The zhaijiao (Chinese: 齋教; pinyin: Zhāijiāo; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Tsai-kàu) also known as Lay Buddhism are informal Buddhist societies that became extremely popular in Taiwan under Japanese rule, albeit prominent throughout the Qing dynasty. They were linked to the Ch'an, Luojiao or Way of Former Heaven movement and taught the Triple Gem of Buddhism as well as vegetarianism, but without monks or nuns. Many have converted to Buddhist traditions from Jiangsu and Zhejiang.
- Charles Brewer Jones. BUDDHISM IN TAIWAN: A HISTORICAL SURVEY
- Philip Clart, Charles Brewer Jones. Religion in modern Taiwan . pp.16-18.
- Kimihiko Sato. "The Ku-t'ien Anti-missionary Incident (1895) : Vegetarian Sect, the shadow of Sino-Japanese War, and the conversion of the missionary diplomacy of the UK and U.S."
- 胎中 千鶴. 日本統治期台湾の斎教に関する一視点. 2000.
- 在家佛教: 台灣彰化朝天堂所傳的龍華派齋教. 1994.