From top: Statue of Sun Yat-sen in Sunwen Memorial Park, Zhongshan Daily Building, Zhongshanbei Railway Station, Zhongshan IFC, Qijiang River and Port of Zhongshan
Location of Zhongshan in Guangdong
|Country||People's Republic of China|
|Township-level divisions||5 districts
1 development zone
|• CPC Committee Secretary||Xue Xiaofeng (薛晓峰)|
|• Mayor||Chen Liangxian (陈良贤)|
|• Total||1,783.67 km2 (688.68 sq mi)|
|Elevation||11 m (36 ft)|
|• Density||1,800/km2 (4,600/sq mi)|
|Time zone||China Standard Time (UTC+8)|
|License plate prefixes||粤T|
|GDP||¥218.85 billion (2011)|
|GDP per capita||¥92,154 (2011)|
|Cantonese Jyutping||Zung1 saan1|
|Literal meaning||Central mountain
(Named after Sun Zhongshan)
|Alternative Chinese name|
|Cantonese Jyutping||Hoeng1 saan1|
|Literal meaning||Fragrant Mountain|
Zhōngshān (Chinese: 中山), previously known as Xiāngshān (Chinese: 香山), is a prefecture-level city in the south of the Pearl River Delta in Guangdong province, People's Republic of China. Zhongshan, one of the few cities in China with an eponymous name, is named after Dr. Sun Yat-sen (1866–1925) who is known in Chinese as Sun Zhongshan. Sun, the founding father of the Republic of China, was born in Cuiheng village in Nanlang Township of what was then Xiangshan County. In 1925, the year after his death, Xiangshan was renamed Zhongshan in his honor. The main ethnic group in Zhongshan is Han, and the main language is Cantonese.
Until 1925, Zhongshan was generally known as Xiangshan or Heung-san (Chinese: 香山; literally: "Fragrant Mountain"), in reference to the many flowers that grew in the mountains nearby. The city was renamed in honor of Dr. Sun Yat-sen, who had adopted the name Zhongshan. Sun is considered by both the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China to be the "Father of Modern China", and was from Cuiheng village – now part of Nanlang Town in Zhongshan.
Thousands of years ago, much of the Zhongshan area lay within the Pearl River estuary, with only scattered islands above the surface. Gradually from south to north, the area filled in with alluvial silt and became dry land. The northern parts of today's Zhongshan did not fill in until the time of the Ming Dynasty.
The Zhongshan area was part of an extended Dongguan County during the Tang Dynasty (618 – 907 AD), and was a significant sea salt producer. In 1082, during the Northern Song Dynasty, a fortified settlement called Xiangshan was founded in the area, marking the first official use of the name by which it would be known throughout most of its modern history. The prosperous settlement was then upgraded to a county in 1152. After the collapse of the Southern Song Dynasty, many descendants of Song court officials, including members of the imperial family, settled in Xiangshan. Under the Qing Dynasty, embankments were built to prevent flooding in the new alluvial lands, and the area of cultivation was extended.
Much of the First Opium War took place in and around Xiangshan: in 1839, the famous official Lin Zexu arrived in Xiangshan and ordered the expulsion of Sir Charles Elliot and other British traders from the area. Qing Dynasty soldiers resisted British attacks on the area in 1840, but were ultimately overwhelmed.
After the Opium Wars opened the region to foreign influence, a number of Xiangshan residents, including Sun Zhongshan (Yatsen), left to study overseas and were among the creators of modern China. Xiangshan was one of the first counties in China liberated as part of the Xinhai Revolution. After Sun Zhongshan's death in 1925, the commander-in-chief of the armed forces of the Republic of China decided to memorialize Sun by renaming his county of birth from Xiangshan to Zhongshan.
During the Second Sino-Japanese War, in July 1937, the Imperial Japanese Army seized several islands belonging to Zhongshan. During March 1940, the Japanese army occupied most of Zhongshan. The Japanese army implemented Unit 8604 or Nami Unit, a secret military medical unit, related to Unit 731, that researched biological warfare and other topics through human experimentation. It was headquartered at Zhongshan Medical University (Hal Gold, Unit 731 Testimony, 2003, p. 50). Nationalist and Communist units launched guerrilla attacks on Japanese forces beginning in 1942. On August 15, 1945, Japanese forces declared an unconditional surrender, and Zhongshan was liberated.
Zhongshan was the scene of fighting during the Chinese Civil War and was held for much of the war by Nationalists. On October 30, 1949, however, the People's Liberation Army defeated Nationalist forces in Zhongshan, and the county came under the control of the People's Republic of China.
Zhongshan is located along the west side of the mouth of the Pearl River, directly opposite Shenzhen and Hong Kong. It lies south of Guangzhou and Foshan and north of Zhuhai and Macau. The northern part of Zhongshan, including most of the urbanized area, lies on the alluvial plains of the Pearl River Delta, while the southern part of the city's territory reaches into a range of coastal hills.
The most notable of these are the Wugui Hills (Chinese: 五桂山; pinyin: Wǔguī Shān; Jyutping: Ng5gwai3 Saan1). The city's current geography is typical of southern China: numerous steep mountains and hills with alluvial plains in between down to the coastline. The main summit of the Wugui Hills is the highest point in the city, at 531 metres (1,742 ft) above sea level.
Like nearly all of southern China, Zhongshan's climate is warm and humid most of the year, with an average temperature of 22 °C (72 °F) and 175 centimetres (69 in) of rainfall each year. Southern China experiences fairly frequent typhoons and thunderstorms, and most rain falls between April and September.
- Sunwen Road West (or Sunwen Xilu) in Zhongshan Old Town, a pedestrian mall lined with dozens of restored buildings from the colonial period in treaty port style. Several of these buildings were built in the 1920s. The seven story Fufeng Pagoda, built in 1608, which is visible from all over the city, is located on a hill in Zhongshan Park, which abuts the western end of Sunwen Road West immediately to its north. A Sun Yat-sen memorial pavilion stands near the pagoda.
- Sunwen Memorial Park, at the southern end of Xingzhong Road, is the site of the largest bronze sculpture of Sun Yat-sen in the world.
Zhongshan is a prefecture-level city of the Guangdong province. An uncommon administrative feature is that it has no county-level division. The city government directly administers five district offices corresponding to the urban area of Zhongshan proper), 18 towns and a development zone:
|Map||#||Name||Hanzi||Hanyu Pinyin||Population (2010 Census)|
|1||Dong District||东区||Dōng Qū||153,477|
|2||Nan District||南区||Nán Qū||64,548|
|3||Xi District||西区||Xi Qū||97,864|
|4||Shiqi District||石岐区||Shíqí Qū||206,362|
|5||Torch Hi-tech Industrial Development District||火炬高技术产业开发区||Huǒjù Gāojìshù Chǎnyè Kāifā Qū||229,997|
|6||Wuguishan District||五桂山区||Wǔguìshān Qū||48,019|
|7||Nanlang Town||南朗镇||Nánlǎng Zhèn||107,977|
|8||Sanxiang Town||三乡镇||Sānxiāng Zhèn||200,197|
|9||Tanzhou Town||坦洲镇||Tǎnzhōu Zhèn||219,943|
|10||Shenwan Town||神湾镇||Shénwān Zhèn||31,392|
|11||Banfu Town||板芙镇||Bǎnfú Zhèn||82,412|
|12||Dachong Town||大涌镇||Dàyǒng Zhèn||74,276|
|13||Shaxi Town||沙溪镇||Shāxī Zhèn||119,372|
|14||Henglan Town||横栏镇||Hénglán Zhèn||103,135|
|15||Guzhen Town||古镇镇||Gǔzhèn Zhèn||147,440|
|16||Xiaolan Town||小榄镇||Xiǎolǎn Zhèn||15,626|
|17||Dongfeng Town||东凤镇||Dōngfèng Zhèn||123,562|
|18||Nantou Town||南头镇||Nántóu Zhèn||130,712|
|19||Huangpu Town||黄圃镇||Huángpǔ Zhèn||145,017|
|20||Sanjiao Town||三角镇||Sānjiǎo Zhèn||121,770|
|21||Minzong Town||民众镇||Mínzhòng Zhèn||108,417|
|22||Gangkou Town||港口镇||Gǎngkǒu Zhèn||113,748|
|23||Fusha Town||阜沙镇||Fùshā Zhèn||57,570|
|24||Dongsheng Town||东升镇||Dōngshēng zhèn||118,052|
- Cuiheng New Area (翠亨新区)
Zhongshan, together with Dongguan, Nanhai and Shunde, are dubbed as Four Little Tigers in Guangdong. The proximity of Zhongshan to Hong Kong and Macau is an advantage to its economic development, especially in manufacturing.
In the 1980s, Zhongshan had a relatively developed State-Owned Enterprises (SOE) sector that was used to stimulate Township and Village Enterprises (TVE) development in the countryside. Currently, the SOE sector is much weaker, and the economy is dominated by foreign investment and TVEs, and also by various specialized manufacturing towns. Each of these towns specializes in making a particular product. Most of the towns are so successful that they earn a reputation as leading manufacturers in their own pillar industries. Indeed, "One Industry in One Town" has become a unique economic feature in Zhongshan.
Pillar industries in various specialized manufacturing towns in Zhongshan include:
- Dachong Town for mahogany furniture,
- Dongfeng Town for electric household appliances,
- Guzhen Town for lighting fixtures,
- Huangpu Town for food processing,
- Shaxi Town for casual wear manufacturing,
- Xiaolan Town for locks and hardware, as well as for electronic acoustics products
The government of Zhongshan encourages "Research and Design" in the region by setting up national level research centres and specialized industrial regions. For example, the Zhongshan National Torch High-Tech Industrial Development Zone (中山国家级火炬高技术产业开发区) was established in 1990 in the east of the city by the Ministry of Science and Technology and the governments of Guangdong province and Zhongshan. Zhongshan Port, which ranks among the top 10 ports nationwide in terms of container-handling capacity, is in the zone. Since 2001, it has included the Zhongshan Electronic Base of China (中国电子中山基地) for its reputation in the electronic acoustics industry. Following possible development in Nansha, the city considers its eastern part, of which 400 square kilometres (154 square miles) of land is available, a focus of future development.
Currently, the city is trying to re-organize its fragmented industrialization. Meanwhile, the light and labour-intensive industry characteristic of Zhongshan's economy faces the problem of a shortage of land in Zhongshan.
- Former Residence of Sun Yat-sen Memorial Museum The former residence of Sun Zhongshan is at the center of the Memorial Museum, located in the village of Cuiheng.
- Xiaolan Many houses in the town of Xiaolan have garden pavilions dedicated to the cultivation of chrysanthemums. Roofs and balconies, streets and lanes feature countless varieties of chrysanthemum plantings.
Colleges and universities
- Zhongshan College
- Guangdong Pharmaceutical University
- University of Electronic Science and Technology
- Zhongshan Overseas Chinese Middle School (中山市華僑中學) opened in 1954, it is one of the first top-grade schools of Guangdong Province and the first national demonstrative ordinary high schools, which attracts lots of overseas, Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan students.(http://zsqz.com/english/index.asp)
- Zhongshan Memorial Middle School (Chinese: 中山纪念中学; pinyin: Zhōngshān Jìniàn Zhōngxúe) opened in 1932. It was established in memory of the Chinese revolutionist Sun Yat-sen, and built under the supervision of Soong Ching-ling, the widow of Sun Yat-sen.
- Zhongshan No.1 Middle School  (Chinese: 中山市第一中学; pinyin: Zhōngshānshì Dìyī Zhōngxúe) opened in 1908.
- Guangdong Zhongshan Experimental Middle School
- Guangdong Bowen International School
- Sanxin Bilingual School
- China Hong Kong English School
- Chu Kong Passenger Transport (CKS) connects Zhongshan with Hong Kong with multiple daily scheduled high speed ferry services to both Hong Kong-Macau Ferry Terminal on Hong Kong Island and Hong Kong China Ferry Terminal in Kowloon. The trip by ferry takes about 1.5 hours.
- Guangzhou–Zhuhai Intercity Railway Multiple stations serve the city of Zhongshan.
- The Shenzhen-Zhongshan Bridge will connect Zhongshan with the city of Shenzhen on the Eastern side of the Pearl River Delta. It will consist of a series of bridges and tunnels, starting from Bao'an International Airport on the Shenzhen side. Construction of the proposed 51 km (32 mi) eight-lane link is scheduled to start in 2015, with completion scheduled for 2021.
Twin towns – Sister cities
Zhongshan is an official sister city of five cities worldwide.
|United States||Honolulu County||Hawaii||1997|
- Tai Ping Huan Yu Ji 《太平寰宇记》, juan 157, 3019.
- "Zhongshan Torch Hi-tech Industrial Development Zone". rightsite.asia. 2014. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
- "International Relations, Official Web Site for The City and County of Honolulu". web.archive.org. 2014. Archived from the original on 28 June 2012. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
- "Sister & Friendship Cities". burnaby.ca. 2014. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Zhongshan.|
- Zhongshan government website
- Zhongshan News website (in Simplified Chinese)
- Zhongshan News website (translated to English by Google)
- Zhongshan Overseas Friendship Association website (in Simplified Chinese)
- ZSRenn (English information for expats and tourists in Zhongshan)
- Map of Zhongshan
|Jiangmen||Pearl River / Shenzhen|
|Zhuhai||Pearl River / Hong Kong|