Zhao (surname)

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Zhao / Chao
Family name
Zhao surname.jpg
Pronunciation Zhào, Chao (Mandarin)
Chiu, Ziu6 (Cantonese)
Teo (Hokkien, Teochew)
Cho, Jo (Korean)
Triệu (Vietnamese)
ḌjäuC (Middle Chinese)
Meaning Name of a feudal state during the Zhou Dynasty
Region of origin China
Language(s) of origin Chinese
Related names Cho, Triệu

Zhao [dʒaʊ]/ Chao or Chiu (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Zhào; Wade–Giles: Chao, Vietnamese: Triệu, Hangul: ) is a common Chinese family name, ranking as the 7th most common surname in Mainland China and carried mainly by people of Mandarin-speaking regions. Zhao is the first surname in the famous Hundred Family Surnames – the traditional list of all Chinese surnames – because it was the royal surname of the Song Dynasty (960–1279) when the list was compiled.

On occasion, Zhao can denote the much less common family name Zhào (兆).

History[edit]

Zhao is one of the most ancient of Chinese surnames, and its origins are partly shrouded in legend. During the reign of King Mu of Zhou (976/956 BC – 922/918 BC), an officer named Zaofu (Chinese: 造父) proved exceptionally adept at training horses and driving chariots and won the respect of King Mu. During a battle with the eastern state of Xu, a non-Chinese state which was resisting Zhou rule, Zaofu drove a chariot into the battle and escorted King Mu back to the Zhou capital. In gratitude, King Mu enfeoffed Zaofu as the lord of Zhao, a town in what is now Hongdong County, Shanxi Province, to be held by his descendants in perpetuity. Zaofu's descendants took Zhao as a surname to mark their prestigious association with the city. Records such as Sima Qian's Records of the Grand Historian say that Zaofu was a descendant of legendary kings Zhuanxu, Shaohao, and the Yellow Emperor.

The town Zhao became part of the state of Jin during the Warring States period, when the Zhou Dynasty began to collapse. In 403 BC, Jin split into three smaller states, one of which was the state of Zhao. During this period, the common ancestral name Ying (嬴) split into 14 clan names: Lian (廉), Xu (徐), Jiang (江), Qin (秦), Zhao (趙), Huang (黄), Liang (梁), Ma (馬), Ge (葛), Gu (谷), Mou (繆), Zhong (鍾), Fei (費), and Qu (瞿).

The Zhao clan rulers of State of Qin and State of Zhao were highly successful, and State of Zhao were one of the last major states conquered by the State of Qin during its unification of China.

As with all ancient Chinese surnames, the Zhao family was constantly added to by marriages, its bestowal upon commoners for meritorious deeds, and its adoption by non-Chinese peoples assimilated into Han Chinese culture. The Zhao name experienced a great revival after Zhao Kuangyin became the first emperor of the Song Dynasty in 960 AD, leading to 300 years of Zhao rule over China. Notably, it is during this dynasty that the famous Hundred Family Surnames – the traditional list of all Chinese surnames – was compiled, leading the surname Zhao, that of the royal house, to be the first name listed.

However, some cadet clans on the mainland have genealogy records preserved from the Cultural Revolution as well as some Hata clans of Japan, which could trace back to a significant amount of generations to verify the authenticity of the bloodline.

Relation with the Gioro Clan[edit]

After the fall of the Northern Song dynasty, the emeritus emperor Huizong (Zhao Ji) and his son emperor Qinzong (Zhao Huan) were captured by the by the Jurchen people in Jingkang Incident along with the rest of the remaining members of the Northern Song royal house who were forced into exile in Manchuria. Huizong's third brother Zhao Si King Yue (越王赵偲) lived in Gioro and was the founder of the Gioro clan in which the Qing Imperial Family Aisin-Gioros (愛新覺羅) and Irgen Gioro are cadet branches.

The rise of the Qing Dynasty occurred following the Battle of the Shanhai Pass. The historical context can be summarized in a poem to illustrate the three parties involved:

朱家麵﹐李家磨﹐ 做成一個大饃饃﹐ 送給對巷趙大哥。

The poem above is translated as: Zhou family's flour, Li family's mill produce a big bun, which is handed to big brother Zhao.

Zhou (朱) refers to the surname of the Ming Dynasty royals who lost control of China. Li (李) refers to Li Zicheng, the first Emperor of the Shun Dynasty who briefly gained control of China. The Aisin Gioro Clan of the Qing Dynasty are referred to as big brother Zhao (趙), which is the surname of their ancestors from the captured Northern Song Royal family.

Evolution of the Zhao clan[edit]

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Zhao Clan (趙氏) – China, Royal house of Song Dynasty
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Aisin Gioro Clan (愛新覺羅) Royal House of Qing Dynasty
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Gioro Clan (覺羅氏) – Gioro, Manchuria
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Irgen Gioro (伊尔根觉罗)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Zhao clan (趙氏) – Royal house of Qin Dynasty
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
太秦公, 秦長連, 秦野, 秦人, 秦川, 秦上, 秦下, 秦內, 秦井, 秦多, 秦當, 秦佐,秦冠, 秦前, 秦黨, 秦原, 秦部, 秦許, 秦常, 秦勝, 秦人部, 秦川邊, 秦大藏, 秦小宅, 秦井手, 秦中家, 秦田村, 秦長田, 秦物集, 秦泉寺, 秦高橋, 秦達布, 秦佐此佐...
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Hata clan (秦氏) – Japan
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ying (Ancestral name) (赢姓) – Royal house of Qin (state)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
The clans of Lian (廉), Xu (徐), Jiang (江), Qin (秦), Zhao (趙), Huang (黄), Liang (梁), Ma (馬), Ge (葛), Gu (谷), Mou (繆), Zhong (鍾), Fei (費), and Qu (瞿)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Prominent people with the family name[edit]

Historical figures[edit]

  • Zhao Zheng (traditional Chinese: 趙正), the first emperor of China, most commonly known as Qin Shi Huang (traditional Chinese: 秦始皇)
  • Zhao Chengjiao (趙成蟜), the first emperor's half brother, after the first emperor inherited the throne, he rebelled and was killed by the emperor.
  • Zhao Kuangyin (趙匡胤) or Emperor Taizu of Song (宋太祖), the founder of the Song Dynasty
  • Zhao Kuangyi Brother of Zhao Kuangyin and Second Emperor of the Song Dynasty
  • Zhao Heng Third Emperor of The Song Dynasty
  • Zhao Zhen Fourth Emperor of The Song Dynasty
  • Zhao Shu Fifth Emperor of The Song Dynasty
  • Zhao Xu Sixth Emperor of The Song Dynasty
  • Zhao Xu Seventh Emperor of the Song Dynasty
  • Zhao Ji Eighth Emperor of The Song Dynasty famous for being a skilled poet, painter, calligrapher, and musician.
  • Zhao Yun General of Shu Han during the era of Three Kingdoms
  • Zhao Mengfu calligrapher, descendant of Song Imperial Family
  • Zhao Yong calligrapher, son of Zhao Mengfu, descendant of Song Imperial Family
  • Zhao Yiguang , Literary figure and author during Ming dynasty, relative of Zhao Mengfu, descendant of Song Imperial Family

Mondern figures[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]