects: it was prohibited to take photos in the central parts of the city, near the plants, teaching and research facilities and foreigners were not admitted into the city.
Zelenograd was one of the most powerful centers of electronics, microelectronics and computer industry in the Soviet Union, and it still plays a similar role in modern Russia. It was developed as a reflection of the California Silicon Valley and known also as Soviet/Russian Silicon Valley.
The Skhodnya River originates near the village of Alabushevo (one of settlements, which are under Zelenograd jurisdiction) and forms three ponds within the precincts of city: Water-tower Pond (School Lake), Small and Large City Pond.
Zelenograd was founded in 1958 and planned as center of textile industry initially. In 1962 Alexander Shokin (Chairman of State Committee of Electronic Technology, then first Minister of Electronic Technology) proposed to change the line of future city business to electronics. Some researchers of Soviet electronics history mentioned, that similar idea was proposed to the Soviet government by two fugitive Silicon Valley engineers - Alfred Sarant (more known in Russia as Philip Staros) and Joel Barr (Joseph Berg).
As Zelenograd was built de novo on a previously empty, forested place, its architecture and civic layout yields to one general architectural plan (chief architects Igor Rozhin (1956–1963), then Igor Pokrovsky (1963–2002)).
In 1988, Zelenograd incorporated the former village of Kryukovo, one of the important sites during the Battle of Moscow (October 1941 – January 1942). Several monuments to the Defenders of Moscow and the heroes of the Great Patriotic War are located in Zelenograd and the surrounding area, the most famous of which is the Shtyki Memorial, from which the remains of the Unknown Soldier were taken for reinterment at the Kremlin Wall in the Alexander Garden in Moscow.
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Zelenograd is home to the National Research University of Electronic Technology (MIET), which is largest organization of city.
Zelenograd was headquarters of Sitronics Concerne since its founding in 1997 until 2005 (when its headquarters moved to Moscow). Now the city is the headquarters of its microelectroniс solutions department. The leading company of the department is NIIME and Mikron (Mikron) - the one of two largest Russian integrated circuits manufacturers. Also the city is the headquarters of Angstrem, which is another largest Russian ICs manufacturer.
Zelenograd is one of technical-innovative type Special economic zones. SEZ "Zelenograd" consists of 2 areas: Area "Alabushevo" (141.87 ha), a main area for new plants and research centers and Area "MIET" (4.47 ha), a technology park (mostly MIET spin-off enterprises).
Zelenogradsky Administrative Okrug is divided into five districts:
- Matushkino (Матушкино), previously District #1
- Savyolki (Савёлки), previously District #2
- Staroye Kryukovo (Старое Крюково), previously District #3
- Silino (Силино), previously District #4
- Kryukovo (Крюково)
A local soccer team Zelenograd (nicknamed Zelyono-Belye, or Green-Whites) was founded in 2002 and in 2007-2010 had been playing in the Russian Second Division. A local rugby team Zelenograd was founded in 2006 and played in Russian Rugby Championship 2008 (but it could not get to Championship 2009).
- Landing ship Caesar Kunikov, Black Sea Fleet (since 1998)
- Nuclear submarine Zelenograd, Pacific Ocean Fleet (1998–2010, retired)
- Supply ship Berezina, Black Sea Fleet (1995–1997, retired)
- Law of the city of Moscow #13-47 of July 5, 1995 On Territorial Division of the City of Moscow with subsequent amendments (Russian)
- Prefect Page. Official website of Zelenograd Administrative Okrug (Russian)
- Zelenograd Location. Official website of Zelenograd Administrative Okrug (Russian)
- "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. 2011. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
- The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2010 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox does not necessarily correspond to the area of the entity proper or is reported for the same year as the population.
- Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
- The same as Moscow dialing codes
- Official website of Zelenogradsky Administrative Okrug
- Official website of Zelenogradsky Administrative Okrug (Russian)