A zero-player game is a game that has no sentient players.
Conway's Game of Life, a cellular automaton devised in 1970 by the British mathematician John Horton Conway, is considered a zero-player game because its evolution is determined by its initial state, requiring no further input from humans. In addition, some fighting and real-time strategy games can be put into zero-player mode by placing one AI against another.
Zero player games can be divided in four categories:
The evolution of this kind of game is determined by its initial state, requiring no further input. Conway's Game of Life is a setup-only game. Programming games are a subgroup of setup-only games where people create AI players that compete against each other in the actual games.
Games played by AI
In these games, the role of the player is taken by a computer. In single-player games, humans can play against computers; in zero-player games, computers play against other computers.
In games such as Nim, we can pre-determine which player will win if both plays perfectly. The game is only about examining the board, so the need for players is eliminated. In checkers perfect play always leads to draw.
Proposed but non-implemented games described to examine a question, or actually existing games that are for practical purposes unplayable.
- "Encyclopedia of Play in Today's Society", Rodney P. Carlisle, SAGE Publications.
- Martin Gardner (October 1970), "Mathematical games: The fantastic combinations of John Conway's new solitaire game 'Life'", Scientific American
- Ljiljana Petruševski, Mirjana Devetaković, Bojan Mitrović, Self-Replicating Systems in Spatial Form Generation - The Concept of Cellular Automata
- Zero-Player Games
- Computers Solve Checkers—It's a Draw
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