Dzyatlava

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Zhetl)
Jump to: navigation, search
Dzyatlava / Dyatlovo
Дзятлава / Дятлово
Catholic Church of the Assumption of Mary founded by Sejm Marshal Lew Sapieha
Catholic Church of the Assumption of Mary founded by Sejm Marshal Lew Sapieha
Flag of Dzyatlava / Dyatlovo  Дзятлава / Дятлово
Flag
Official seal of Dzyatlava / Dyatlovo  Дзятлава / Дятлово
Seal
Coordinates: 53°27′N 25°24′E / 53.450°N 25.400°E / 53.450; 25.400
Country
Subdivision
Belarus
Hrodna voblast
Founded 1498
Population (2004)
 • Total 8 300
Time zone FET (UTC+3)
 • Summer (DST) not observed (UTC+3)
Area code(s) +375-15
Website [1]

Dzyatlava (Belarusian: Дзятлава, Lithuanian: Zietela, Russian: Дятлово, Polish: Zdzięcioł, Yiddish: זשעטל Zhetl) is a town in Belarus in the Hrodna voblast, about 165 km southeast of Hrodna. The population is 8,900 (1995).

Dzyatlava was first referenced in documents from 1498, when it was granted to Prince Konstantin Ostrogski, who later built a wooden castle there. In the 17th century the settlement was owned by Lew Sapieha, who ordered a Catholic church to be erected on the main city square. The church was consecrated in 1646, renovated after a fire in 1743 and still stands.[1] During the Great Northern War of the anti-Swedish alliance, Peter I of Russia visited Dzyatlava and stayed there for a week in January 1708. In the 18th century, the town was owned by Polish magnate Stanisław Sołtyk, who built a Baroque residence there in 1751.

Until World War II, Zdzięcioł (now Dzyatlava) belonged to the eastern part of the Second Polish Republic. It was the seat of Gmina Zdzięcioł in Nowogródek Voivodeship.[2] The population was composed predominantly of Polish Jews. The Soviet forces invaded eastern Poland on September 17, 1939, and stationed in the Voivodeship area until the outbreak of their own war with Germany in June 1941. After the Soviet rapid retreat, and several months of Nazi ad hoc persecution, on February 22, 1942 the new German authorities officially created Zdzięcioł Ghetto.[3][4]

For more details on this topic, see Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland.

During the Holocaust, about 1,500 Jews were killed near the town in the Zdzięcioł massacres of 1942. The old Jewish cemetery is considered a minor landmark.

Lithuanian heritage[edit]

Being 80 kilometers south of present day Lithuania, environs of Dzyatlava had been known by linguists as the outermost indigenous Lithuanian speaking "island" apart from the contiguous Lithuanian language territory. The Lithuanian-speakers spoke a unique dialect, known as the "Zietela dialect"; it has been speculated that the ancestors of its speakers might have been Lithuanized Jotvingians. It drew the attention by many prominent linguists, such as Christian Schweigaard Stang, Vladimir Toporov, Kazimieras Būga and Juozas Balčikonis. In 1886, 1156 people in nearby villages declared themselves Lithuanians, however the real number might have been much greater.[5] Until World War II there was a Lithuanian minority in surrounding villages. Only one woman (Kotryna Žukelytė-Jodienė) identified herself as Lithuanian in 1959 and at present the Lithuanian population is virtually extinct. The Vocabulary of Zietela Dialect has been published in Lithuania. In April 2010, the Lithuanian National Cross-Departmental Racquet Sport Tournament was held in Dzyatlava.

People[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Photographs, at globus.tut.by
  2. ^ "Województwo Nowogródzkie". Skorowidz miejscowości Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej - Tom VII - Część I. Główny Urząd Statystyczny Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej (Central Statistical Office of Poland). Warszawa 1923. 
  3. ^ Holocaust Encyclopedia. "Zdzieciol (Zhetel) Ghetto" (Wikipedia OTRS ticket no. 2007071910012533). USHMM. Retrieved July 27, 2011. 
  4. ^ Piotr Eberhardt, Jan Owsinski (2003). Ethnic Groups and Population Changes in Twentieth-century Central-Eastern Europe: History, Data, Analysis. M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 978-0-7656-0665-5. 
  5. ^ Monument to the Extinct Dialect[dead link]

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 53°27′N 25°24′E / 53.450°N 25.400°E / 53.450; 25.400