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The zhaijiao (Chinese: 齋教; pinyin: Zhāijiāo; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Tsai-kàu) also known as Lay Buddhism are informal Buddhist societies that became extremely popular in Taiwan under Japanese rule, albeit prominent throughout the Qing dynasty.[1][2][3] They were linked to the Ch'an, Luojiao or Way of Former Heaven movement and taught the Triple Gem of Buddhism as well as vegetarianism, but without monks or nuns.[4] Many have converted to Buddhist traditions from Jiangsu and Zhejiang.[5]

In the 1890s, a Zhaijiao group assumed the functions of government in Gutian County, leading to the Kucheng Massacre.[6]


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