Zellers

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Zellers, Inc.
Type Division
Industry Discount retail store
Fate Most store leases acquired by Target Canada, Walmart Canada or closed outright. Three locations were retained to serve as liquidation centres for other HBC retail chains.
Founded 1931
Headquarters Brampton, Ontario
Number of locations 350 (1999)[1]
3 (2014)
Products Clothing, grocery, footwear, bedding, furniture, jewellery, beauty products, electronics, toys, sports equipment, appliances, housewares
Owners NRDC Equity Partners
Parent Hudson's Bay Company[2]
Website http://web.archive.org/web/*/www.zellers.com

Zellers Inc. is a three-store chain of liquidation centres for the Hudson's Bay Company (HBC) in Canada. Once a major discount department retailer with 350 outlets in the 1990s, virtually all of its stores were closed in 2012 and early 2013 following the acquisition of most Zellers locations by Target Canada in 2011. Liquidators sold nearly all of Zellers' merchandise, store fixtures and shopping carts at discounted prices.[1][3][4]

Three Zellers stores continue to be retained to carry liquidation merchandise from HBC's two other retail chains, Hudson's Bay and Home Outfitters. These continue to operate under the Zellers banner but do not carry merchandise from the former chain. The stores are located in the suburbs of Toronto, Vancouver and Ottawa.[5][6]

History[edit]

1930s–1960s: Early years, partnership with W. T. Grant[edit]

Zellers advertisement in the Toronto Star for its 1931 grand opening in Toronto. The announced location later became part of the Toronto Eaton Centre.

The company was founded in 1931 by Walter P. Zeller as "stores for thrifty Canadians".[7] The chain began with the purchase of the fourteen Canadian locations of American retailer Schulte-United, all of which were in Southern Ontario. Almost immediately, Zellers initiated an aggressive expansion strategy. Within 25 years, Zellers operated 60 stores and employed 3,000 people.[7] In 1952, in a move to expand into Atlantic Canada, it acquired the Federal Stores chain of variety stores, adding more than 12 new Zellers locations.[7]

During this period of expansion, Zellers concluded a deal with W. T. Grant, a similar chain of American mass merchandise department stores.[7] This arrangement allowed W.T. Grant to purchase 10% of Zellers shares, and eventually a 51% ownership in 1959.[7] In exchange, the Grant Company made available to Zellers its experience in merchandising, real estate, store development, and general administration. Zellers' employees were sent to Grant stores and head office for training and the two companies made common buying trips to east Asia.[7] In the 1950s, the chain again began opening new locations, and in 1956, opened its first self-serve location at the Norgate shopping centre in Saint-Laurent, Quebec.[7] Stores opened in 1960 employed many new innovations, including the first in-store restaurant, the first auto centre, and the first suburban location.[7]

1970s–1980s: Zellers acquires Fields, HBC acquires Zellers[edit]

In 1975, Zellers adopted its current logo. By 1976, Zellers had grown to a chain of 155 stores, with annual sales of $407 million.[7]

Although Zellers was prospering, W.T. Grant was facing intense competition in the United States, and was forced to withdraw entirely from its Canadian operations. In 1976, Fields, a clothing retailer based in Vancouver, British Columbia, offered to purchase a 50.1% stake in Zellers for $32,675,000. Zellers' shareholders, unhappy with the idea of Zellers becoming a subsidiary of Fields, reversed the takeover, and purchased Fields and its hardware store division, Marshall Wells. This sale added 70 Fields stores and 162 franchised Marshall Wells stores to the company. Fields' President and founder, Joseph Segal, was appointed as President of Zellers.[8]

In June 1978, Zellers presented a bid to acquire 100% ownership of the Hudson's Bay Company (HBC), owner of The Bay department stores. HBC management, recognizing Zellers' profitability and the potential to enter a new retail segment, decided to purchase Zellers instead. Zellers and Fields, operating in very different retail segments from HBC, were kept intact, and established as separate divisions of the company. HBC acquired full ownership of Zellers and Fields in 1981, and Marshall Wells, in 1982. By 1985, HBC had sold Marshall Wells for $20 million, because it was not relevant to its department store business.

Counterfeit video games for the Atari 2600 were manufactured and sold by Zellers in the 1980s. All games were clones of titles created either by Atari itself or by third-party developers such as Activision. Zellers was eventually forced by Atari to stop selling these games.[9]

1990s–2000s: Further acquisitions[edit]

In 1990, Hudson's Bay Company acquired the 51 stores of the Towers/Bonimart chain from the Oshawa Group, and converted most of them to Zellers outlets, including its flagship location in Toronto. Zellers' advertisements at the time featured both the Towers mascot "Sparky", and the Zellers mascot "Zeddy", walking arm-in-arm. During this period, Zellers used the slogan "the lowest price is the law".

In 1993, Hudson's Bay Company purchased the assets of the bankrupt Woodward's chain, including 21 store locations.[7] These were converted into Zellers and The Bay stores, and greatly expanded the company's presence in Western Canada.[7] In 1998, Hudson's Bay Company acquired Kmart's Canadian division, and merged it with the Zellers division to create a larger combined chain under the Zellers name.[7] While some Kmart locations were closed, many sites became full Zellers outlets.

In 1996, Hudson's Bay Company closed its Zellers head office in Montreal, Quebec and merged it with the Hudson's Bay Company headquarters in downtown Toronto. By 1998, Hudson's Bay Company regained a Zellers head office after Zellers took over Kmart's Canadian head office in Brampton, Ontario.[7]

On February 28, 2006, Hudson's Bay Company was taken private by South Carolina businessman Jerry Zucker. In Hudson's Bay Company's last year as a publicly traded company, Zellers had 291 stores and lost $107 million on sales of $4.2 billion.[10]

A. Mark Foote, who previously headed general merchandise at Loblaw Cos. and was president of Canadian Tire Corp.'s retail division., was appointed President and CEO of Zellers in 2008 and he was credited with stabilizing the chain, though it still struggled against Walmart Canada. [10][11]

Following Zucker's death in 2008, Hudson's Bay Company and its subsidiaries (including Zellers) came under the ownership of a New York-based company, NRDC Equity Partners, which was headed by Richard Baker. NRDC owns the Lord & Taylor upscale specialty-retail department store chain in the United States.[12] Subsequently NRDC invested heavily in The Bay and managed a turnaround by repositioning it as an upscale, fashion-forward retailer. However the Zellers chain was still struggling and was seen as a drag on the parent company and its American owner.[12][13][14]

2011–2013: Liquidation and closures[edit]

The former Zellers in Ottawa's Gloucester, Ontario district during its closeout sale, compared with the Walmart it now is.

On January 13, 2011, it was announced that Target Corporation of the United States would purchase the lease agreements of up to 220 Zellers stores for C$1.825 billion.[15] Under the agreement, Zellers subleased the properties and continued to operate them as Zellers locations until January 2012 at the earliest, and at the latest the end of March 2013.[16]

After the Zellers stores at these locations closed, Target renovated 100 to 150 of them to reopen the stores under the Target banner during 2013 and 2014. The remaining acquired sites were transferred to other retailers.[17] HBC had said that it would continue to operate the remaining Zellers stores as a smaller chain in specific communities.[18]

Of the maximum 220 locations, 105 to be transferred to Target were identified in late May 2011,[19] and another lot of 84 locations in late September 2011, bringing the total number of Zellers stores acquired by Target to 189.[20] Of these 189 stores, 125–135 stores would be converted into Target stores,[21] 39 others were resold to Walmart Canada,[22] and the remaining 15–25 leases will either be sold to other retailers or returned to the landlords who own the sites.[21]

RioCan REIT was significantly affected, as many of its mall properties include Zellers locations.[12][23] In addition, the United Food and Commercial Workers Union planned to hold demonstrations as many Zellers staffers were to be laid off instead of being retained by Target or Wal-Mart. This was in marked contrast to the takeover of Woolco by Walmart in 1994 where all Woolco employees of the acquired stores were retained.[24]

The President and CEO of Zellers, Mark Foote, had a mandate to liquidate the 273 Zellers stores in preparing it for Target's takeover by October 2011. Foote's strategy was to use a blueprint of a retail liquidation, but without the typical insolvency and desperation that plagued failing chains. Foote focusing on raising profits even if that meant losing market share and reducing store traffic, by ramping up inventory levels of higher-margin goods over loss leaders (such as apparel over deeply discounted paper towels and detergent), and slashing costs. Foote also replaced the expensive fall television ad campaign with a social media blitz on Facebook. Reportedly, the strategy was paying off as Zellers’ operating profit was “well ahead of expectations” and the retailer had “performed very well” in 2011.[11]

In March 2012, the first 50 Zellers stores were put in liquidation. This included all 39 Zellers stores slated to become Walmart outlets. By mid-June, the latter locations were closed to the public. On June 25, 2012, 17 more stores in Ontario were put in liquidation.[25]

The Hudson's Bay Company announced on July 26, 2012, that it would close most of the 64 remaining stores that were not acquired by Target and that were supposed to continue operating as Zellers outlets. A company spokesperson stated that these stores employ 6,400 people, or approximately 100 per location, range in size from 48,000 to 128,000 square feet and are mostly in small towns. The closings were expected to happen prior to April 2013, and the company's main reason for closing the stores is due to Zellers' lack of profitability.[3][26][27][28] The HBC also remarked that it would not be viable to keep Zellers as an ongoing chain due to the geographical locations of the remaining 64 stores.[29] The HBC did not exclude the possibility of keeping some stores open and converting them as Hudson's Bay or Home Outfitters outlets.[30][31] After the deal with Target Corporation, HBC still a burden in half of the $226.4-million of Zellers lease obligations remaining through 2016, with the rent for 2012 alone being almost half of HBC's adjusted profit. With HBC preparing an initial public offering in late 2012, it either had terminate these liabilities with landlords at steep discounts or find new tenants to sublet the space.[32][23]

The final closing Zellers stores started their liquidation sale on December 26, 2012 and the company stopped accepting returns on January 31, 2013.

2013–present: Zellers as a liquidator[edit]

The store front of a Zellers in Bells Corners, part of Nepean in Ottawa. The new Zellers sign in the foreground with the shadows of the previous Zellers sign, including the Truly Canadian and the Maple Leaf, behind it.

In January 2013, HBC revised its strategy and decided to keep three stores open under the Zellers banner after March 31, 2013.[33][5][34] This included a Montreal store, but it closed in early 2014. Replacing it was an Ottawa-area location, which re-opened on April 3, 2014, keeping the number of stores at three.[35][36][37]

Remaining are:

Since 2013, Zellers is essentially a store liquidator for Hudson's Bay and Home Outfitters, with no merchandise from the former Zellers chain. HBC communications manager Tiffany Bourré described the merchandise as "fashion apparel and a refined home product offering […with more from…] other HBC banners.”[33][5][34]

Stores[edit]

Zellers store in Moncton
Zellers Select logo

Zellers operated stores from St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, to Victoria, British Columbia, and employed over 35,000 people. The average store size was 94,000 square feet (8,700 m2). "Zellers Select" stores were designed for smaller markets with populations under 25,000, with stores averaged 45,000 square feet (4,200 m2). Some multi-level stores are equipped with a shopping cart system known as the "Cartveyor", designed to transport shopping carts between floors next to a standard escalator, while there were few that are so small, they are equipped with elevators open to shoppers, such as with the Lawrence Square Shopping Centre location in Toronto.

In July 2010, Zellers unveiled prototype store designs in five Winnipeg locations, with two more originally planned for late 2010 and early 2011. One store opened on the lower floor of the downtown Winnipeg Bay store making it the first Bay/Zellers hybrid store in the HBC family of stores.

Restaurant[edit]

Many Zellers locations had a restaurant known as Zellers Family Restaurant. Weekly specials for the restaurants were advertised in store flyers, and special deals were available during "Moonlight Madness" events.

Pharmacy[edit]

Almost every Zellers location outside of Quebec had a pharmacy in it. A few stores in Quebec also had them. Prescription records were sold to other pharmacies in 2011, and Zellers pharmacies ceased operation throughout 2012. Zellers was subject to controversy regarding its sale of patient records.

Distribution centres[edit]

Products[edit]

Products sold at Zellers included clothing, grocery, toys, electronics, and home supplies.

Grocery[edit]

All Zellers sold basic groceries such as dry snacks and other prepackaged foods. "The Neighbourhood Market", which used to be available at some locations, was Zellers' expanded section of grocery items which included frozen and dairy aisles. Prototype stores in Winnipeg featured full grocery departments including fresh produce and baked goods. Such plans were dropped following Target Canada's acquisition of many Zellers leases. Some stores removed their "The Neighbourhood Market" section.

Exclusive labels[edit]

Zellers carried many of its own labels and also had exclusive rights in Canada to some other labels:

  • Alfred Sung Home
  • Beaumark
  • Big Star
  • Big Z (pillows)
  • Home Studio
  • Homestyles
  • Hunt Club
  • Marketsquare
  • Midtown
  • Nest by House & Home
  • Request (promoted by Ashlee Simpson)
  • Sportek
  • Stuff by Hilary Duff
  • Truly
  • X Games
  • Zeddy (baby products)

Target Canada labels
Some labels exclusive to Target Corporation in the United States were previously exclusive to Zellers in Canada. Since Target's acquisition of Zellers leases, Target Canada is now the exclusive store for the following brands:

  • Cherokee
  • Mossimo
  • Wabasso Design Ideas

Customer service[edit]

On January 6, 2012, CBC Television's Marketplace announced that Zellers received the title of "Canada's Worst Customer Service" as a department store, based on a survey conducted by CBC with the Léger Marketing research firm in eight metropolitan areas. The retailer refused to be interviewed by Marketplace host Erica Johnson regarding its ranking, providing her with a written statement instead. Zellers also did not offer a refund to the mystery shopper who bought a used coffeemaker that was presented as new, and attempted to return the product after the advertised 30-day return period. Zellers Customer Service did not respond to this customer's Twitter message seeking satisfactory resolution.[38]

Advertising[edit]

Zellers ran a "Festive Finale" advertising campaign in late 2011. Zeddy was also used as a mascot to advertise the retailer's toy selection.

Festive Finale[edit]

The Festive Finale campaign was used to advertise Zellers' last Christmas and holiday season sale in December 2011. There was a website called ZellersFacebook.ca which allowed customers to vote for their favourite coupon and musical genre. While Zellers recommended that customers have a Facebook account and "Like" the company, both of these steps were optional. It was also possible to record a radio commercial for Zellers' "Moonlight Madness" sale by using a computer microphone and reading the site's teleprompter. Zellers also had social networking service accounts on Twitter and YouTube. Festive Finale was criticized for its Boxing Week coupon.

Loyalty program[edit]

As a Hudson's Bay Company subsidiary, Zellers promoted the Hudson's Bay Rewards program also available at Hudson's Bay and Home Outfitters. It had been known as Club Z and HBC Rewards. The program uses a points card, available at no charge but only accepted by Zellers and other partners. A Hudson's Bay MasterCard issued by Capital One is also available, which rewards customers with one point per dollar spent on the card at any retailer. Any Zellers cashier failing to inform a customer about the HBC MasterCard had to give that customer 10,000 HBC points. This is equivalent to 250 Hudson's Bay points, or one-eighth of the requirement for a $10 gift card. Hudson's Bay points can still be redeemed for Hudson's Bay gift cards.

Slogans[edit]

Numerous slogans were used by Zellers:

  • Early 1980s: "Les bas prix de Zellers sont en manchettes" ("Zellers' low prices are making headlines")
  • 1980s: "Only you'll know how little you paid"
  • 1980s: "Shopping anywhere else is pointless"
  • Late 1980s and 1990s: "Where the lowest price is the law!", followed by "Where the lowest price is the law every day" and "Because the lowest price is the law" as revisions
  • 1990s: "Truly Canadian"
  • Early to mid-2000s: "Better and Better"
  • 2000–2013: "Everything from A to Z"

Zeddy[edit]

Zeddy encourages children to ride the Zeddy Wheel attraction at Zellers.

Zeddy is a teddy bear mascot used by Zellers all over Canada. He was first used in 1986[39] as an advertising campaign, and then rose to his popularity by the early 1990s. The main purpose of Zeddy was to advertise Toyland, the toy section in Zellers stores. Zellers would provide a stuffed Zeddy bear for any child who had a birthday party sponsored by Zellers. There would also be a Zellers employee in a giant Zeddy costume hosting the party. Lineup toys of Zeddy were also created.[40]

Many stores feature a "Zeddy Wheel" ride, which accommodates one young child on a miniature ferris wheel-type ride. The ride costs $1 and plays carnival music when in use. When no one is riding the wheel, Zeddy says on a regular basis: "Come ride with me! All aboard the Zeddy Wheel!" in an attempt to attract customers.[41] Despite Zeddy being withdrawn as Zellers' official mascot in 2005, the Zeddy Wheel remained in operation at stores featuring it unless it is out of service, and the voice track was unchanged over the years. Some wheels removed the big Zeddy sticker in favour of multiple, small generic stickers.

Zeddy remains used as a baby brand for products such as diapers and baby bath products.[42]

During the "Festive Finale" campaign in 2011, Zeddy was reintroduced in weekly flyers for Zellers' Toyland before closing their stores for Target or Walmart. The character was used as a static picture, but no animated television commercials of him were made during this season. However, some employees decided to wear the Zeddy costume to celebrate the return of this teddy bear. Shortly thereafter, in December 2011, Zellers launched a "Zeddy Bucks" promotion. Those who spend at least $50 before taxes on toys would receive a pair of red 2012 Summer Olympics mittens, plus a $10 Zeddy Bucks voucher. This voucher could only be used on a later date.[43]

With the last Zellers stores set to close in 2013, the Hudson Bay Company announced in September 2012 that it was looking for a charity organization to adopt Zeddy so that the mascot could live on after Zellers.[39] In a social media ad campaign, Zellers Everything Must GO -- Including Zeddy, Zeddy was featured in an online video where the mascot was abandoned in the woods by a Zellers' executive telling Zeddy "Zellers is liquidating, and everything must go -- That includes you." Organizations were invited to submit on Zellers' Facebook page what their plans for Zeddy were.[44] There were over 30,000 votes, and the final three contenders were Autism Ontario, Camp Trillium and Cystic Fibrosis Canada. Voters selected Camp Trillium as the winner, and chosen adopter.[45][46]

  1. Zeddy, on the far right, is walking in a parade in the early 2000s.
  2. Zeddy appears in the Toyland section of Toyland in November 2011.

See also[edit]

Other discount retailer that once operated in Canada and similar concept as Zellers:

  • Kmart - opened first store in 1929 (as Kresge) and closed operations in 1998; some stores sold to Zellers
  • Woolco - appeared in the 1960s and closed operations in 1994; most stores sold to Walmart Canada; some later acquired by Zellers
  • Towers Department Stores - emerged in 1960 and ceased operations in 1991; all stores sold to Zellers

Successor of Zellers:

  • Target Canada 2013–present; acquired a number of former Zellers leases

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Dunn, Brian (October 4, 1999). ""MARTHA STEWART, ZELLARS [sic] NAMED IN LAWSUIT"". HFN The Weekly Newspaper for the Home Furnishing Network. Retrieved April 1, 2013. 
  2. ^ "Contacts." Hudson's Bay Company. Retrieved on July 7, 2010.
  3. ^ a b Flavelle, Dana (July 26, 2012). "Zellers to close last 64 stores as Target moves into Canada". Toronto Star. 
  4. ^ Chiasson, Monique (April 1, 2013). "Emotions run deep during Zellers’ last day in Truro". Truro Daily News. Retrieved April 26, 2013. 
  5. ^ a b c "HBC store locator". Retrieved February 23, 2014. 
  6. ^ Desrosiers, Sophie (3 April 2014). "Zellers reopens its doors in Bells Corners". Ottawa Sun. Retrieved 3 April 2014. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "HBC Heritage: The Zellers Story". Hudson's Bay Company. 2014. Retrieved July 14, 2014. 
  8. ^ "HBC Heritage: Fields, The Strength of an Idea". Hudson's Bay Company. 2014. Retrieved July 14, 2014. 
  9. ^ Retro Nouveau. "Les jeux Atari 2600 de Zellers" (in French). Tumblr. Retrieved 2012-09-16. 
  10. ^ a b Flavelle, Dana (July 31, 2009). "At Zellers, lowest price is still prime focus". Toronto Star (Toronto). 
  11. ^ a b "Zellers CEO rewrites the book on liquidation". The Globe and Mail (Toronto). September 6, 2012. 
  12. ^ a b c Strauss, Marina; Ladurantaye, Steve (January 11, 2011). "U.S. chains circle Zellers properties". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved July 14, 2014. 
  13. ^ Flavelle, Dana (July 26, 2012). "Zellers to close last 64 stores as Target moves into Canada". Toronto Star. Retrieved July 14, 2014. 
  14. ^ "Zellers closing local stores". Sudbury Star. July 27, 2012. Retrieved July 14, 2014. 
  15. ^ John Tilak, "UPDATE 2-Target to enter Canada with Zellers deal, own plans: Target plans to open up to 150 stores in Canada", Reuters January 13, 2011.
  16. ^ "Transaction Agreement between Zellers Inc., Hudson's Bay Company, Target Corporation and Target Canada Co.". U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. 2011-01-12. Retrieved 2011-03-28. 
  17. ^ Marina Strauss and Steve Ladurantaye (2011-01-13). "Target heads north in Zellers deal". Globe and Mail (Toronto). Retrieved 2011-01-13. 
  18. ^ "Target buys Zellers leases for $1.8B". CBC News. 2011-01-13. Retrieved 2012-09-21. 
  19. ^ Target Corporation (2011-05-26). "Target Selects Initial Zellers Leases, Vast Majority to Become Target Stores". Retrieved 2011-05-26. 
  20. ^ "Hudson’s Bay Company Confirms Final List of 189 Zellers Locations to be Assumed by Target". Canada Free Press. September 23, 2011. 
  21. ^ a b "US Target Zellers". [dead link]
  22. ^ The Canadian Press (2011-06-24). "Walmart picks up 39 Zellers sites from Target". Canada: CBC. Retrieved 2011-06-24. 
  23. ^ a b Strauss, Marina (November 6, 2012). "HBC seeks to close books on Zellers leases". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved July 14, 2014. 
  24. ^ "Zellers employees walk away empty-handed in $1.825-billion deal". Metro News. August 17, 2012. Retrieved July 14, 2014. 
  25. ^ Liquidation. Zellers. Retrieved May 1, 2012.
  26. ^ Global News | Zellers on road to retail extinction as HBC to close most stores
  27. ^ "Most remaining Zellers stores to close by March 2013". CBC News. July 26, 2012. [dead link]
  28. ^ O'Kane, Josh (July 26, 2012). "Hudson’s Bay to close remaining Zellers stores". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved July 14, 2014. 
  29. ^ "La fin de Zellers". Radio-Canada. July 26, 2012. 
  30. ^ Hudson's Bay to close remaining Zellers stores, 6,400 jobs at stake
  31. ^ La plupart des Zellers restants fermeront | Québec
  32. ^ Altstedter, Ari (November 5, 2012). "Hudson’s Bay IPO: Share price could be dragged down by Zellers rents". Financial Post. Retrieved July 14, 2014. 
  33. ^ a b "Zellers will stick around Canada’s three biggest cities after Target arrives". Retrieved January 14, 2013. 
  34. ^ a b "Zellers store to stay open at Semiahmoo Shopping Centre". Retrieved January 14, 2013. 
  35. ^ "Ottawa Metro newspaper ad, page 9". Retrieved March 27, 2014. 
  36. ^ "Zeddy's not dead: A closed Zellers store is actually reopening in Ottawa". Retrieved April 3, 2014. 
  37. ^ "Zellers returns to Ottawa". Retrieved April 3, 2014. 
  38. ^ "Canada's Worst Customer Service". CBC. Retrieved 2011-01-06. [dead link]
  39. ^ a b "Zellers Announces Everything Must Go… Including Zeddy". Zellers. Retrieved 2012-12-21. 
  40. ^ "Zellers' Festive Finale presents: "Pick the Playlist" with Jason the Cashier". Zellers. Retrieved 2011-11-28.  |first1= missing |last1= in Authors list (help)
  41. ^ Voice clips and pictures coming soon.
  42. ^ "Zeddy". Zellers. Retrieved 2011-11-25. 
  43. ^ Zellers December 2011 Flyer.
  44. ^ "Zellers prepares to close, so what happens to Zeddy the bear? - thestar.com". The Star (Toronto). September 17, 2012. 
  45. ^ Zellers Inc. | Zellers Iconic Mascot Zeddy Finds New Home With Camp Trillium
  46. ^ "National News: Zellers Iconic Mascot Zeddy Finds New Home With Camp Trillium". Northumberland View (Roseneath ON). 16 November 2012. Retrieved 17 November 2012. 

External links[edit]