Zhang Baixi

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This is a Chinese name; the family name is Zhang.
Zhan Baixi
Zhan Baixi.jpg
Zhang in official robes
Minister of Post
In office
Preceded by -
Succeeded by Lin Shaonian
Personal details
Born 1847
Died March 30, 1907
Occupation Politician

Zhang Baixi (simplified Chinese: 张百熙; traditional Chinese: 張百熙; pinyin: Zhāng Bǎixī; Courtesy Yěqiū (埜秋); Posthumous name: Wéndá (文達)) (1847 — March 30, 1907) was a Chinese politician during the late Qing Dynasty who is known for initializing the education reform. He was considered to be the "father of university" in China.[1] Both the Peking University and the Beijing Normal University respect him as a founder and president.

Zhang Baixi was born in Changsha County of Hunan province. In 1874, he earned a Jinshi degree and was elevated to the Hanlin Academy. As high administrator for many years, Zhang Baixi advocated profound political, economical and educational reforms. After the Boxer Rebellion, Zhang proposed to reopen the Imperial Capital University (京師大學堂, former Peking University) founded in 1898. In 1902, Zhang drafted the "Authorized School Regulation" (《欽定學堂章程》, alternatively called Ren-Yin Educational system (壬寅學制)) which was later promulgated by Qing government. In 1904, Zhang participated establishment of the "Presented School Regulation" (《奏定學堂章程》, or called "Gui-Mao Educational System" (癸卯學制)), which was the first modern Chinese educational system in history. Zhang died in Beijing in 1907.


  1. ^ "《辰子说林》". 《大学当年》:直至庚子拳乱以后,张百熙以西安奏对为西后所喜,被命为管学大臣,始一意于大学之经营。此时为大学全盛时代,著名幽默家于晦若任总办、桐城大师吴汝纶任总教习,颇能集中人才,总其事者实为百熙,当时多呼百熙为“大学之父”也。
  • (English) Xiaoqing Diana Lin. (SUNY series in Chinese Philosophy and Culture) Peking University, Chinese Scholarship and Intellectuals, 1898-1937. ISBN 0-7914-6321-4; ISBN 978-0-7914-6321-5
  • Draft History of Qing
Government offices
Preceded by
Sun Jianai
Ministry of Personnel
Succeeded by
Lu Chuanlin
Preceded by
Zhao Erxun
Ministry of Revenue
Succeeded by
Preceded by
Ministry of Post
Succeeded by
Lu Chuanlin