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The Zhdanov Doctrine (also called zhdanovism or zhdanovshchina, Russian: доктрина Жданова, ждановизм, ждановщина) was a Soviet cultural doctrine developed by the Central Committee secretary Andrei Zhdanov in 1946. It proposed that the world was divided into two camps: the "imperialistic", headed by the United States; and "democratic", headed by the Soviet Union. The main principle of the Zhdanov doctrine was often summarized by the phrase "The only conflict that is possible in Soviet culture is the conflict between good and best". Zhdanovism soon became a Soviet cultural policy, meaning that Soviet artists, writers and intelligentsia in general had to conform to the party line in their creative works. Under this policy, artists who failed to comply with the government's wishes risked persecution. The policy remained in effect until 1952, when it was declared[by whom?] that it had a negative effect on Soviet culture.
The 1946 resolution of the Central Committee was directed against two literary magazines, Zvezda and Leningrad, which had published supposedly apolitical, "bourgeois", individualistic works of the satirist Mikhail Zoshchenko and the poet Anna Akhmatova. Earlier some critics and literary historians were denounced for suggesting that Russian classics had been influenced by Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Molière, Lord Byron or Charles Dickens.
A further decree was issued on 10 February 1948 and marked the beginning of the so-called anti-formalism campaign. Although formally aimed at Vano Muradeli's opera The Great Friendship, it signalled a sustained campaign of criticism and persecution against many of the Soviet Union's foremost composers, notably Dmitri Shostakovich, Sergei Prokofiev and Aram Khachaturian for alleged "formalism" in their music. The decree was followed in April by a special congress of the Composers' Union, where many of those attacked were forced publicly to repent. The campaign was satirized in the Anti-Formalist Rayok by Shostakovich. The composers condemned were formally rehabilitated by a further decree issued on 28 May 1958.
Zhdanovism in China
During the Cultural Revolution in China, Zhdanovism was carried even further than in its Russian archetype. Yang Hansheng, former vice-chairman of the China Federation of Literary and Art Circles, was denounced for extolling such "bourgeois" writers as William Shakespeare, Molière and Henrik Ibsen. Zhou Yang, who translated Nikolai Chernyshevsky and Leo Tolstoy into Chinese, was accused in Red Flag of the crime of praising the "foreigners" (used in the pejorative sense) Vissarion Belinsky, Chernyshevsky and Nikolay Dobrolyubov. Zhou "stubbornly announced" that "in aesthetics he was a faithful follower of Chernyshevsky". The accusations were all the more ironic as, in the Soviet Union, Belinsky, Chernyshevsky and Dobrolyubov were considered key radical figures who paved the way for the 1917 Revolution.
- Сизов С. Г. [Sizov, S. G.] К вопросу об организации кинопроката в Сибири во времена "ждановщины".[full citation needed]
- Green, Jonathon, and Nicholas J. Karolides. 2005. The encyclopedia of censorship. Rev. ed. /. New York: Facts On File. ISBN 978-0816044641.
- Encyclopedia of censorhsip, p. 668.