Zhanjiang

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This article is about the former French leased territory. For the fort in Washington, D.C., see Fort Bayard (Washington, D.C.).
Zhanjiang
湛江市
Prefecture-level city
Zhanjiang Bay Bridge
Zhanjiang Bay Bridge
Nickname(s): Harbour City (港城)
Guangdong subdivisions - Zhanjiang.svg
Zhanjiang is located in China
Zhanjiang
Zhanjiang
Location in China
Coordinates: 21°12′N 110°24′E / 21.200°N 110.400°E / 21.200; 110.400Coordinates: 21°12′N 110°24′E / 21.200°N 110.400°E / 21.200; 110.400
Country People's Republic of China
Province Guangdong
Municipal seat Chikan District
Government
 • CPC Party Chief Liu Xiaohua (刘小华)
Area
 • Prefecture-level city 12,490 km2 (4,820 sq mi)
 • Urban 1,360 km2 (530 sq mi)
 • Metro 1,360 km2 (530 sq mi)
Elevation 21 m (69 ft)
Population (2010 census)
 • Prefecture-level city 6,994,832
 • Density 560/km2 (1,500/sq mi)
 • Urban 1,611,868
 • Urban density 1,200/km2 (3,100/sq mi)
 • Metro 1,611,868
 • Metro density 1,200/km2 (3,100/sq mi)
Time zone China Standard (UTC+8)
Postal code 524000
Area code(s) 759
Major Nationalities Han
County-level divisions 9
License Plate Prefix G
GDP 2010
 - Total CNY 140.28 billion
 - per capita CNY 20,048
Website www.zhanjiang.gov.cn
Zhanjiang
Chinese name
Chinese 湛江
Cantonese Jyutping zaam3gong1
Cantonese Yale Jaamgōng
Hanyu Pinyin Zhànjiāng
Postal Map Tsamkong
Literal meaning azure river
Alternative Chinese name
Traditional Chinese 廣州灣
Simplified Chinese 广州湾
Cantonese Jyutping Gwong2 zau1 waan1
Cantonese Yale Gwóngjāuwāan
Hanyu Pinyin Guǎngzhōuwān
French name
French Fort-Bayard

Zhanjiang (Chinese: 湛江; pinyin: Zhànjiāng; French: Fort-Bayard), is a prefecture-level city at the southwestern end of Guangdong province, People's Republic of China, facing Hainan to the south.

Its population was 6,994,832 inhabitants at the 2010 census. 1,611,868 live in the built-up area made of four urban districts: Chikan, Xiashan, Potou and Mazhang.

History[edit]

During the Qin Dynasty (221–206 BC), the area belonged to Xiang Shire. The central government of the Han Dynasty (206 BC−220 AD) set Xuwen County administering the whole Leizhou Peninsula. It was one of the earliest departure points on the Marine Silk Road. The population spiked during the Tang (618–907) and Song (960–1279) dynasties.

French colonial period[edit]

For more details on this topic, see Guangzhouwan.

The region was still a small fishing port when it was occupied by the French in 1898. The next year, the French forced the Chinese to lease a small enclave of Zhanjiang to them for 99 years as the territory of Kouang-Tchéou-Wan. The French wanted to develop the port, which they called Fort-Bayard, to serve southern China, in parts where France had exclusive rights to railway and mineral development. Their efforts, however, were hindered by the poverty of the surrounding land. The French retained control of the region until 1943, when the Japanese occupied the area during World War II. At the end of the war, the region returned briefly under French rule before being formally returned to China in 1946 by general Charles de Gaulle, then French head of state.

Post–World War II[edit]

Following the establishment of the People's Republic in 1949, Zhanjiang developed new importance. In 1955 a rail link was built to Litang in Guangxi province, where it joined the Hunan-Guangxi Railway. Since then, Zhanjiang has developed into a major modern port serving southern China, usable by ships of up to 50,000 tons. In 1984 Zhanjiang was designated one of the "open" cities of China, where the central government invited foreign investment; this spurred the city's further industrial development. It has shipyards and engineering works; automobile, electrical-appliance, and textile plants; and sugar refineries, flour and rice mills, and chemical works.

In the early 1990s a new rail line was completed, linking Zhanjiang with Guangzhou, the provincial capital. The line was later extended to Hai'an, at the southernmost tip of Leizhou Peninsula, where trains could be transported by Guangdong–Hainan Ferry across the Hainan Strait to Haikou.

Until the introduction of Pinyin spelling, it was often known in the west as "Tsamkong" due to the Cantonese pronunciation of the name.

Geography[edit]

Zhanjiang is to the southwest of the city of Guangzhou on an inlet of the South China Sea (French: Mer de Chine Méridionale). It is on the eastern coast of the Leizhou Peninsula.

The dialect in downtown districts is Cantonese, while the people in most counties speak Hainanese (or Leizhou dialect as it is referred to locally). The dialect in Lianjiang County is Hakka. The time zone for Zhanjiang, as with all locations in the People's Republic of China, is Beijing time (GMT +8).

Climate[edit]

Climate data for Zhanjiang
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 19
(66)
19
(66)
22
(71)
26
(78)
29
(85)
31
(88)
32
(89)
31
(88)
31
(87)
28
(82)
24
(76)
21
(69)
26.1
(78.8)
Average low °C (°F) 14
(57)
14
(58)
18
(64)
22
(71)
25
(77)
27
(80)
27
(81)
27
(80)
26
(78)
23
(73)
18
(65)
14
(58)
21.3
(70.2)
Precipitation mm (inches) 20
(0.8)
36
(1.4)
48
(1.9)
109
(4.3)
180
(7.1)
221
(8.7)
213
(8.4)
292
(11.5)
226
(8.9)
89
(3.5)
43
(1.7)
20
(0.8)
1,491
(58.7)
Source: Weatherbase[1]

The average winter temperatures range of Zhanjiang is between 8 and 17 degrees with summer temperatures between 25 and 29 degrees.[2] The city enjoys a tropical and subtropical monsoon climate with low altitudes, north of the tropic of cancer. Influenced by the ocean climate, Zhanjiang escapes the heat of the summer and chilliness of the winter.[3]

Administration[edit]

Zhanjiang has direct jurisdiction over nine county-level divisions:

Map # Name Hanzi Hanyu Pinyin Population (2003 est.) Area (km²) Density (/km²)
Zhanjiang mcp.png City proper
1 Chikan District 赤坎区 Chìkǎn Qū 220,000 79 2,785
2 Xiashan District 霞山区 Xiáshān Qū 360,000 88 4,091
Suburban
3 Potou District 坡头区 Pōtóu Qū 380,000 424 896
4 Mazhang District 麻章区 Mázhāng Qū 470,000 769 611
Satellite cities
5 Wuchuan City 吴川市 Wúchuān Shì 1,010,000 848 1,191
6 Lianjiang City 廉江市 Liánjiāng Shì 1,510,000 2,835 533
7 Leizhou City 雷州市 Léizhōu Shì 1,510,000 3,523 429
Rural
8 Suixi County 遂溪县 Suíxī Xiàn 990,000 2,144 462
9 Xuwen County 徐闻县 Xúwén Xiàn 690,000 1954.37 382

Military[edit]

Zhanjiang is headquarters of the South Sea Fleet of the People's Liberation Army Navy. It is also home base to two marine brigades.

Economy[edit]

Zhanjiang is a port city and trade center with a diversified industrial base, including a shipyard, textile plants, sugar refineries. plants producing automobiles, chemicals and electrical appliances as well as rice mills.

Port of Zhanjiang[edit]

The Port of Zhanjiang is one of the finest deep water ports in China. It is the southernmost port on the coast of mainland China and serves as a shipping outlet for much of Southwest China. The port of Zhanjiang, built in 1956, was the first modern port designed and developed after the founding of the People's Republic of China and serves as the headquarters for the People's Liberation Army Navy's South Sea Fleet.[4] The Zhanjiang Port is one of the eight major ports in China, with an annual throughput of more than 2,600 million tons.

Agriculture[edit]

Sugarcane production was Zhanjiang's most prominent agricultural product in 2007: in 2006 it was 9,135,500 tons and it was 10,000,000 tons in 2007.

Akoya cultured pearls, pineapples, bananas, papayas, seafood, farm-raised prawns and fish are native products and play a prominent role in the agricultural economy of Zhanjiang.

Industry[edit]

Industrial economy to make a breakthrough, a marked increase in the number of units. Zhanjiang in 2007 of all industrial output value of 112.134 billion yuan, up 17.1 percent, a growth rate of nearly four-year high of 15.3 billion net increase over the previous year. In 2007 the city's industrial enterprises above designated size reached 714, 71 more than the year before, industrial output value of over 100 million of the 132 enterprises.

Zhanjiang Economic and Technological Development Zone was founded in 1984. Its total planned area is 9.2 km2 (3.6 sq mi). The zone has a very good location for transportation. It is very convenient to get to the airport, the national highway G325 as well as the port. The major industries in the zone including automobile assembly, biotechnology and computer software.[5]

Business[edit]

In 2007 the total value of retail sales of consumer goods in Zhanjiang was 38.216 billion yuan, an increase of 19.5% over the previous 12 years.

Transport[edit]

Air[edit]

The city is served by the Zhanjiang Airport (IATA: ZHAICAO: ZGZJ).

Rail[edit]

The Litang-Zhanjiang Railway runs from Zhanjiang inland to Guangxi. A branch line off the Litang-Zhanjiang Line at Hechun to Maoming connects Zhanjiang with Guangdong's rail network to the east. A direction rail connection between Zhanjiang and Maoming, which will form the southernmost section of the Luoyang-Zhanjiang Railway, is under construction. The Guangdong-Hainan Railway runs south from Zhnjiang down the Leizhou Peninsula to Hai'an where trains are ferried to Hainan Island's rail network.

Tourism[edit]

The well-known tourist attractions, the "Zhanjiang Eight", are as follows:

  1. East Island
  2. Huguangyan National Geopark:[6] This scenic area is a national geological park famous for its natural volcano relic. It has the most typical and largest maar (volcanic) lake in the world.[3]
  3. View of the sea promenade
  4. Park Jin-inch
  5. Lighthouse
  6. South Asia Subtropical Botanical Garden[7]
  7. South Isles
  8. Zhanjiang Port: in the southeast part of the city proper, it once had passenger transport station operating liner to reach Haikou. However, there are no longer passenger liners directly from the city proper to Haikou. Visitors should go to the Hai'an Dock in Xuwen County for this connection.[3]
  9. Donghai Island: It ranks as the fifth largest island in China. A popular holiday resort has been built on the east side. In addition to the forest and beautiful sea, it has a 28-kilometer-long beach.[3]
  10. Naozhou Island: This is a beautiful island that is favorable for a visit at any season. The Naozhou Beacon with over a hundred years' history is the highlight of the island.[3]

Major theme attractions[edit]

  • South Park
  • North Park
  • Hoi Tin Park
  • Southern tropical garden[7]
  • Sino-Australian Friendship Garden[8]
  • Jin Sha Wan Park
  • Golden Bay promenade Guanhai[9]
  • Zhanjiang Waterfront Park
  • Park fishing port
  • Xia Lake Park
  • Green River Wetland Park
  • Cunjin Bridge Park

French architectural monuments[edit]

  • French minister to the Department of the Guangzhou Bay
  • France, the Police Department, Guangzhou Bay
  • St. Victor Roman Catholic Church[10]
  • Calyon site
  • Guangzhou Bay Chamber of Commerce Center

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]