Zhang surname in regular script
|Pronunciation||IPA: /tʂɑŋ˥/ (Mandarin IPA)
|Language(s)||Chinese, Vietnamese, Korean|
|Derivation||State of Zhang|
|Meaning||drawing a bow,
|Variant(s)||Chang, Zhang (Mandarin)
Teo, Teoh (Hokkien, Teochew)
Trương, Trang (Vietnamese)
Jang, Chang (장) (Korean)
It is also the pinyin romanization of the less-common surname 章 (also Zhāng).
張 was listed 24th in the famous Song-era Hundred Family Surnames. Today, it is one of the most common surnames in the world and 张 was listed by the People's Republic of China's National Citizen ID Information System as the third-most-common surname in mainland China in April 2007, with 87.50 million bearers. A commonly cited but erroneous factoid in the 1990 Guinness Book of Records listed it as the world's most common surname, but no comprehensive information from China was available at the time and more recent editions have not repeated the claim.
張 (张) and 章 are also commonly romanized as Chang on Taiwan and among the Chinese diaspora using the older Wade-Giles system. Both are also romanized as Cheung in Cantonese; Teo and Teoh in Teochew; Chong in Hakka; Tsan and Tsaon among Wu languages like Shanghainese; Tong in Gan; and Tiong, Tjong in East Malaysia and the Philippines; and Sutiono or Thiono in Indonesia.
As mentioned above, 张 is the third-most-common surname in mainland China, making up 6.83% of the population of the People's Republic of China. On Taiwan, 張 is the fourth-most-common surname, making up 5.26% of the population of the Republic of China. 章 was unlisted among the top 100 in either location.
Among the Chinese diaspora, the name remains common but takes on various romanizations. "Chong" is the 19th-most-common surname among Chinese Singaporeans; "Chang" is the 6th-most-common surname among Chinese Americans; and "Zhang" was the 7th-most-common particularly Chinese surname (i.e., excluding ethnically diverse surnames such as "Lee") found in a 2010 survey of Ontario's Registered Persons Database of Canadian health card recipients.
張 combines the Chinese characters 弓 (gōng, "bow") and 長 (simp. 长, cháng, "long" or "wide"). It originally meant "to open up" or "to spread" as an arching bow, but as a common noun in modern use it is a measure word for flat objects such as paper and cloth, like the English "sheet of".
章 combines the characters 音 (yin, "sound", "(musical) note") and 十 (shi, "ten"). It originally meant "brilliant", "to display", "a distinctive mark" and was used as the name of a fief, but as a common noun in modern use it means an "article" in a newspaper or magazine or a "chapter" in a book or law.
The traditional origin of the surname 張 (Old Chinese: *C. traŋ) is rooted in Chinese legend. The fifth son of the Yellow Emperor, Qing Yangshi (青阳氏, Qīng Yángshì), had a son Hui (挥, Huī) who was inspired by the Heavenly Bow constellation (天弓星, Tiān Gōng Xīng) to invent the bow and arrow. Hui was then promoted to "First Bow" (弓正, Gōng Zhèng) and bestowed the surname 張, which – when broken into its constituent radicals – means "widening bow" or "archer". Its Middle Chinese pronunciation has been reconstructed as Trjang.
The surname 章 (Old Chinese: *taŋ) originated from the legendary Yan Emperor, whose personal surname was Jiang (姜). On the establishment of the state of Qi, Jiang Ziya apportioned the land among his many descendants, including a one known as Zhang (鄣国). Some of the people of this state took 章 as their surname, particularly after it was annexed by Qi. The Middle Chinese pronunciation of the name was Tsyang, the beginnings of what we now know to be the "Zhang" surname.
List of persons with the surname
張 / 张
- Historical Figure
- Zhang Yi (died 309 BC), strategist in the Warring States period.
- Zhang Liang (died 186 BC), adviser to Liu Bang (founding emperor of the Han dynasty).
- Zhang Rang (died 189), Head of the Ten Regular Attendant in the late Han Dynasty
- Zhang Fei (died 221), general of Shu Han in the Three Kingdoms period.
- Zhang Hong (153–212),", Official of Sun Quan in the Late Han Dynasty.
- Zhang Yi (died 230), general of Shu Han in the Three Kingdoms period.
- Empress Zhang (died 237), Empress of Shu Han in the Three Kingdoms period.
- Zhang He (died 231), general of Cao Wei in the Three Kingdoms period.
- Zhang Liao (169–222),", general of Cao Wei in the Three Kingdoms period.
- Zhang Zhao (156–238),", Minister of Eastern Wu in the Three Kingdoms period.
- Zhang Cheng (178–244),", general and Politician of Eastern Wu in the Three Kingdoms period.
- Zhang Chunhua (died 247),", wife of of Cao Wei General and Politician Sima Yi
- Zhang Ni (died 254), general of Shu Han in the Three Kingdoms period
- Zhang Yi (died 264), general of Shu Han in the Three Kingdoms period
- Zhang Bu (died 264), general of Eastern Wu in the Three Kingdoms period
- Zhang Hua (232–300), Western Jin dynasty official and poet.
- Zhang Yue (663–730), Tang dynasty chancellor and poet.
- Zhang Jiuling (673–740), Tang dynasty chancellor and poet.
- Zhang Jun (1086–1154), General of the Song Dynasty
- Zhang Hongfan (1238–1280), Yuan dynasty general
- Zhang Juzheng (1525–1582), Ming dynasty statesman.
- Tiong Hiew King (born 1935), Chinese Malaysian businessman.
- Tiong King Sing, Chinese Malaysian politician.
- Zhang Binglin (1868–1936), Chinese philologist, textual critic, and anti-Manchu revolutionary.
- Zhang Zhong (born 1978), Chinese chess grandmaster who now plays for Singapore.
- Zhang Ziyi (born 1979), Chinese actress and model.
||Constructs such as ibid., loc. cit. and idem are discouraged by Wikipedia's style guide for footnotes, as they are easily broken. Please improve this article by replacing them with named references (quick guide), or an abbreviated title. (April 2012)|
- Baxter, Wm. H. & Sagart, Laurent. PDF (1.93 MB), p. 143. 2011. Accessed 11 October 2011.
- Xinhua. "公安部统计分析显示：王姓成为我国第一大姓." (Chinese)
- People's Daily. "Chinese Surname Shortage Sparks Rethink."
- McFarlan, Donald. 1990 Guinness Book of World Records. Sterling Pub. Co., 2001. ISBN 189205101X.
- "公安部统计：'王'成中国第一大姓 有9288万人 [Public Security Bureau Statistics: 'Wang' Found China's #1 'Big Family', Includes 92.88m People]." 24 Apr 2007. Accessed 27 Mar 2012.(Chinese)
- Op. cit. 中华百家姓-千字文-国学经典-文化经典. "中国台湾姓氏排行 [Taiwan (China) Surname Ranking]". 8 Jun 2010. Accessed 1 Apr 2012. (Chinese)
- Statistics Singapore. "Popular Chinese Surnames in Singapore".
- Shah, B. R.; Chiu, M.; Amin, S.; Ramani, M.; Sadry, S.; Tu, J. V. (2010). "Surname lists to identify South Asian and Chinese ethnicity from secondary data in Ontario, Canada: A validation study". BMC Medical Research Methodology 10: 42. doi:10.1186/1471-2288-10-42. PMC 2877682. PMID 20470433.
- Baxter, Wm. H. & Sagart, Laurent. PDF (1.93 MB), p. 162. 2011. Accessed 11 October 2011.
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