Zen lineage charts

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Zen lineage charts depict the transmission of the dharma from one generation to another. They developed during the Tang Dynasty, incorporating elements from Indian Buddhism and East Asian Mahayana Buddhism,[1] but were first published at the end of the Tang.[2]

History[edit]

Main article: Chinese Chán

The idea of a patriarchal lineage in Ch'an dates back to the epitaph for Fărú (法如 638–689), a disciple of the 5th patriarch Hóngrĕn (弘忍 601–674). In the Two Entrances and Four Acts and the Continued Biographies of Eminent Monks, Daoyu and Huike are the only explicitly identified disciples of Bodhidharma. The epitaph gives a line of descent identifying Bodhidharma as the first patriarch.[3][4]

In the 6th century biographies of famous monks were collected. From this genre the typical Ch'an-lineage was developed:

These famous biographies were non-sectarian. The Ch'an biographical works, however, aimed to establish Ch'an as a legitimate school of Buddhism traceable to its Indian origins, and at the same time championed a particular form of Ch'an. Historical accuracy was of little concern to the compilers; old legends were repeated, new stories were invented and reiterated until they too became legends.[5]

According to McRae, the schema developed over the course of several centuries.[6] It is a combined product of Indian and Chinese culture, which inherited elements "from the larger tradition of East Asian Mahayana Buddhism" such as the seven Buddhas of the past:[6]

[T]he origins of this linegae-based transmission scheme are to be found in Indian Buddhism and the fourth- and fifth-century Buddhist meditation tradition of Kashmir. There are a number of parallels between the Chan transmission scheme and Chinese family genealogies of the eighth century and later, but we should remember that Indian Buddhists had parents and teachers, family genealogies and initiation lineages, just as the Chinese did. As an amalgation of Indian and Chinese elements, though, the Chinese transmission schema developed within the Chinese Buddhist context and was particularly well adapted to that milieu.[2]

The complete system was published perhaps as early as 801 but certainly by the year 952.[6]

D.T. Suzuki contends that Ch'an's growth in popularity during the 7th and 8th centuries attracted criticism that it had "no authorized records of its direct transmission from the founder of Buddhism" and that Ch'an historians made Bodhidharma the 28th patriarch of Buddhism in response to such attacks.[7]

Lineages[edit]

The Indian Lineage From Shakyamuni to Bodhidharma[edit]

The earliest descriptions of the Chán-lineage evolved into a continuous lineage from Śākyamuni Buddha to Bodhidharma. The idea of a line of descent from Śākyamuni Buddha is the basis for the distinctive lineage tradition of the Chán school. The Denkoroku, "Transmission of the Light", written by Keizan, gives 28 patriarchs in this transmission:[8][9]

SANSKRT CHINESE VIETNAMESE JAPANESE KOREAN
1 Mahākāśyapa 摩訶迦葉 / Móhējiāyè Ma-Ha-Ca-Diếp Makakashyo 마하가섭 / Mahagasŏp
2 Ānanda 阿難陀 / Ānántuó A-Nan-Đà / A-Nan Anan 아난다 / Ananda
3 Śānavāsa 商那和修 / Shāngnàhéxiū Thương-Na-Hòa-Tu Shonawashu 상나화수 / Sanahwasa
4 Upagupta 優婆掬多 / Yōupójúduō Ưu-Ba-Cúc-Đa Ubakikuta 우바국다 / Ubagupta
5 Dhrtaka 提多迦 / Dīduōjiā Đề-Đa-Ca Daitaka 제다가 / Chedaga
6 Miccaka 彌遮迦 / Mízhējiā Di-Dá-Ca Mishaka 미차가 / Michaga
7 Vasumitra 婆須密 / Póxūmì Bà-Tu-Mật Bashumitsu 바수밀다 / Pasumilta
8 Buddhanandi 浮陀難提 / Fútuónándī Phật-Đà-Nan-Đề Buddanandai 불타난제 / Pŭltananje
9 Buddhamitra 浮陀密多 / Fútuómìduō Phục-Đà-Mật-Đa Buddamitta 복태밀다 / Puktaemilda
10 Pārśva 婆栗濕婆 / Pólìshīpó Bà-Lật-Thấp-Bà / Hiếp-Tôn-Giả Barishiba 협존자 / Hyŏpjonje
11 Punyayaśas 富那夜奢 / Fùnàyèshē Phú-Na-Dạ-Xa Funayasha 부나야사 / Punayasa
12 Ānabodhi / Aśvaghoṣa 阿那菩提 / Ānàpútí A-Na-Bồ-Đề / Mã-Minh Anabotei 마명 / Mamyŏng
13 Kapimala 迦毘摩羅 / Jiāpímóluó Ca-Tỳ-Ma-La Kabimara 가비마라 / Kabimara
14 Nāgārjuna 龍樹 / Lóngshù Long-Thọ Ryusho 용수 / Yongsu
15 Kānadeva 迦那提婆 / Jiānàtípó Ca-Na-Đề-Bà Kanadaiba 가나제바 / Kanajeba
16 Rāhulata 羅睺羅多 / Luóhóuluóduō La-Hầu-La-Đa Ragorata 라후라다 / Rahurada
17 Sanghānandi 僧伽難提 / Sēngqiénántí Tăng-Già-Nan-Đề Sōgyanandai 승가난제 / Sŭngsananje
18 Sanghayaśas 僧伽舍多 / Sēngqiéshèduō Tăng-Già-Da-Xá Sogyayasha 가야사다 / Kayasada
19 Kumārata 鳩摩羅多 / Jiūmóluóduō Cưu-Ma-La-Đa Kumarada 구마라다 / Kumarada
20 Śayata 闍夜多 / Shéyèduō Xà-Dạ-Đa Jayana 사야다 / Sayada
21 Vasubandhu 世親 / Shìqīn Bà-Tu-Bàn-Đầu Bashyubanzu 바수반두 / Pasubandu
22 Manorhita 摩拏羅 / Mónáluó Ma-Noa-La Manura 마나라 / Manara
23 Haklenayaśas 鶴勒夜那夜者 / Hèlèyènàyèzhě Hạc-Lặc-Na Kakurokuyasha 학륵나 / Haklŭkna
24 Simhabodhi 師子菩提 / Shīzǐpútí Sư-Tử-Bồ-Đề / Sư-Tử-Trí Shishibodai 사자 / Saja
25 Vasiasita 婆舍斯多 / Póshèsīduō Bà-Xá-Tư-Đa Bashashita 바사사다 / Pasasada
26 Punyamitra 不如密多 / Bùrúmìduō Bất-Như-Mật-Đa Funamitta 불여밀다 / Punyŏmilta
27 Prajñātāra 般若多羅 / Bānruòduōluó Bát-Nhã-Đa-La Hannyatara 반야다라 / Panyadara
28 धर्म / Dharma 達磨 / Dámó Đạt-Ma だるま / Daruma 달마 / Dalma

The First Six Ancestors of the Chinese Lineage[edit]

The earliest lineages described the lineage from Bodhidharma to Huineng. There is no generally accepted 7th Chinese Patriarch.[web 1]

The principle teachers of the Chan and Zen traditions are commonly known in the first English translations as Patriarchs, however the current trend is to use the more precise terminology of "Ancestors" or "Founders" (祖, zu3) and "Ancestral Masters" or "Founding Masters" (祖師, zu3shi1) as the commonly used Chinese terms are gender neutral. Various records of different authors are known, which give a variation of transmission lines:

The Continued Biographies
of Eminent Monks

Xù gāosēng zhuàn 續高僧傳
of Dàoxuān 道宣
(596-667)
The Record of the Transmission
of the Dharma-Jewel

Chuán fǎbǎo jì 傳法寶記
of Dù Fěi 杜胐
History of Masters and Disciples of the Laṅkāvatāra-Sūtra
Léngqié shīzī jì 楞伽師資紀記
of Jìngjué 淨覺
(ca. 683 - ca. 650)
The Xiǎnzōngjì 显宗记
of Shénhuì 神会
1 Bodhidharma Bodhidharma Bodhidharma Bodhidharma
2 Huìkě 慧可 (487? - 593) Dàoyù 道育 Dàoyù 道育 Dàoyù 道育
Huìkě 慧可 (487? - 593) Huìkě 慧可 (487? - 593) Huìkě 慧可 (487? - 593)
3 Sēngcàn 僧璨 (d.606) Sēngcàn 僧璨 (d.606) Sēngcàn 僧璨 (d.606) Sēngcàn 僧璨 (d.606)
4 Dàoxìn 道信 (580 - 651) Dàoxìn 道信 (580 - 651) Dàoxìn 道信 (580 - 651) Dàoxìn 道信 (580 - 651)
5 Hóngrěn 弘忍 (601 - 674) Hóngrěn 弘忍 (601 - 674) Hóngrěn 弘忍 (601 - 674) Hóngrěn 弘忍 (601 - 674)
6 - Fǎrú 法如 (638-689) Yuquan Shenxiu 神秀 (606? - 706) Huìnéng 慧能 (638-713)
Yuquan Shenxiu 神秀 (606? - 706) 神秀 Xuánzé 玄賾
7 - - - Xuánjué 玄覺 (665-713)

Tang Dynasty[edit]

Hongren - Huineng - Northern School - Shitou-lineage - Mazu-lineage - Southern School[edit]

Huineng tearing sutras

The period of Daoxin (道信 580–651) and Daman Hongren (弘忍 601–674) came to be called the East Mountain Teaching, due to the location of the residence of Hongren at Huamgmei. The term was used by Shenxiu, the most important successor to Hongren.[10]

Shenxiu (神秀 606?-706) was the most important successor to Hongren. In 701 he was invited to the Imperial Court by Empress Wu, who paid him due imperial reverence. The first lineage documents were produced in this period.[11]

According to tradition, the sixth and last ancestral founder, Huineng (惠能; 638–713), was one of the giants of Chán history, and all surviving schools regard him as their ancestor.[12] Shenhui, a successor to Huineng claimed Huineng to be the successor of Hongren's, instead of the then publicly recognized successor Shenxiu.[13] The most prominent of the successors of Shenhui's lineage was Guifeng Zongmi[14]

Shenhui's influence is traceable in the Platform Sutra, which gives a popular account of the story of Huineng, but also reconciles the antagonism created by Shenhui. Shenhui himself does not figure in the Platform Sutra; he was effectively written out of Chán-history.[15]

Predecessors
5 Daman Hongren (601-674)(5th Patriarch)
(WG Ta-man Hung-jen, Jpn. Gunin)
6 Yuquan Shenxiu (605?-706)
(WG Yü-Ch'uan shen-hsiu, Jpn. Jinshū)
Huineng (638-713)
(WG Hui-neng, Jpn. Enō)
7 Northern School Qingyuan Xingsi (660-740)
(WG Ch'ing-yüan Hsing-ssu, Jpn. Seigen Gyōshi)
Nanyue Huairang (677-744)
(wg Nan-yüeh Huai-jang, Jpn. Nangaku Ejō)
Heze Shenhui
(WG Ho-tse Shen-hui, Jpn. Kataku Jin'e)
8 Shitou Xiqian (700-790)
(WG Shih-t'ou Hsi-ch'ien, Jpn. Sekitō Kisen)
Mazu Daoyi (709-788)
(WG Ma-tsu Tao-i, Jpn. Baso Dōitsu)
Southern School
(WG Ho-tse School, Jpn. Kataku School)
9 Fayan school
Yunmen school
Caodong school)
Hongzhou school
Linji school
Fifth generation: Guifeng Zongmi (780–841)
((圭峰 宗密 WG Kuei-feng Tsung-mi, Jpn. Keihō Shūmitsu)

Shitou Xiqian - Fayan School - Yunmen school - Caodong school - Soto school[edit]

Main articles: Shitou Xiqian and Caodong school

The details of Shítóu's life are found in traditional biographies. Scholar Mario Poceski writes that Shítóu does not appear to have been influential or famous during his lifetime.[16] Sayings to the effect that Shitou and Mazu were the two great masters of their day date from decades after their respective deaths. Shítóu's retrospective prominence owes much to the importance of Dongshan Liangjie, a 9th-century teacher who traced his lineage back to Shítóu.[17]

Six Patriarchs
Huineng (638-713)
(WG: Hui-neng. Jpn: Enō)
Qingyuan Xingsi (660-740)
(WG: TCh'ing yüan Hsing-ssu. Jpn: Seigen Gyōshi)
0 Shitou Xiqian (700-790)
(WG: Shih-t'ou Hsi-ch'ien. Jpn: Sekitō Kisen)
1 Tianhuang Daowu (748-807)
(WG: T'ien-huang Tao-wu. Jpn: Tennō Dago)
Yaoshan Weiyan (ca.745-828)
(Yao-shan Wei-yen, Jpn. Yakusan Igen)
2 Longtan Chongxin (8th/9th century)
(WG: Lung-t'an Ch'ung-hsin; Jpn: Ryūtan Sōshin)
Yunyan Tansheng (780-841)
(Yün-yen T'an-shen, Jpn. Ungan Donjō)
3 Deshan Xuanjian (782-865)
(WG: Te-shan Hsüan-chien; Jpn: Tokusan Senkan)
Dongshan Liangjie (807-869)
Tung-shan liang-chieh, Jpn. Tōzan Ryōkai)
4 Xuefeng Yicun (822-908)(雪峰 义 存)
(WG: Hsüeh-feng I-ts'un. Jpn: Seppō Gison)
Caoshan Benji (840-901)
(Ts'ao-shan Pen-chi, Jpn. Sōzan Honjaku)
Yunju Daoying (d.902)
(Yün-chü Tao-ying, Jpn. Ungo Dōyō)
5 Jingqing Daotu (ca.863-937)
(WG: Ching-ch'ing Tao-fu. Jpn: Kyōsei Dōfu)
Yunmen Wenyan (864-949)
(WG: Yün-men Wen-yen. Jpn: Ummon Bun'en)
Caodong school 8 generations
6 Xuansha Shibei (835-908) Dongshan Shouchu (910-990) Dōgen
7 Luohan Guichen (867-928) Yunmen school Sōtō
8 Fayan Wenyi (885-958)
9 Fayan school


Mazu - Hongzhou school - Guiyang school - Linji school[edit]

Traditionally, Mazu is depicted as a successor in the lineage of Hui-neng, since his teacher Huairang is regarded as a student and successor of Huineng. This connection between Hui-neng and Nanyue Huairang is doubtfull, being the product of later rewritings of Chán-history to place Mazu in the traditional lineages.[18]

Mazu is perhaps the most influential teaching master in the formation of Chán Buddhism in China.[19] When Chán became the dominant school of Buddhism during the Song Dynasty, in retrospect the later Tang Dynasty and Mazu's Hongzhou school became regarded as the "golden age" of Chan.[20]

The An Lu-shan Rebellion (755-763) led to a loss of control by the Tang dynasty, which changed the position of Chan. Metropolitan Chan began to lose its status, while...

...other schools were arising in outlying areas controlled by warlords. These are the forerunnersof the Chan we know today. Their origins are obscure; the power of Shen-hui's preaching is shown by the fact that they all trace themselves to Hui-neng.[21]

The most important of these schools is the Hongzhou school (洪州宗) of Mazu, to which also belong Baizhang and Huangbo. The lineage of Linji (Rinzai), the founder of one of the Five Houses, is also traced back to Mazu.

Six Patriarchs
Huineng (638-713)
(Hui-neng, Jpn. Enō)
Nanyue Huairang (677-744)
(Nan-yüeh Huai-jang, Jpn. Nangaku Ejō))
Mazu Daoyi (709-788)
(Ma-tsu Tao-i, Jpn. Baso Dōitsu)
Nanquan Puyuan (748-835)
(Nan-ch'üan p'u-yüan, Jpn. Nansen Fugan)
Baizhang Huaihai (720-814)
(Pai-chang Huai-hai, Jpn. Hyakujō Ekai)
Zhaozhou Congshen (778--879)
(Chao-chou Ts'ung-shen, Jpn. Jōshū Jūshin)
Huangbo Xiyun (d.850)
(Huang-po Hsi-yüan, Jpn. Ōbaku Kiun)
Guishan Lingyou (771-853)
(Kuei-shan Ling-yu, Jpn. Isan Reiyū)
Linji Yixuan (d.866)
(Lin-chi I-hsüan, Jpn. Rinzai Gigen)
Guiyang school
Linji school

Song Dynasty - The Five Houses of Chán[edit]

During the Song the Five Houses (Ch. 五家) of Chán, or five "schools", were recognized. These were not originally regarded as "schools" or "sects", but based on the various Chán-genealogies. Hhistorically they have come to be understood as "schools".

The Five Houses of Chán are:[22]

Guiyang school[edit]

Main article: Guiyang school

The Guiyang school (潙仰宗 Guíyáng, Jpn. Igyō) was the first established school of the Five Houses of Zen.[26] Guiyang is named after master Guishan Lingyou (771–854) (Kuei-shan Ling-yu, Jpn. Isan Reiyū) and his student, Yangshan Huiji (807-883,[27] or 813–890) (Yang-shan Hui-chi, Jpn. Kyōzan Ejaku). After founding the Guiyang School, Yangshan moved his school to what is now modern Jiangxi.

The Guiyang school was distinct from the other schools due to its use of esoteric metaphors and imagery in the school's kōans and other teachings.[26]

Six Patriarchs
Huineng (638-713)
(Hui-neng, Jpn. Enō)
Nanyue Huairang (677-744)
(Nan-yüeh Huai-jang, Jpn. Nangaku Ejō))
Mazu Daoyi (709-788)
(Ma-tsu Tao-i, Jpn. Baso Dōitsu)
Baizhang Huaihai (720-814)
(Pai-chang Huai-hai, Jpn. Hyakujō Ekai)
Guishan Lingyou (771-853)
(Kuei-shan Ling-yu, Jpn. Isan Reiyū)
Yangshan Huiji (807-883)
(Yang-shan Hui-chi, Jpn. Kyōzan Ejaku)
Guiyang school


Fayan school and Yunmen school[edit]

Main articles: Fayan school and Yunmen school

Via Xuefeng Yicun the Fayang school and Yunmen school are traced back to Shitou Xiqian and Huineng. Xuefeng was one of the most influential Chán-teachers at the end of the Tang Dynasty,[28] when "a widely influential zen center formed around Xuefeng Yicun".[29] The loss of control by the Tang Dynasty, and the accompanying loss of support for Buddhist institutions, lead to a regionally based Chan of Xuefeng and his students.[30]

The Zutang ji (祖堂集 "Anthology of the Patriarchal Hall), compiled in 952, the first document which mentions Linji Yixuan, was written to support the Xuefeng Yicun lineage.[24] It pictures this lineage as heir to the legacy of Mazu and the Hongzhou-school,[24] though Xuefeng Yicun's lineage is traced back to Shitou Xiqian (700-790). It was written by two students of Zhaoqing Wendeng (884-972), a dharma descendant of Xuefeng Yicun.

Six Patriarchs
Huineng (638-713)
(WG: Hui-neng. Jpn: Enō)
Qingyuan Xingsi (660-740)
(WG: TCh'ing yüan Hsing-ssu. Jpn: Seigen Gyōshi)
Shitou Xiqian (700-790)
(WG: Shih-t'ou Hsi-ch'ien. Jpn: Sekitō Kisen)
Tianhuang Daowu (748-807)
(WG: T'ien-huang Tao-wu. Jpn: Tennō Dago)
Longtan Chongxin (8th/9th century)
(WG: Lung-t'an Ch'ung-hsin; Jpn: Ryūtan Sōshin)
Deshan Xuanjian (782-865)
(WG: Te-shan Hsüan-chien; Jpn: Tokusan Senkan)
0 Xuefeng Yicun (822-908)(雪峰 义 存)
(WG: Hsüeh-feng I-ts'un. Jpn: Seppō Gison)
1 Jingqing Daotu (ca.863-937)
(WG: Ching-ch'ing Tao-fu. Jpn: Kyōsei Dōfu)
Yunmen Wenyan (864-949)
(WG: Yün-men Wen-yen. Jpn: Ummon Bun'en)
2 Xuansha Shibei (835-908) Dongshan Shouchu (910-990)
3 Luohan Guichen (867-928) Yunmen school
4 Fayan Wenyi (885-958)
Fayan school

Linji school[edit]

Main article: Linji school

During the Northern Song (960–1127), the Song capital was in the northern city of Bianjing (now Kaifeng) and the dynasty controlled most of inner China. The Fayan school was the first faction to gain recognition at the Song court, due to the influence of the buddhist scholar-official Zanning (919-1001).[31] After his death this position was taken over by the linji-faction.[31]

The linji-school of the Song Dynasty brought together the classical elements of Zen:

  • The denlu-genre, the "Transmission of the Lamp";[13][24]
  • The yulu-genre, the recorded sayings of the masters of the Tang;[13][24]
  • The gongan (koan) collections, describing fictiounous dialogues and interactions between masters and students, supplemented with introductions, commentary and poetry;[13][24][32]
  • The Hua Tou practice, the meditative concentration on the "word-head" of a gongan as an aid in attaining kensho;[13][32]
  • The notion of "a special transmission outside the scripture" as one of the defining characteristics of Zen.[24]

All of these elements, which shaped the picture of the iconoclastic Zen-master who transmits a wordless truth, were shaped by and dependent on literary products that shaped the Traditional Zen Narrative which furthered the position of the Linji-school. This narrative did not describe the actual Chán-practice, neither of the Song-Dynasty, nor of the Tang Dynasty.[24]

According to Welter, the real founder of the Linji-school was Shoushan (or Baoying) Shengnian (首山省念)(926-993), a fourth generation dharma-heir of Linji. The Tiansheng Guangdeng lu (天聖廣燈錄), "Tiansheng Era Expanded Lamp Record", compiled by the official Li Zunxu (李遵勗)(988-1038) confirms the status of Shoushan Shengnian, but also pictures Linji as a major Chan patriarch and heir to the Hongzhou school of Mazu Daoyi, displacing the prominence of the Fayan-lineage.[24] It also established the slogan of "a special transmission outside the teaching", supporting the Linji-school claim of "Chan as separate from and superior to all other Buddhist teachings".[31]

Six Patriarchs
Huineng (638-713)
(Hui-neng, Jpn. Enō)
Nanyue Huairang (677-744)
(Nan-yüeh Huai-jang, Jpn. Nangaku Ejō))
Mazu Daoyi (709-788)
(Ma-tsu Tao-i, Jpn. Baso Dōitsu)
Baizhang Huaihai (720-814)
(Pai-chang Huai-hai, Jpn. Hyakujō Ekai)
Huangbo Xiyun (d.850)
(Huang-po Hsi-yüan, Jpn. Ōbaku Kiun)
Linji Yixuan (d.866)
(Lin-chi I-hsüan, Jpn. Rinzai Gigen)
Xinghua Cunjiang
Nanyuan Huiyong
Shoushan Xingnian
Fenyang Shanzhao
Shishuang Chuyuan
Yangqi Fanghui Huanglong Huinan
Baiyun Shouduan Hui-t'ang Tsu-hsin
Wuzu Fayan Ssu-hsin W-hsin
Kaifu Daoning Yuanwu Keqin Several generations
Yue'an Shanguo Hu-ch'in Shao-lung Dahui Zonggao Eisai
Lao-na Tsu-teng Ying-an T'an-hua
Yüeh-lin Shih-kuan Mi-an Hsien-chieh
Wu-men Hui-k'ai Sung-yüan Ch'ung-yüeh
Shinchi Kakushin Rinzai school
Hakuin
Rinzai school


Caodong school[edit]

Main article: Caodong school

The Caodong school was founded by Dongshan Liangjie and his Dharma-heirs in the 9th century.

Six Patriarchs
Huineng (638-713)
(WG: Hui-neng. Jpn: Enō)
Qingyuan Xingsi (660-740)
(WG: TCh'ing yüan Hsing-ssu. Jpn: Seigen Gyōshi)
Shitou Xiqian (700-790)
(WG: Shih-t'ou Hsi-ch'ien. Jpn: Sekitō Kisen)
Yaoshan Weiyan (ca.745-828)
(Yao-shan Wei-yen, Jpn. Yakusan Igen)
Yunyan Tansheng (780-841)
(Yün-yen T'an-shen, Jpn. Ungan Donjō)
Linji lineage
Linji school
0 Dongshan Liangjie (807-869)
Tung-shan liang-chieh, Jpn. Tōzan Ryōkai)
Linji Yixuan[33]
1 Caoshan Benji (840-901)
(Ts'ao-shan Pen-chi, Jpn. Sōzan Honjaku)
Yunju Daoying (d.902)
(Yün-chü Tao-ying, Jpn. Ungo Dōyō)
Xinghua Cunjiang[34]
2 Tongan Daopi (Daopi[35]) Nanyuan Huiyong[36]
3 Tongan Guanzhi (Tongan[35]) Fengxue Yanzhao[37]
4 Liangshan Yuanguan Shoushan Xingnian[38]
5 Dayang Jingxuan (942-1027)[39] (Dayang)[35] Shexian Guixing[40]
Fushan Fayuan (Rinzai-master) [41])
6 Touzi Yiqing (1032-1083)[42] (Touzi)[35]
7 Furong Daokai (1043-1118) (Daokai)[35]
8 Danxia Zichun (1064-1117) (Danxia)[35]
9 Hongzhi Zhengjue (1091-1157)[43] Zhenxie Qingliao (Wukong[35])
10 Tiantong Zongjue (Zongjue[35])
11 Xuedou Zhijian (Zhijian[35])
12 Tiantong Rujing (Rujing[35])
13 Dōgen

Soto-lineage
Soto school


Japanese Zen[edit]

Twenty-four different Zen-lineages are recorded to be transmitted to Japan. Only three survived until today. Sōtō was transmitted to Japan by Dogen, who travelled to China for Chan training in the 13th century CE. After receiving Dharma transmission in the Caodong line he returned to Japan and established the Sōtō line. The Linji line was also transmitted to Japan several times, where it became known as the Rinzai line.

Soto school[edit]

Main article: Sōtō

Though Dōgen emphasized the importance of the purity of the teachings, and highly valued lineage and dharma transmission, the Soto-school has its origins in various lineages and dharma transmissions.[44] Dogen received dharma transmission from his Chinese teacher Rujing, with whom he studied two years, but in medieval Soto he was also considered to be a dharma heir of Myōzen, a Rinzai-teacher, with whom he studied eight years.[45] And Tettsū Gikai, the dharma-grandson of Dogen, was also lineage-holder of Nōnin, the founder of the Dharuma-shu, also a Rinzai-school.[46] Gikai passed this linegae over to Keizan, who thereby was also lineage-holder in at least two lineages.[47]

To make the history of Soto even more complicated, the Caodong-lineage that Dogen inherited through Rujing was passed on previously from the Caodong-master Dayang Jingxuan to Touzi Yiqing via the Rinzai-master Fushan Fayuan. Fushan Fayuan had once studied under Dayang Jingxuan. When Jingxuan died Fayuan had received Jingxuan's "portrait, robe, and a verse that expressed his teaching",[41] promising "to pass them on to a suitable successor". Fayuan chose his student Touzi Yiqing to inherit this lineage,[41] a fact that was acknowledged in Keizan's Denkoroku, but "[i]n the standard versions of Dogen's writings, however, all direct references to Yiqing's indirect succession have been eliminated".[41]

Six Patriarchs
Huineng (638-713)
(WG: Hui-neng. Jpn: Enō)
Qingyuan Xingsi (660-740)
(WG: TCh'ing yüan Hsing-ssu. Jpn: Seigen Gyōshi)
Shitou Xiqian (700-790)
(WG: Shih-t'ou Hsi-ch'ien. Jpn: Sekitō Kisen)
Yaoshan Weiyan (ca.745-828)
(Yao-shan Wei-yen, Jpn. Yakusan Igen)
Yunyan Tansheng (780-841)
(Yün-yen T'an-shen, Jpn. Ungan Donjō)
Linji lineage
Linji school
0 Dongshan Liangjie (807-869)
Tung-shan liang-chieh, Jpn. Tōzan Ryōkai)
Linji Yixuan[33]
1 Caoshan Benji (840-901)
(Ts'ao-shan Pen-chi, Jpn. Sōzan Honjaku)
Yunju Daoying (d.902)
(Yün-chü Tao-ying, Jpn. Ungo Dōyō)
Xinghua Cunjiang[34]
2 Tongan Daopi (Daopi[35]) Nanyuan Huiyong[36]
3 Tongan Guanzhi (Tongan[35]) Fengxue Yanzhao[37]
4 Liangshan Yuanguan Shoushan Xingnian[38]
5 Dayang Jingxuan (Dayang[35]) Shexian Guixing[40]
Fushan Fayuan (Rinzai-master) [41])
6 Touzi Yiqing (Touzi[35])
7 Furong Daokai (Daokai[35])
8 Danxia Zichun (Danxia[35])
9 Hongzhi Zhengjue (1091-1157)[43] Zhenxie Qingliao (Wukong[35])
10 Tiantong Zongjue (Zongjue[35]) Linji lineage
Linji school
11 Xuedou Zhijian (Zhijian[35]) Eisai Linji lineage
Linji school
12 Tiantong Rujing (Rujing[35]) Myozen Dahui Zonggao
13 Dōgen Zhuóān Déguāng (拙庵德光, 1121–1203)
14 Koun Ejō Nōnin
15 Tettsū Gikai
16 Keizan
Sōtō


Rinzai school[edit]

Main articles: Rinzai school, Ōtōkan and Hakuin

The Linji school was first brought to Japan by Eisai.

The Otokan lineage was founded by Nanpo Jōmyō 南浦紹明 (1235–1308), who received transmission in China from the monk Xutang Zhiyu 虚堂智愚 (Japanese Kido Chigu, 1185–1269) in 1265, who then returned to Japan in 1267. It was then spread by his student Shuho Myocho (second generation) and Kanzan Egen (third generation), who made it an influential school.

The two main schools today are Takujū and Inzan, which both descent from Hakuin.

Linji lineage
Linji school
Eisai Linji lineage
Linji school
Myozen

Xutang Zhiyu 虚堂智愚 (Japanese Kido Chigu, 1185–1269) [web 2] [web 3] [web 4]

Nanpo Shōmyō (南浦紹明?) (1235–1308)
Shuho Myocho
Kanzan Egen 關山慧玄 (1277–1360)
founder of Myōshin-ji
  • Tettō Gikō (1295–1369)
  • Gongai Sōchū (1315–1390)
Juō Sōhitsu (1296–1380)
Muin Sōin (1326–1410)
Tozen Soshin (Sekko Soshin) (1408–1486)
Toyo Eicho (1429–1504)
Taiga Tankyo (?–1518)
Koho Genkun (?–1524)
Sensho Zuisho (?–?)
Ian Chisatsu (1514–1587)
Tozen Soshin (1532–1602)
Yozan Keiyō (?–?)
Gudō Toshoku (1577–1661)
Shidō Bu'nan (1603–1676)
Shoju Rojin (Shoju Ronin, Dokyu Etan, 1642–1721)
Hakuin (1686-1768)
# Gasan Jitō 峨山慈棹 (1727–1797)
Inzan Ien 隱山惟琰 (1751–1814) Takujū Kosen 卓洲胡僊 (1760–1833)
Inzan lineage Takujū lineage
Rinzai school Rinzai school


Western Zen[edit]

Although it is difficult to trace when the West first became aware of Zen as a distinct form of Buddhism, the visit of Soyen Shaku, a Japanese Zen monk, to Chicago during the World Parliament of Religions in 1893 is often pointed to as an event that enhanced its profile in the Western world. It was during the late 1950s and the early 1960s that the number of Westerners, other than the descendants of Asian immigrants, pursuing a serious interest in Zen began to reach a significant level. Especially Japanese Zen has gained popularity in the West. Quintessential in this popularity were the books published by D.T. Suzuki.[48] The various books on Zen by Reginald Horace Blyth, and Alan Watts published between 1950 and 1975, contributed to this growing interest in Zen in the West, as did the interest from beat poets such as Jack Kerouac, Allen Ginsberg and Gary Snyder.[49][50]

The most successful implementation of Zen-practice was brought about by Shunryu Suzuki, Hakuun Yasutani, and Yasutani's student Taizan Maezumi.

Shunryu Suzuki[edit]

Main article: Shunryu Suzuki

Shunryu Suzuki (鈴木 俊隆 Suzuki Shunryū, dharma name Shōgaku Shunryū 祥岳俊隆, often called Suzuki Roshi) (born May 18, 1904, Kanagawa Prefecture of Japan; died December 4, 1971 in San Francisco, CA, USA) was a Sōtō Zen monk and teacher who helped popularize Zen Buddhism in the United States, and is renowned for founding the first Buddhist monastery outside Asia (Tassajara Zen Mountain Center). Suzuki founded San Francisco Zen Center, which along with its affiliate temples, comprises one of the most influential Zen organizations in the United States. A book of his teachings, Zen Mind, Beginner's Mind, is one of the most popular books on Zen and Buddhism in the West.[web 5][web 6][web 7]

Soto lineage
Soto school
Shunryu Suzuki (1904—1971)[51]
Richard Baker (born 1936) Hoitsu Suzuki (born 1939)
  1. Tenshin Reb Anderson (born 1943)
    1. Meiya Wender (?—present)
    2. Furyu Nancy Schroeder (?—present)
    3. Taigen Dan Leighton (born 1950)
    4. Kiku Christina Lehnherr (?—present)
    5. Myo Denis Lahey (born 1951)
    6. Setsuan Gaelyn Godwin (born 1951)
    7. Ananda Claude Dalenberg (☸ 1927—2008)
    8. Eijun Linda Cutts (?—present)
    9. Taiyo Lipscomb (?—present)
    10. Sobun Katherine Thanas (?—present)
    11. Kokyo Henkel (born 1966)
    12. Leslie James (?—present) lay entrsutment
    13. Paul Zengyu Discoe (?—present)
    14. Jakujo Gary McNabb (?—present)
    15. Chikudo Jerome Peterson (☸ 1928—2010)
  2. Ryuten Paul Rosenblum (?—present)
  3. Philip Whalen (☸ 1923—2002)
  4. Issan Dorsey (☸ 1933—1990)
  5. Chikai Yaku Jun (Harper Leah) (born 1946)
  1. Sojun Mel Weitsman (born 1929)
    1. Josho Pat Phelan (?—present)
    2. Mary Mocine (?—present)
    3. Myoan Grace Schireson (born 1946)
      1. Jane Myokaku Schneider (?—present)
      2. Myosho Baika Andrea Pratt (born 1960)
    4. Shinshu Roberts (?—present)
    5. Daijaku Judith Kinst (?—present)
    6. Soshin Teah Strozer (?—present)
    7. Chikudo Lew Richmond (?—present)
    8. Peter Yozen Schneider (?—present)
    9. Shosan Victoria Austin (?—present)
    10. Dairyu Michael Wenger (born 1947)
      1. Darlene Su Rei Cohen (☸ 1942—2011)
        1. Susan Ji-On Postal (?—present)
          1. Myozan Dennis Keegan (?—present)
        2. Horyu Ryotan Cynthia Kear (?—present)
        3. Sarita Tamayo-Moraga (?—present)
      2. Mark Lancaster (?—present)
      3. Marsha Angus (?—present) lay entrustment
      4. Barent (Last name?) (?—present) lay entrustment
      5. Jamie Howell (born 1945) lay entrustment
    11. Hozan Alan Senauke (born 1947)
    12. Maylie Scott (☸ 1935—2001)
    13. Fran Tribe (☸)
    14. Gil Fronsdal (born 1954)
    15. Edward Espe Brown (born 1945)
    16. Ryushin Paul Haller (born 1947)
    17. Myogen Steve Stucky (?—present)
    18. Steve Weintraub (?—present)
    19. Zoketsu Norman Fischer (born 1946)
      1. Do-An Robert Thomas (?—present)
      2. Shokan Jordan Thorn (?—present)
      3. Ingen Breen (?—present)
      4. Bruce Fortin (?—present)
      5. Arlene Lueck (?—present)
      6. Daigan Lueck (?—present)
      7. Shinko Rick Slone (?—present)
      8. Gloria Ann Lee (?—present)
      9. Myphon Hunt (?—present) retired
      10. Gyokujun Teishin Layla Smith (born 1946)
      11. Eihei Peter Levitt (?—present) lay entrustment
      12. Mick Sopko (?—present) lay entrustment
    20. Zenkei Blanche Hartman (?—present)
      1. Kosho McCall (born 1946)
      2. Seirin Barbara Kohn (?—present) retired
      3. Gengetsu Jana Drakka (born 1952)
      4. John Daniel King (☸ 1935—2001)
      5. Ryumon Hilda Guitierrez Baldoquin (?—present)
  2. Jakusho Kwong (born 1935)
  3. Keido Les Kaye (born 1923)
    1. Misha Shungen Merrill (?—present)
    2. Jean-Yves Leclerc (?—present)
    3. Om Devi Reynolds (?—present)
    4. Cornelia Junfu Shonkwiler (?—present)
    5. Etsudo Patty Krahl (?—present)
    6. Jintei Harold Little (?—present)
  4. Robby Ryuzen Pellett (born 1956)

Hakuun Yasutani[edit]

Main articles: Hakuun Yasutani and Sanbo Kyodan

Hakuun Yasutani (安谷 白雲 Yasutani Hakuun?, 1885–1973) was a Sōtō Rōshi, the founder of the Sanbo Kyodan Zen Buddhist organization. The Sanbõ Kyõdan incorporates Rinzai Kōan study as well as much of Soto tradition, a style Yasutani had learned from his teacher Harada Daiun Sogaku. As founder of the Sanbo Kyodan, and teacher of Taizan Maezumi, Yasutani has been one of the most influential persons in bringing Zen practice to the west. Although the membership of Sanbo Kyodan is small, 3,790 registered followers and 24 instructors in 1988,[52] "the Sanbõkyõdan has had an inordinate influence on Zen in the West".[52] His westerns students have spread out via Taizan Maezumi.

Soto lineage Rinzai lineage
Harada Sodo Kakusho (1844-1931)[web 8] Dokutan Sosan (a.k.a Dokutan Toyota) (1840-1917)[web 8] Rinzai lineage
Harada Daiun Sogaku (1871-1961)[web 8] Soto lineage Joko Roshi
[web 9][note 1]
Hakuun Yasutani[web 8] Hakuun Yasutani[web 8] Baian Hakujun Kuroda Koryu Osaka (1901-1985)
Brigitte Koun-an Doru Chiko Daishi D'Ortschy (1921-1990)[web 8] Akira Ji'un-ken Kubota(1932-) Myodo Ni Satomi (1896-1978) Philip Kapleau (1912-2004) Yamada Koun (1907-1989) Taizan Maezumi (1931-1995)
Willigis Jäger (b.1925)
  1. Bishop, Mitra (b. 1941)
  2. Henry, Michael Danan (b. 1939-)
  3. Gifford, Dane Zenson
  4. Graef, Sunyana (b. 1948)
  5. Kjolhede, Sonja Sunya Sensei
  6. Low, Albert (b. 1928)
  7. Sachter, Lawson David
  8. Toni Packer(b. 1927) (Independent)
  9. Clarke, Richard (1933-2013) (Independent)
  1. Yukiyoshi Zuiun-ken Adachi
  2. Reiko Houn-an Adachi
  3. Robert Chotan Gyoun Aitken
  4. Osamu Shoun-ken Ashida
  5. Fr. Niklaus Goun-ken Brantschen, SJ
  6. Uta Ryuun-an Dreisbach
  7. Sr. Ludwigis Koun-an Fabian, OSB
  8. Lourdes Mila Gyokuun-an Golez
  9. Ruben Keiun-ken Habito[web 10]
  10. Kodo Nyoun-ken Hasegawa
  11. Tetsuo Taiun-ken Hiyama
  12. Fr. Willigis Koun-ken Jaeger, OSB
  13. Akira Ji'un-ken Kubota
  14. Heidi Heki-un an Kern
  15. Johannes Houn-ken Kopp
  16. Victor Yuun-ken Loew
  17. Peter Choun-ken Lengsfeld
  18. David Tetsuun-ken Loy
  19. Sr. Elaine Koun-an MacInnes
  20. Gundula Zuiun-an Meyer
  21. Carmen Baika-an Monske
  22. Teizo Kaku'un-ken Nakamura
  23. Tsuneo Go'un-ken Oda
  24. Akira Soun-ken Onda
  25. Silvia Rin'un-an Ostertag
  26. Sonia Shuni-an Punzalan
  27. Kathleen Seiun-an Reiley
  28. Joan Jo-un Rieck
  29. Ama Genun-ken Samy
  30. Ana Maria Kiun-an Schlüter Rodes
  31. Shitetsu Shoun-ken Sendo
  32. Paul Choun-ken Shepherd
  33. Roselyn Seiun-an Stone
  34. Toshio Hekiun-ken Tonoike
  35. Shue Reiunken Usami
  36. Masamichi Ryoun-ken Yamada
  1. Alfred Jitsudo Ancheta
  2. Susan Myoyu Andersen-Palmer
  3. Jan Chozen Bays(b. 1945)
  4. Charlotte Joko Beck(1917-2011)
  5. Charles Tenshin Fletcher
  6. Tetsugen Bernard Glassman(b. 1939)
  7. John Daido Loori (1931-2009)
  8. Dennis Genpo Merzel (b. 1944)
  9. Nicolee Jikyo Miller-McMahon
  10. Louis Mitsunen Nordstrom (b. 1943)
  11. John Tesshin Sanderson
  12. Gerry Shishin Wick
  13. William Nyogen Yeo (b. 1936)

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Bernie Glassmann: "Koryu roshi’s school was called Shakyamuni Kai. The Shakyamuni Kai was formed by Koryu roshi’s teacher, a man named Joko roshi; Joko roshi was actually a priest and teacher in few different Buddhist traditions."[web 9] A group with a similar name was the Shakuson Shōfu Kai, or "Shakyamuni True Way Society", founded by Kōnen Shaku (1849-1924), a student of Soyen Shaku.[53]

References[edit]

Written references[edit]

  1. ^ McRae 2003, p. 4-5.
  2. ^ a b McRae 2003, p. 5.
  3. ^ Dumoulin 1993, p. 37.
  4. ^ Cole 2009, p. 73–114.
  5. ^ Yampolski 2003, p. 5-6.
  6. ^ a b c McRae 2003, p. 4.
  7. ^ Suzuki 1949, p. 168.
  8. ^ Cook 2003.
  9. ^ Diener 1991, p. 266.
  10. ^ McRae 2003, pp. 33–36.
  11. ^ McRae 2003, p. 48.
  12. ^ 禅宗研究一百年
  13. ^ a b c d e McRae 2003.
  14. ^ Yampolski 2003-A, p. 9.
  15. ^ MacRae 2003, p. 63.
  16. ^ Poceski 2007.
  17. ^ Poceski 2007, p. 97–98.
  18. ^ McRae 2003, p. 82.
  19. ^ Schuhmacher and Woerner (editors) 1991, p. 141.
  20. ^ McRae 2003, p. 18-21.
  21. ^ Yampolski 2003-A, p. 11.
  22. ^ Cleary 2005.
  23. ^ Yampolski 2003-A.
  24. ^ a b c d e f g h i Welter year unknown-B.
  25. ^ Jones 2010.
  26. ^ a b Ferguson 2011, p. 126–127.
  27. ^ Koole 1997, p. 207.
  28. ^ McRae 2003, p. 13.
  29. ^ Dumoulin 2005-A, p. 169.
  30. ^ Welter 2006, p. 90.
  31. ^ a b c Young 2009.
  32. ^ a b Schlütter 2008.
  33. ^ a b Ferguson 2009, p. 223.
  34. ^ a b Ferguson 2009, p. 273.
  35. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Cleary 1990.
  36. ^ a b Ferguson 2009, p. 313.
  37. ^ a b Ferguson 2009, p. 335.
  38. ^ a b Ferguson 2009, p. 359.
  39. ^ Schlütter 2008, p. 80.
  40. ^ a b Ferguson 2009, p. 386.
  41. ^ a b c d e Bodiford 1991, p. 428.
  42. ^ Schlütter 2008, p. 79.
  43. ^ a b Ferguson 2011, p. 454.
  44. ^ Bodiford 2008, p. 270-271.
  45. ^ Bodiford 1991, p. 426.
  46. ^ Bodiford 1991, p. 426-427.
  47. ^ Bodiford 1991, p. 427.
  48. ^ McMahan 2008.
  49. ^ Aitken 1994.
  50. ^ Fields 1992.
  51. ^ Sweeping Zen, "Shunryu Suzuki lineage"
  52. ^ a b Sharf 1993.
  53. ^ Morrow 2008, p. 2.

Web-references[edit]

Sources[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • McRae, John (2003), Seeing Through Zen. Encounter, Transformation, and Genealogy in Chinese Chan Buddhism, The University Press Group Ltd, ISBN 978-0-520-23798-8 
  • Ferguson, Andy (2011) [13th century], Wudeng Huiyuan (Compendium of Five Lamps) [Zen's Chinese Heritage. The Masters and their Teachings], Wisdom publications 

External links[edit]