Zheng Jing

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Zheng Jing
Born (1642-11-04)4 November 1642[1]
Nan'an, Fujian[2]
Died 17 March 1681(1681-03-17) (aged 38)[3]
Tainan, Tungning
Nationality Great Ming, Kingdom of Tungning
Other names Master Kim or Prince Kim (錦舍)
Ethnicity Han Chinese
Occupation Military leader, King
Title Prince of Yanping (延平)[4]
Successor Zheng Keshuang
Spouse(s) Tang (唐)[5]
Children Zheng Keshuang, Zheng Kezang[3]
Parents Zheng Chenggong (Father), Dong Cuiying (Mother)[6]
Relatives Zheng Zhilong (grandfather), Tagawa (grandmother), Tagawa Shichizaemon (uncle)
This is a Chinese name; the family name is Zheng.
Zheng Jing
Traditional Chinese 鄭經
Simplified Chinese 郑经

Zheng Jing (4 November 1642 - 17 March 1681), courtesy names Xianzhi (賢之) and Yuanzhi (元之), pseudonym Shitian (式天), was a 17th-century Chinese warlord and Ming Dynasty loyalist. He was the eldest son of Koxinga (Zheng Chenggong) and a grandson of the pirate-merchant Zheng Zhilong. After the conquest of Taiwan in 1662 by his father, Zheng Jing controlled the military forces in Xiamen and Quemoy on his father's behalf. Upon the death of his father six months later, Zheng Jing contested throne as the King of Taiwan with his uncle, Zheng Shixi. The dispute was resolved in Zheng Jing's favor after he successfully landed an army in Taiwan despite strong opposition by the forces of his uncle. This was followed by Zheng Shixi withdrawing his claim.

With both the vast pirate fleet and the throne of Tainan, he intended to continue his father's plans to invade the Philippines; however, he was forced to abandon this venture when faced with the threat of a Manchu-Dutch alliance. His victory over a combined Manchu-Dutch fleet in 1664 resulted in ending the brief alliance.

For the next 19 years, he tried to provide sufficiently for the local inhabitants and reorganizing their military forces in Taiwan. He frequently exchanged ambassadors with the Kangxi Emperor from the mainland. Although he continued to fight for the cause his father died for, he had largely abandoned any pretense of restoring the Ming Dynasty by the time he invaded Fujian in 1676. He occupied key cities in the province for a year before losing them back to the Manchus by the end of 1677. Invading Fujian once more, he led a force of 30,000 men to capture Haicheng as well as taking the provincial commander prisoner.

In 1680, Zheng Jing was forced to abandon Xiamen, Quemoy and Dongshan after losing a major naval battle to Chinese Qing admiral Shi Lang. Driven off the mainland by the Manchus, he retreated to Tainan where he fell ill and died of dissipation on March 17, 1681. Zheng named as his successor his oldest son, Zheng Kezang; however, Zheng Kezang was quickly toppled in favor of Zheng Keshuang.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hung, “Taiwan Under the Cheng Family, 1662–1683", p. 139. See note 1 for the source; a stone epitaph on Zheng's tomb.
  2. ^ Hung, “Taiwan Under the Cheng Family, 1662–1683", p. 139.
  3. ^ a b Hung, “Taiwan Under the Cheng Family, 1662–1683", p. 265
  4. ^ Carioti, “The Zhengs' Maritime Power in the International Context of the 17th Century Far East Seas", p. 52.
  5. ^ Hung, “Taiwan Under the Cheng Family, 1662–1683", p. 141. Tang was the surname of Zheng's spouse. No personal name survives in the record, which is not uncommon for Chinese women in pre-Republican history.
  6. ^ The following note is a duplicate from Wikipedia's Zheng Chenggong article concerning Chenggong's wife and Jing's mother's name. John E. Wills and Donald Keene both agree that Zheng's wife's surname was 'Dong' (董), Wills, Pepper, Guns and Parleys, 28, and Keene, The Battles of Coxinga, 46. Jonathan Clements, however, claims her name was 'Deng Cuiying', Clements, Coxinga and the Fall of the Ming Dynasty, 92. Chang et al., The English Factory in Taiwan, 1670 - 1685, p. 740, introduces her as 'Tung Ts'ui-ying', which would be 'Dong Cuiying' in Hanyu Pinyin.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Carioti, Patrizia. “The Zhengs' Maritime Power in the International Context of the 17th Century Far East Seas: The Rise of a 'Centralised Piratical Organisation' and Its Gradual Development into an Informal 'State'”. Ming Qing Yanjiu (1996): 29-67.
  • Chang Hsiu-jung, Anthony Farrington, Huang Fu-san, Ts'ao Yung-ho, Wu Mi-tsa, Cheng Hsi-fu, and Ang Ka-in. The English Factory in Taiwan, 1670 - 1685. Taipei: National Taiwan University, 1995.
  • Clements, Jonathan. Coxinga and the Fall of the Ming Dynasty. Stroud: Sutton Publishing, 2004.
  • Hung Chien-chao. “Taiwan Under the Cheng Family, 1662–1683: Sinicization After Dutch Rule.” Ph.D. dissertation, Georgetown University.
  • Keene, Donald Keene. The Battles of Coxinga: Chikamatsu’s Puppet Play, Its Background and Importance. London: Taylor’s Foreign Press, 1950.
  • Manthorpe, Jonathan. Forbidden Nation: a History of Taiwan, New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2002.
  • Shen Yu. Cheng-shih shih-mo. 1836.
  • Wills, Jr., John E. Pepper, Guns and Parleys: The Dutch East India Company and China 1622-1681. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1974.