Zhang Xianzhong

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Zhang Xianzhong
Ruler of Daxi
Reign 1644 - 1646
Successor Sun Kewang (孫可望)
Full name
Family name: Zhang (张)
Given name: Xianzhong (献忠)
Era dates
Dashun (大順): 1644-1646
Posthumous name
Emperor Gao
高皇帝
Temple name
Xi Taizu
西太祖
Dynasty Xi (西)
Born (1606-09-18)18 September 1606
Died 2 January 1647(1647-01-02) (aged 40)
This is a Chinese name; the family name is Zhang.
Zhang Xianzhong
Traditional Chinese 張獻忠
Simplified Chinese 张献忠

Zhang Xianzhong or Chang Hsien-chung (September 18, 1606 – January 2, 1647), nicknamed Yellow Tiger, was a leader of a peasant revolt from Yan'an, Shaanxi Province and he later conquered Sichuan in the 17th century. His rule in Sichuan was brief and he was killed by the invading Manchu army. He is commonly associated with the massacres in Sichuan which depopulated the region,[1][2][3] however the extent of his killings is disputed.[4]

Biography[edit]

Background[edit]

Zhang was born in Dingbian, Shaanxi province, China, into a poor family. He was described as tall in stature, had a yellow complexion and a heavy chin ("tiger chin" (虎颔) in Chinese figurative description), and hence was given the nickname "Yellow Tiger".[5][6] He served in the Ming army, and while in the army he was sentenced to death for violations of military rules, but was reprieved after an intervention by a senior officer who was impressed by his appearance.

As rebel leader[edit]

Towards the end the Ming Dynasty, drought, famines and epidemics broke out in various part of China. In the late 1620s, peasants revolted in Shaanxi, resisting attempts by the Ming government to collect grains and taxes. They coalesced into rebel armies called "roving bandit" (流寇) because of their highly mobile nature, and spread into other parts of China.[7] Zhang escaped from the army, joined the rebel forces in Mizhi County in 1630, and established himself as a rebel leader, styling himself Bada Wang (八大王, Eighth Great King). His mobile forces would conduct raids along the western edge of Shaanxi, plundering swiftly and hiding out in the hills. Later he moved into other provinces, moving from place to place raiding towns and cities. He was defeated at various time by the Ming forces; Zhang would also surrender when it was expedient for him to do so, for example in 1631 and 1638, but would then later regroup and resume rebellion.[5][8][9]

In 1635 he joined a larger confederation of bandits that included another rebel leader Li Zicheng (Li would later capture Beijing and end the Ming Dynasty). They devastated Henan and pushed into Anhui. After they had burnt the Ming ancestral temple at Zhongdu (Fengyang) in Anhui and ravaged the area, the rebel armies broke up and Zhang headed to Hubei.[10] In 1637, joined by other rebels and with an army now reaching a size of 300,000 men, he again pushed into Anhui, then to Jiangsu, and almost down to Nanjing. But he was defeated there and he retreated back to Hubei. In 1638, he surrendered to Ming supreme commander Xiong Wencan (熊文燦), and was allowed to serve as a regional Ming commander.[11] However, he reneged on the agreement in 1639 and rebelled, and later defeated the Ming forces led by the Ming general Zuo Liangyu (左良玉). In 1640, he suffered defeats at the hand of Zuo and had to flee with few followers into the mountains of Eastern Sichuan.[10][12] In 1641 he emerged from Sichuan and attacked Xiangyang, capturing and executing the imperial prince there.[11]

In 1643, he took Macheng in Hubei, and his army swelled to some 57,000 after incorporating the city's rebels.[13] He then captured the provincial capital of Wuchang, killed the imperial prince there, and proclaimed himself "Xi Wang" (King of the West). Wuchang however was soon recaptured by Ming forces, and for a while Zhang stayed at Changsha where he controlled much of Hunan and part of Jiangxi.[14]

Conquest of Sichuan[edit]

In 1644, Zhang decided to abandon Hunan and led his 100,000 of his troops towards Sichuan. His army converged on Chongqing in two directions, and surrounded the city. After several days of fighting, his army managed to blast a hole through the city wall, and captured the city in July 25, 1644.[14] He was said to have cut off the hands of the city's defenders and massacred a large number of people.[8]

The conquest of much of the rest of Sichuan was made easier after he announced to the locals that they would not be harmed if they seize their officials, take possession of the storehouse and surrender without resistance.[8] He took Chengdu in September 9, 1644, and met no real opposition in the rest of Sichuan afterwards. He then set up court in Chengdu, which he renamed Xijing (西京, Western Capital), and declared himself king of the Daxi Dynasty (大西王朝, Great Western Dynasty).[5]

Rule in Sichuan[edit]

In Sichuan he attempted to set up a civil administration and initially gained considerable support. According to an account by Gabriel de Magalhães, a Portuguese Jesuit who was working in Sichuan with another Jesuit Lodovico Buglio (but both pressed to serve as astronomers to Zhang),[15] "he began his rule with such liberality, justice and magnificence by which he captivated all hearts that many mandarins, famous both in civic as in military affairs whom fear was keeping concealed, left their hideouts and flew to his side."[14]

However, resistance to his rule did not cease, and Chongqing was retaken by Ming loyalists in the spring of 1645. Zhang then embarked on a campaign of terror, which was well under way by the middle of 1645, to stamp out the remaining resistance in Sichuan.[14] In November 1645, according to de Magalhães, Zhang, after hearing that "a huge and powerful army was coming against him", announced that "the people of his kingdom had a secret pact with the enemy and planned an uprising; because of this he was determined to kill all, leaving not one person alive". The Jesuits, who now "understood the evil of this man", reported that while they managed to save a few of their people who were taken, the rest were killed.[16] Zhang's policy of terror increased in intensity, especially in 1646 after he had decided to abandon Sichuan. By then, Zhang's government had virtually disintegrated, all but three of his principal officials had either committed suicide or were executed.[14]

Death[edit]

The Manchus invaded China after the fall of the Ming Dynasty in 1644, and established the Qing Dynasty. In 1646 they sent out a force under the leadership of Haoge intending to attack Zhang's domain in Sichuan. In October 1646, Zhang decided to abandon Sichuan, and headed towards his homeland in Shaanxi. However, the Qing army was also approaching from Shaanxi, and in January 1647, Zhang and the Qing forces met in Xichong where Zhang had set up camp, and he was killed in the confrontation.[17] According to one account, he was betrayed by one of his officers, a native of Sichuan named Liu Chin-chung (Liu Jinzhong) who resented his policy of terror in Sichuan. He pointed Zhang out to the Manchus when Zhang rushed out from his tent on learning of the betrayal, and he was then shot and killed by a skilled Manchu archer.[18][19]

The devastation of Sichuan[edit]

The events surrounding Zhang Xianzhong's rule and afterwards devastated Sichuan, where he was said to have "engaged in one of the most hair-raising genocides in imperial history".[20] Lurid stories of his killings and flayings were given in various accounts. According to Shu Bi (蜀碧), an 18th-century account of the massacre, after every slaughter, the heads were collected and placed in several big piles, while the hands were placed in other big piles, and the ears and noses in more piles, so that Zhang Xianzhong can keep count of his killings.[21] In one incident, he was said to have organized an imperial examination ostensibly to recruit scholars for his administration, only to have all the candidates which numbered many thousands killed.[22] In another, to give thanks for his recovery after an illness, he was said to have cut off the feet of many women. The severed feet were heaped in two piles with those of his favorite concubine, whose feet were unusually small, placed on top, and these two piles of feet were then doused in oil and set alight to be what he called "heavenly candles".[18]

He was also reported to have ordered further massacres before he abandoned Chengdu in advance of the invading Manchus.[17] The massacres, a subsequent famine and epidemic, as well as people fleeing from the turmoil and the invasion of the Manchus, resulted in the depopulation of Sichuan.

The Seven Kill Stele[edit]

A popular account of his life has it that he erected in Chengdu a stele, which came to be known as the Seven Kill Stele (七殺碑), with the following inscription:[23][24][25]

天生萬物以養人
人無一善以報天
殺殺殺殺殺殺殺
Heaven brings forth innumerable things to nurture man.
Man has nothing good with which to recompense Heaven.
Kill. Kill. Kill. Kill. Kill. Kill. Kill.

There are however considerable doubts that this account is accurate. In 1934, a stele thought to be this very one was found by a missionary (its reverse side contains an added inscription by a Ming general commemorating Zhang's numerous victims whose bones he had collected and buried in 1646).[26][27] However, while the first two lines of the poem on the stele are similar, the line with the seven kills is absent in this stele, instead the actual line reads: "The spirits and gods are knowing, so reflect on this and examine yourselves" (鬼神明明,自思自量).[26][28] Many therefore considered the story to be a distortion from the Qing era.[4][23][29]

Deaths[edit]

The actual number of people killed by Zhang is not known and is disputed. Official Ming Dynasty history Ming Shi recorded a figure of 600 million deaths due to Zhang's activities, an exaggeration since the total population of China at that time was less than 150 million, perhaps much lower.[30][31] One historian wrote "The death toll is reputed to have been enormous, possibly one million out of a total provincial population of three million, before he was eventually killed by the Manchus."[32] The combination of deaths from the massacres and other causes as well as flight of people from the province resulted in a sharp drop in the population of Sichuan. The population was estimated to have dropped by as much as 75%, with fewer than a million people left in Sichuan, most of whom were clustered in the periphery areas.[33] The last Ming census figure for Sichuan in 1578 (more than 60 years before Zhang entered Sichuan) gave a population of 3,102,073. However, by 1661, only 16,096 adult males were registered in Sichuan, and Chengdu was said to have become a virtual ghost town frequented by tigers.[34] A later figure for Sichuan was from the 1720s, which is over 70 years after Zhang's death and long after the resettlement of Sichuan had begun, and it recorded 634,802 househoulds (which one estimate calculated to be around 2.5 million individuals).[14]

Many, while acknowledging the massacres committed, do not believe that Zhang was responsible for the greater part of the population collapse in Sichuan, and thought that the greatest loss happened after his death due to the continuing turmoil, famine and diseases.[14][17] Some argued that while a great many died, Sichuan did not become virtually depopulated as recorded.[14] Some modern Chinese historians considered him a proto-revolutionary,[18] maintaining that accounts of the massacres were exaggerated, or were committed by others including the invading Manchus, and that his heinous reputation was the result of "Qing slanders" and "reactionary propaganda".[4][35][36]

Aftermath[edit]

Before he had abandoned Sichuan, Zhang divided his forces into four divisions, each led by one of his four generals (Li Dingguo, Sun Kewang, Liu Wenxiu, Ai Nengqi). These remnants of the his army, as well as Ming loyalists, held out in Sichuan, Yunnan, and Guizhou after Zhang's death, and most of Sichuan did not come under control of the Manchus until a dozen years or so later, and fighting only finally ended in eastern Sichuan in 1664.[17]

Resettlement of Sichuan[edit]

In order to fill up the depopulated regions of Sichuan, a massive resettlement program was initiated, starting around 1670 and 1671 and lasted more than two centuries during the Qing Dynasty, whereby millions of people from Hubei, Fujian, Jiangxi, Guangdong, Shaanxi and other provinces were resettled in Sichuan.[34][37] A large number of the migrants came from Huguang (now Hubei/Hunan), and the migration was therefore described by 19th century scholar Wei Yuan as "Huguang fill Sichuan" (湖廣填四川), and this migration in turn triggered another massive resettlement: "Jiangxi fill Huguang" (江西填湖廣). By the 1720s, 70-80% of the population of Sichuan was reportedly non-native, and as much as 85% a century later.[33][38]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Skeletons of massacre victims uncovered at construction site". Shanghai Star. 2002-04-11. 
  2. ^ ""张献忠屠四川"非造假 成都曾挖出万人枯骨坑 ("Zhang Xianzhong's massacre of Sichuan" not fabricated, ten thousand human bones in pit excavated in Chengdu.)" (in Chinese). sc.people.com.cn. 2010-04-08. 
  3. ^ "中国史上杀人的魔头祖宗:张献忠暴行录 (The demonic ancestry of killings in Chinese history: The savage records of Zhang Xianzhong.)" (in Chinese). 2009-01-05. 
  4. ^ a b c Hu Zhaoxi (胡昭曦) (1979). 张献忠屠蜀考辩 (A study of Zhang Xianzhong's alleged massacres in Sichuan). 
  5. ^ a b c "Chang Hsien-chung". Eminent Chinese of the Ch'ing Period. Qing Research Portal, Dartmouth College. 
  6. ^ Ming shi Original text: 献忠黄面长身虎颔,人号黄虎。
  7. ^ Cho-Yun Hsu (2006). Rivers in Time: A Cultural History of China. Columbia University Press. p. 383. ISBN 978-0-231-15921-0. 
  8. ^ a b c Kim Hunter Gordon, Jesse Watson (2011). Chongqing & The Three Gorges. pp. 60–61. ISBN 978-7-5022-5215-1. 
  9. ^ Roger Des Forges (2003). Cultural Centrality and Political Change in Chinese History: Northeast Henan in the Fall of the Ming. Stanford University Press. p. 59. ISBN 0804740445. 
  10. ^ a b Marvin C. Whiting (2002). Imperial Chinese Military History: 8000 Bc - 1912 Ad. Writers Club Press. pp. 457–462. ISBN 0-595-22134-3. 
  11. ^ a b William Atwell (1988). Frederick W. Mote, Dennis Twitchett, ed. The Cambridge History of China. Volume 7: The Ming Dynasty, 1368-1644, Part 1. pp. 630–631. ISBN 978-0521243322. 
  12. ^ Peter Lorge (2005). War, Politics and Society in Early Modern China, 900-1795. Routledge. p. 145. ISBN 0-415-31690-1. 
  13. ^ Rowe, William T. (2006). Crimson Rain: Seven Centuries of Violence in a Chinese County. Stanford University Press. pp. 139–140. ISBN 978-0804754965. 
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h James B. Parsons (1957). "The Culmination of a Chinese Peasant Rebellion: Chang Hsien-chung in Szechwan, 1644-46". The Journal of Asian Studies 16 (3): 387–400. doi:10.2307/2941233. 
  15. ^ Liam Matthew Brokey (2007). Journey to the East: The Jesuit Mission to China, 1579–1724. Harvard University Press. p. 110. ISBN 978-0-674-03036-7. 
  16. ^ "Biography of Fernandes Cai, António (1620-1670)". The Ricci Roundtable. 
  17. ^ a b c d Yingcong Dai (2009). The Sichuan Frontier and Tibet: Imperial Strategy in the Early Qing. University of Washington Press. pp. 16–22. ISBN 978-0-295-98952-5. 
  18. ^ a b c Kim Hunter Gordon, Jesse Watson (2011). Chongqing & The Three Gorges. p. 61. ISBN 978-7-5022-5215-1. 
  19. ^ Parsons 1957, p. 399.
  20. ^ Rowe, William T. (2006). Crimson Rain: Seven Centuries of Violence in a Chinese County. Stanford University Press. p. 141. ISBN 978-0804754965. 
  21. ^ Shu Bi Original text: 賊每屠一方,標記所殺人數,儲竹園中。人頭幾大堆,人手掌幾大堆,人耳鼻幾大堆。所過處皆有記。
  22. ^ Yuri Pines (2012). The Everlasting Empire: The Political Culture of Ancient China and Its Imperial Legacy. Princeton University Press. p. 157. ISBN 0691134952. 
  23. ^ a b 降大任 (2010). 中國現代化的癥結 (The Problems of Modernization in China. p. 44. ISBN 9789862216378. 
  24. ^ Vincent Yu-Chung Shih, Yu-chung Shih (1967). The Taiping Ideology: Its Sources, Interpretations, and Influences. University of Washington Press. ISBN 0-295-95243-1. 
  25. ^ R.J. Rummel (1994). "Chapter 3: Pre-20th Century Genocide". Death by Government. Transaction Publisher. ISBN 1-56000-927-6. 
  26. ^ a b V H Donnithorne. "Chang Hsien-Chong and the Dark Age". The West China Missionary News XL (7-8): 229–243. 
  27. ^ S.C Yang (1935). The Revolution in Szechwan 1911-1912. Canadian Mission Press. pp. 20–22. 
  28. ^ The inscription reads: 天有萬物與人,人無一物與天。 鬼神明明,自思自量。 On its reverse are inscriptions by Yang Zhan (楊展) titled Ten-thousand-men Tomb (萬人墳), and described his distress at the sight of the remains of the massacre, so he had them collected and buried.
  29. ^ "Qing Dynasty: Part I". 
  30. ^ Ming shi Original text: 将卒以杀人多少叙功次,共杀男女六万万有奇。
  31. ^ Dillon, Michael (1998). China: A Cultural and Historical Dictionary. Routledge. pp. 41–42. ISBN 978-0700704392. 
  32. ^ Dillon, Michael (1998). China: A Cultural and Historical Dictionary. Routledge. p. 379. ISBN 978-0700704392.  from J.B. Parsons, The Peasant Rebellions of the Late Ming Dynasty (University of Arizona Press). 1970
  33. ^ a b William T. Rove (2002). Willard J. Peterson, ed. The Cambridge History of China. 9: The Ch'ing Dynasty, Part 1: To 1800. pp. 481–482. ISBN 0-521-24334-3. 
  34. ^ a b Yingcong Dai (2009). The Sichuan Frontier and Tibet: Imperial Strategy in the Early Qing. University of Washington Press. pp. 22–27. ISBN 978-0-295-98952-5. 
  35. ^ R. V. Des Forges (1982). "Book Reviews—Zhongguo nongmin zhanzheng shi yanjiu [Research on the history of Chinese peasant wars]. Shanghai Renmin Chuban She, 1979". The journal of Asian studies 41: 350–352. In a major research essay, Hu Zhaoxi disputes the common view that Zhang Xianzhong depopulated Sichuan. Many accounts exaggerated the number killed, created a nonexistent massacre, doctored the famous stele of "seven kills", ignored that most of Zhang's victims were Ming nobles, rich landlords, and other "counter-revolutionary" elements, and obscured that Zhang was in the province only three years while South Ming, Qing, and Wu Sangui's armies ravaged the area for twenty-four. 
  36. ^ Robert Eric Entenmann (1982). Migration and settlement in Sichuan, 1644-1796. Harvard University. p. 35. 
  37. ^ Bingdi He (1959). Studies on the Population of China, 1368-1953, Volume 4. Harvard University Press. pp. 139–141. ISBN 0-674-85245-1. 
  38. ^ William T. Rowe (2009). China's Last Empire: The Great Qing. p. 92. ISBN 978-0-674-03612-3. 

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External links[edit]