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Zheleznovodsk (English)
Железноводск (Russian)
-  Town[1]  -
Balloons above Zheleznovodsk.jpg
Balloons above Zheleznovodsk
Map of Russia - Stavropol Krai (2008-03).svg
Location of Stavropol Krai in Russia
Zheleznovodsk is located in Stavropol Krai
Location of Zheleznovodsk in Stavropol Krai
Coordinates: 44°08′22″N 43°01′01″E / 44.13944°N 43.01694°E / 44.13944; 43.01694Coordinates: 44°08′22″N 43°01′01″E / 44.13944°N 43.01694°E / 44.13944; 43.01694
Administrative status (as of July 2011)
Country Russia
Federal subject Stavropol Krai[1]
Administratively subordinated to town of krai significance of Zheleznovodsk[1]
Administrative center of town of krai significance of Zheleznovodsk[1]
Municipal status (as of July 2010)
Urban okrug Zheleznovodsk Urban Okrug[2]
Administrative center of Zheleznovodsk Urban Okrug[2]
Area 93.13 km2 (35.96 sq mi)[3]
Population (2010 Census) 244,433 inhabitants[4]
Density 2,625 /km2 (6,800 /sq mi)[5]
Time zone MSK (UTC+04:00)[6]
Founded 1810[citation needed]
Town status since 1917[citation needed]
Postal code(s)[7] 357400
Dialing code(s) +7 87932[citation needed]
Official website
Zheleznovodsk on WikiCommons

Zheleznovodsk (Russian: Железново́дск) is a town in Stavropol Krai, Russia. Population: 24,433 (2010 Census);[4] 25,135 (2002 Census);[8] 28,460 (1989 Census).[9]


The name of the town literally means iron-water-place, as the mineral waters springing from the earth in Zheleznovodsk were believed to have high content of iron.


Zheleznovodsk is situated in the saddle between Mounts Beshtau and Zheleznaya, in what the locals refer to as aerodynamic tube, which attracts strong winds in the winter.


Zheleznovodsk was the place of signing the Zheleznovodsk Communiqué by Boris Yeltsin, Nursultan Nazarbayev, Ayaz Mutalibov, Levon Ter-Petrosian on September 23, 1991.

Administrative and municipal status[edit]

Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with one urban-type settlement, incorporated as the town of krai significance of Zheleznovodsk—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, the town of krai significance of Zheleznovodsk is incorporated as Zheleznovodsk Urban Okrug.[2]


Zheleznovodsk, along with Pyatigorsk, Yessentuki, Kislovodsk, and Mineralnye Vody, is a part of the Caucasus Mineral Waters, a renowned Russian spa resort. The town economy revolves around sanatoria, where dozens of thousands of people from all over Russia and former Soviet republics come year-around to vacation and rest, as well as prevent and treat numerous stomach, kidney, and liver diseases. In fact, the spa hold the only known monument to the enema[10]

Dozens of spas operate in Russia's Caucasus Mountains region, exploiting the mineral springs in the area, and apparently colonic treatment is a specialty. In June 2008, the Mashuk-Akva Term spa in Zheleznovodsk unveiled a large monument to the enema (an 800-lb. brass syringe bulb held aloft by three angels). "Let's beat constipation," read one banner. Said the sculptor, "This device is eternal; it will never change. We could promote this brand, turn it into a franchise with souvenirs and awards for medical doctors."


Over the past several years, Zheleznovodsk was the site of the International Hot Air Balloon Festival.

Notable people[edit]

  • In 1841, Mikhail Lermontov, famous Russian poet, spent the last day of his life in Zheleznovodsk, from where he departed to his fatal duel on the slopes of Mount Mashuk in Pyatigorsk.
  • Native Julia Sakharova won the top prize in the International Competition for Music of Eastern and Central Europe, at the age of 15.[11]



  1. ^ a b c d e Resolution #63-p
  2. ^ a b c Law #88-kz
  3. ^ Управление Росреестра по Ставропольскому краю. Доклад о состоянии и использовании земель Ставропольского края в 2010 году
  4. ^ a b "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. 2011. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  5. ^ The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2010 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox does not necessarily correspond to the area of the entity proper or is reported for the same year as the population.
  6. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
  7. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Russian)
  8. ^ "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. May 21, 2004. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  9. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров." [All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989) (in Russian). Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  10. ^ Enema monument unveiled in Russian resort
  11. ^ "Ted Kendall talks to young violinist Julia Sakharova", Music and Vision Daily, 2006-03-17, retrieved 2008-03-14 


  • Правительство Ставропольского края. Постановление №63-п от 4 мая 2006 г. «Об утверждении реестра административно-территориальных единиц Ставропольского края», в ред. Постановления №361-п от 23 сентября 2013 г. «О внесении изменения в Реестр административно-территориальных единиц Ставропольского края, утверждённый Постановлением Правительства Ставропольского края от 04 мая 2006 г. №63-п». Вступил в силу с 4 мая 2006 г.. Опубликован: "Сборник законов и других правовых актов Ставропольского края", №17, ст. 5609, 10 июля 2006 г. (Government of Stavropol Krai. Resolution #63-p of May 4, 2006 On the Adoption of the Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Units of Stavropol Krai, as amended by the Resolution #361-p of September 23, 2013 On Amending the Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Units of Stavropol Krai Adopted by Resolution #63-p of the Government of Stavropol Krai of May 4, 2006. Effective as of May 4, 2006.).
  • Государственная Дума Ставропольского края. Закон №88-кз от 4 октября 2004 г. «О наделении муниципальных образований Ставропольского края статусом городского, сельского поселения, городского округа, муниципального района», в ред. Закона №46-кз от 1 июля 2010 г «О преобразовании муниципального образования города Будённовска Ставропольского края». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Ставропольская правда", №216, 6 октября 2004 г. (State Duma of Stavropol Krai. Law #88-kz of October 4, 2004 On Granting the Status of Urban, Rural Settlement, Urban Okrug, Municipal District to the Municipal Formations of Stavropol Krai, as amended by the Law #46-kz of July 1, 2010 On the Transformation of the Municipal Formation of the Town of Budyonnovsk of Stavropol Krai. Effective as of the day of the official publication.).

External links[edit]