Zhongxiang

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Zhongxiang
钟祥市
County-level City
Zhongxiang is located in Hubei
Zhongxiang
Zhongxiang
Location in Hubei
Coordinates: 31°10′N 112°35′E / 31.167°N 112.583°E / 31.167; 112.583Coordinates: 31°10′N 112°35′E / 31.167°N 112.583°E / 31.167; 112.583
Country People's Republic of China
Province Hubei
Prefecture-level city Jingmen
Township-level divisions 1 subdistrict
15 towns
1 township
Seat Yingzhong Subdistrict (郢中街道)
Area
 • Total 4,488 km2 (1,733 sq mi)
Elevation 66 m (217 ft)
Population
 • Total 1,032,568
 • Density 230/km2 (600/sq mi)
Time zone China Standard (UTC+8)
Postal code 431900
Area code(s) 0724
Website http://www.zhongxiang.gov.cn/

Zhongxiang (simplified Chinese: 钟祥; traditional Chinese: 鐘祥; pinyin: Zhōngxiáng) is a county-level city of Jingmen, central Hubei province, People's Republic of China. The name Zhongxiang means "Blessed with propitious omen", and was given to the city by Emperor Jiajing in the Ming Dynasty. Zhongxiang is a well-known historical and cultural city in China.

History[edit]

Zhongxiang is one of the cradles of Chu culture. It was the alternate capital of the Chu state in the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States period.

Because the Ming Dynasty's Jiajing Emperor (known also under the temple name Shizong; reigned 1521–1567) was born and had lived in the city before he succeeded to the throne, Zhongxiang, the place where the Chengtian Prefecture (fu) Government Office was located, became one of the three major prefectures directly under the central government. Once on the throne, the Jiajing Emperor controversially had his dead father Zhu Youyuan (1476–1519) retroactively styled as the Gongruixian Emperor; his mother became the Zhangsheng empress dowager. They were buried at a sumptuous mausoleum, knowns as the Xianling Tomb, a few kilometers northeast of Zhongxiang.[1]

During Jiajing's reign, a large estate owned by the emperor occupied a significant part of Chengtian Prefecture, and was run by the same eunuch who was in charge of the protection of the mausoleum.[2]

The mausoleum complex is now a tourist site; it was included on the List of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 2000, as one of the Imperial Tombs of the Ming and Qing Dynasties.[3]

Economy[edit]

Industry[edit]

After years of construction, an industrial structure has been initially formed by the development of machinery, building materials, chemicals, light industry, textile and food industry. Among more than 600 industrial products, 20 of them entered international markets, 45 species are at national leading level and 130 species are at the leading level in Hubei province.

As of 2009, 265 main industrial enterprises contribute 19.563 billion yuan to the city's industrial output value with a sales value of 18.9747 billion yuan, export delivery value of 307.16 million yuan. [4]

Agriculture[edit]

ZhongXiang has diversified terrain and appropriate subtropical monsoon climate. The total land area is 4760 square kilometer, with 1300 square kilometer cultivated land 300 square kilometer uncultivated land. Area for forest, waters and pasture is 1300 square kilometer, 50 square kilometer and 1200 square kilometer respectively. The total amount of freshwater resources is 5104.2 billion cubic meters.

With diversified terrain, there are different kinds of agricultural products. Main agricultural products include grains, cotton, oil, pigs, poultry, fruits, vegetables, and edible fungus. Main crops includes rice, wheat, corn, soybean silkworm peas, and cotton, rapeseed, peanut, sesame, vegetables, citrus fruit, pears, grape, red jujube, peaches, tea, etc.

In 2009, the municipal agricultural output value reached 8.2 billion yuan. Total agricultural production includes 816500 tons total grain output, 144100 tons cotton output, 120700 tons oil production; 92000 tons animal production; 110000 tons output of aquatic products; 193300 tons fruit production. [5]

Geography[edit]

Zhongxiang, with a total land area of 4,488 square kilometres (1,733 sq mi), is situated in the central part of Hubei. It lies at the north of Jianghan Plain, and the middle reaches of the Han River, with latitude ranging from 30° 42' to 31° 36' N and longitude 112° 07' to 113° 00' E, and a maximum north-south extent of 100.6 km (62.5 mi) and east-west width of 83.5 km (51.9 mi). The urban area is at 66 m (217 ft) above sea level.[6] After the building of the Three Gorges Dam a number of people from the Gaoyang area moved to the area around Zhongxiang. It borders Suizhou to the northeast, Jingshan County to the east, Tianmen to the south, the two districts (urban area) of Jingmen to the west, and Yicheng to the northwest.

Climate[edit]

Zhongxiang has a subtropical monsoon climate.The average annual temperature is 15.9 °C (60.6 °F). July is the hottest month, with an average temperature 27.8 °C (82.0 °F) or above, The highest temperature recorded in the city is 39.7 °C (103 °F), reached on June 22, 1961. January is the coldest month, with an average temperature of 3.0 °C (37.4 °F). The coldest temperature ever recorded in Zhongxiang was −15.3 °C (4 °F) on January 30, 1977.

Zhongxiang has abundant precipitation throughout the year, with average precipitation of 961.6 millimetres (37.86 in) every year. Rain and heat occurring in the same season. Snow is infrequent. Zhongxinag receives plenty of sunshine, with about 1930.8 to 2114.3 hours every year.

Climate data for Zhongxiang
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 7
(44)
9
(48)
14
(57)
20
(68)
25
(77)
29
(84)
31
(87)
31
(87)
27
(80)
22
(71)
15
(59)
9
(48)
19
(66)
Average low °C (°F) 0
(32)
1
(33)
5
(41)
12
(53)
17
(62)
21
(69)
24
(75)
23
(73)
18
(64)
13
(55)
7
(44)
1
(33)
11
(51)
Precipitation mm (inches) 23
(0.9)
30
(1.2)
51
(2.0)
86
(3.4)
114
(4.5)
135
(5.3)
178
(7.0)
124
(4.9)
91
(3.6)
64
(2.5)
41
(1.6)
20
(0.8)
958
(37.7)
Source: "Weatherbase: Historical Weather for Zhongxiang, China". Weatherbase. 2011. 

Administrative divisions[edit]

Zhongxiang is administratively equal to a county and is divided into 17 township-level divisions: 1 subdistrict, 15 towns, and 1 townships.[7]

  • Yingzhong Subdistrict (郢中街道), 49 square kilometres (19 sq mi), 170,991
  • Yangzi (洋梓镇), 403 square kilometres (156 sq mi), 68,341
  • Changshou (长寿镇), 275 square kilometres (106 sq mi), 27,535
  • Fengle (丰乐镇), 162 square kilometres (63 sq mi), 68,700
  • Huji (胡集镇), 393 square kilometres (152 sq mi), 129,891
  • Shuanghe (双河镇), 235 square kilometres (91 sq mi), 46,220
  • Linkuang (磷矿镇), 219 square kilometres (85 sq mi), 47,092
  • Wenji (文集镇), 128 square kilometres (49 sq mi), 44,405
  • Lengshui (冷水镇), 314 square kilometres (121 sq mi), 47.393
  • Shipai (石牌镇), 295 square kilometres (114 sq mi), 84,296
  • Jiukou (旧口镇), 201 square kilometres (78 sq mi), 103,514
  • Chaihu (柴湖镇), 225 square kilometres (87 sq mi), 95,663
  • Changtan (长滩镇), 153 square kilometres (59 sq mi), 20,338
  • Dongqiao (东桥镇), 256 square kilometres (99 sq mi), 24,085
  • Kedian (客店镇), 293 square kilometres (113 sq mi), 14,581
  • Zhangji (张集镇), 289 square kilometres (112 sq mi), 22,805
  • Jiuli Township (九里乡), 99 square kilometres (38 sq mi), 16,718

Sights[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Eric N. Danielson, "The Ming Ancestor Tomb"
  2. ^ Shih-shan Henry Tsai, The Eunuchs in the Ming Dynasty. SUNY Press, 1996. ISBN 0-7914-2687-4. Partial text on Google Books. P. 168
  3. ^ Imperial Tombs of the Ming and Qing Dyansties. See in particular the China's official nomination document for the UNESCO, with a large chapter on Xianling.
  4. ^ http://www.zhongxiang.gov.cn/zjzx/ShowArticle.asp?ArticleID=223
  5. ^ http://www.zhongxiang.gov.cn/zjzx/ShowArticle.asp?ArticleID=222
  6. ^ 钟祥城市介绍 (in Chinese). Weather China. Retrieved 2013-01-02. 
  7. ^ 2011年统计用区划代码和城乡划分代码:钟祥市 (in Chinese). National Bureau of Statistics of the People's Republic of China. Retrieved 2013-01-02.