|— Prefecture-level city —|
|Country||People's Republic of China|
|• Mayor||Guo Jianbiao (郭剑彪)|
|• Land||1,440.12 km2 (556.03 sq mi)|
|• Water||20,800 km2 (8,000 sq mi)|
|Time zone||China Standard (UTC+8)|
|Wu||Cieu平se平 (Ningbo dialect)
|Alternative Chinese name|
Zhoushan (help·info) or Zhoushan Archipelago New Area; formerly transliterated as Chusan, is a prefecture-level city and a state-level new area in northeastern Zhejiang province of Eastern China. One of the two prefecture-level cities of the People's Republic of China consisting solely of islands (the other is Sansha in Hainan, however its territory is in dispute), it lies across the mouth of the Hangzhou Bay, and is separated from the mainland by a narrow body of water. On 8 July 2011 the central government approved Zhoushan's status as a state-level new area.
The archipelago was inhabited 6,000 years ago during the Neolithic by people of the Hemudu culture. During the Spring and Autumn Period, Zhoushan was called Yongdong (甬东), referring to its location east of the Yong River, and belonged to the State of Yue. The fishermen and sailors who inhabited the islands often engaged in piracy and became recruits for uprisings against the central authorities. At the time of the Eastern Jin Dynasty, Zhoushan Islands served as the base for Sun En's rebellion. Sun En, an adherent of the Taoist sect Wudou Midao (Five Bushels of Rice), launched his rebellion around the year 400 and was defeated by Jin forces in 402. In 863, the Japanese Buddhist monk Hui'e (慧锷; Egaku) and a Putuoshan local Zhang-shi (张氏) placed a statue of Guanyin at Chaoyin Cave (潮音洞) that would later become a popular tourist and pilgrim destination. During the Ming dynasty, especially between the years 1530 and 1560, Japanese and Chinese pirates used Zhoushan as one of their principal bases from which they launched attacks as far as Nanjing; "the whole Chinese coast from northern Shandong to western Guangdong was ravaged to a distance of sixty miles inland."
After suppression of the pirates, Zhoushan became an important commercial entrepôt. Under the early Qing dynasty, it played a similar role to Amoy and Canton as a frequent port of call for Western traders. The restriction of all European trade to the port of Canton in 1760 forced Westerners to leave Zhoushan. One of the requests of Lord Macartney's embassy to emperor Qianlong in 1793 was an acquisition of "a small unfortified island near Zhoushan for the residence of English traders, storage of goods, and outfitting of ships." Emperor Qianlong denied this request together with all the rest.
British forces under Captain Charles Elliot captured Zhoushan on 5–6 July 1840 during the First Opium War and evacuated it in early 1841, after Elliot reached an agreement with Qishan, the governor general of Tianjin and grand secretary to the Daoguang Emperor, in exchange for cession of Hong Kong. At that time, Zhoushan was a well known port while Hong Kong was still only a fishing village. The British Foreign Secretary Palmerston was famously livid when he learned that Elliot agreed to the cession of Hong Kong ("a barren island with hardly a house on it") while giving up Zhoushan. Elliot was dismissed in April 1841 for his blunder. His replacement Sir Henry Pottinger led a British fleet that recaptured Zhoushan on October 1, 1841. The First Opium War ended with conclusion of the Treaty of Nanking in which China opened up the cities of Canton, Fuzhou, Amoy (Xiamen), Ningbo, and Shanghai to residence by British subjects for the purpose of trade. As a result, Britain no longer had any use for Zhoushan but it kept the island until 1846 as a guarantee for the fulfilment of the stipulations of the treaty. Zhoushan was also occupied by the British in 1860 during the Second Opium War.
On February 13, 1862, Wang Yijun (王义钧) of the Heavenly Kingdom of Taiping attempted to (re)take Zhoushan from Qing forces, but died in the unsuccessful attempt. Sun Yat-sen visited Zhoushan on August 25, 1916 and wrote Travelling to Putuo (游普陀志奇 You Putuo Zhiqi). On October 1, 1942, the Japanese Lisbon Maru (里斯本丸) transported 1,800 POW back to Tokyo, but Lisbon Maru sank after being hit by a torpedo near Qingbing Island (青浜). 384 of the British POW overboard were rescued by the fishermen of Dongji Township (东极乡) nearby.
Administrative history 
Today's Zhoushan city was created as Wengshan County (翁山縣; Wu Chinese: on se yoe, [oŋ se ɦø]) in Mingzhou Prefecture (明州, or modern Ningbo) in 738 during the Tang Dynasty. In 1073 at the time of the Song Dynasty it was renamed Changguo (昌國縣; Wu Chinese: tshan kueh yoe [tsʰã kuəʔ ɦø]) then upgraded to a prefecture (昌國州) in the early Yuan Dynasty. It became Dinghai County (定海縣) of Zhejiang Province in 1688 during the Qing Dynasty and was upgraded to a directly controlled subprefecture (定海直隸廳) in 1841, but reverted to a county after the end of the imperial period.
Under the Republic of China's rule, Dinghai County was part of Zhejiang Province as it had been throughout the Qing era. However, Shengsi was separated into an Archipelago Direct-control District (列島直屬區) of Jiangsu province in 1946, and made a county in October 1949. In that same year, the last year under the rule of the Republic, the remaining Dinghai County was divided into Dinghai and Wengzhou (翁洲) Counties.
Zhoushan came under communist control on May 17, 1950, and Wengzhou was merged back into Dinghai County, which was then under Ningbo Zhuanqu (寧波專區). Shengsi was made a tequ (特區) of Songjiang Zhuanqu (松江專區), still part of Jiangsu in the same year, and upgraded to a county in the following year. In March 1953, the Council of Ministers approved to divide Dinghai County into the counties of Dinghai, Putuo, and Daishan. In addition, Shengsi County was returned to Zhejiang, to be administered, with the three former Dinghai counties, as Zhoushan Zhuanqu of Zhejiang Xiangshan County (象山) of Ningbo Zhuanqu was briefly incorporated into Zhoushan from 1954 to 1958. All subdivisions' county status abolished, the commission became a county of Ningbo Zhuanqu in 1958, and was reverted to a zhuanqu on its own in May 1962, and changed to a prefecture (地区) on 1967 (approved by the State Council on January 23, 1962). Shengsi was temporarily assigned to Shanghai in the early 1960s. Created in 1962, the short-lived Daqu (大衢) County was halved into parts of Daishan and Shengsi four years later.
The prefecture-level city status was granted on January 27, 1987 to Zhoushan, and Dinghai and Putuo Counties were upgraded to districts. The municipal People's Government was established on March 8 of that year. April of the same year, the ports of Zhoushan became open to foreign ships. On April 10, 1988, it became a coastal economic open zone.
The Zhoushan Archipelago, comprising 1,390 islands and 3,306 reefs, is located outside of Hangzhou Bay. It is the largest archipelago of China. Among these islands, 103 are inhabited all year round, 58 are larger than one square kilometer, and only 15 have populations over 10,000. Below is a list of major inhabited islands.
|Climate chart (explanation)|
(DH = Dinghai District, PT = Putuo District, DS = Daishan County, SS = Shengsi County)
Major Large Islands:
- Zhoushan Island (舟山岛), 502.65 km2 (194.07 sq mi), 635,595, (DH/PT)
- Daishan Island (岱山岛), 119.32 km2 (46.07 sq mi), 111,765, (DS)
- Liuheng Island (六横岛), 109.40 km2 (42.24 sq mi), 59,102, (PT)
- Jintang Island (金塘岛), 82.11 km2 (31.70 sq mi), 37,321, (DH)
- Zhujiajian Island (朱家尖岛), 75.84 km2 (29.28 sq mi), 27,981, (PT)
- Qushan Island (衢山岛/大衢岛), 73.57 km2 (28.41 sq mi), 53,016, (DS)
- Taohua Island (桃花岛), 44.43 km2 (17.15 sq mi), 10,867, (PT)
- Greater Changtu Island (大长涂山), 40.62 km2 (15.68 sq mi), 1,750, (DS)
- Xiushan Island (秀山岛), 26.33 km2 (10.17 sq mi), 10,106, (DS)
- Sijiao Island (泗礁山), 25.88 km2 (9.99 sq mi), 39,008, (SS)
- Xiazhi Island (虾峙岛), 18.59 km2 (7.18 sq mi), 11,247, (PT)
- Dengbu Island (登步岛), 16.72 km2 (6.46 sq mi), 2,479, (PT)
- Mount Putuo (普陀山), 16.06 km2 (6.20 sq mi), 10,337, (PT)
- Cezi Island (册子岛), 14.97 km2 (5.78 sq mi), 6,334, (DH)
- Changbai Island (长白岛), 14.16 km2 (5.47 sq mi), 3,066, (DH)
- Lesser Changtu Island (小长涂山), 13.33 km2 (5.15 sq mi), 19,750, (DS)
- Dayu Island (大鱼山), 11.03 km2 (4.26 sq mi), 788, (DS)
Islands between 5 and 10 sq. km:
- Fuodu Island (佛渡岛), 9.19 km2 (3.55 sq mi), 1,292, (PT)
- Yuanshan Island (元山岛/悬山岛), 8.21 km2 (3.17 sq mi), 751, (PT)
- Changzhi Island (长峙岛), 7.97 km2 (3.08 sq mi), 3,464, (DH)
- Damao Island (大猫岛), 6.92 km2 (2.67 sq mi), 453, (DH)
- Greater Yangshan Island (大洋山), 6.56 km2 (2.53 sq mi), 9,336, (SS)
- Gouqi Island (枸杞岛), 6.38 km2 (2.46 sq mi), 7,611, (SS)
- Dapeng Island (大鹏岛), 6.09 km2 (2.35 sq mi), 785, (DH)
- Aoshan Island (岙山), 5.96 km2 (2.30 sq mi), 1,087, (DH)
- Greater Huanglong Island (大黄龙岛), 5.67 km2 (2.19 sq mi), 6,910, (SS)
- Xiaogan Island (小干岛), 5.56 km2 (2.15 sq mi), 5,248, (PT)
Small Major Inhabited Islands:
- Shengshan Island (嵊山岛), 4.47 km2 (1.73 sq mi), 8,309, (SS)
- Shulanghu Island (鼠浪湖岛), 4.38 km2 (1.69 sq mi), 136, (DS)
- Lujiazhi Island (鲁家峙岛), 4.36 km2 (1.68 sq mi), 7,938, (PT)
- Panzhi Island (盘峙岛), 4.11 km2 (1.59 sq mi), 2,177, (DH)
- Huaniao Island (花鸟山), 3.99 km2 (1.54 sq mi), 977, (SS)
- Dongju Island (东巨岛), 3.42 km2 (1.32 sq mi), 86, (DH)
- Lesser Yangshan Island (小洋山), 3.38 km2 (1.31 sq mi), 1,215, (SS)
- Eastern Fushan Island (东福山), 2.98 km2 (1.15 sq mi), 142, (PT)
- Mayi Island (蚂蚁岛), 2.90 km2 (1.12 sq mi), 5,814, (PT)
- Miaozihu Island (庙子湖岛), 2.65 km2 (1.02 sq mi), 806, (PT)
- Dajiao Island (大蛟山), 2.58 km2 (1.00 sq mi), 107, (DS)
- Huangxing Island (黄兴岛), 2.44 km2 (0.94 sq mi), 64, (PT)
- Huni Island (湖泥山), 2.38 km2 (0.92 sq mi), 682, (PT)
- Eastern Bailian Island (东白莲山), 2.05 km2 (0.79 sq mi), 135, (PT)
- Jinji Island (金鸡山), 2.03 km2 (0.78 sq mi), 2,601, (SS)
- Shenjiawan Island (沈家湾岛), 1.95 km2 (0.75 sq mi), 435, (SS)
- Lidiao Island (里钓山), 1.87 km2 (0.72 sq mi), 216, (DH)
- Maji Island (马迹山), 1.81 km2 (0.70 sq mi), 170, (SS)
- Jiangnan Island (江南山), 1.71 km2 (0.66 sq mi), 4401, (DS)
- Baisha Island (白沙岛), 1.71 km2 (0.66 sq mi), 672, (PT)
- Western Lvhua Island (西绿华山), 1.57 km2 (0.61 sq mi), 336, (SS)
- Bixia Island (壁下山), 1.44 km2 (0.56 sq mi), 162, (SS)
- Qingbang Island (青浜岛), 1.43 km2 (0.55 sq mi), 494, (PT)
- Fuchi Island (富翅岛), 1.36 km2 (0.53 sq mi), 197, (DH)
- Eastern Lvhua Island (东绿华山), 1.32 km2 (0.51 sq mi), 227, (SS)
- Western Bailian Island (西白莲山), 1.29 km2 (0.50 sq mi), 408, (PT)
- Hulu Island (葫芦岛), 1.28 km2 (0.49 sq mi), 330, (PT)
Zhoushan includes 20,800 km2 (8,031 sq mi) of marine territory, but only 1,440.12 km2 (556 sq mi) of land, 183.19 km2 (71 sq mi) of which are submerged during high tides. It is 182 km (113 mi) east-east and 169 km (105 mi) north-south and although heavily populated now has few farms.
Zhoushan has a four-season, monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa), with cool, damp winters, and hot, humid summers. Conditions, especially during summer, are generally moderated by the surrounding waters of the East China Sea, bringing a January average of 5.8 °C (42.4 °F) and August average of 27.1 °C (80.8 °F), with an annual mean of 16.43 °C (61.6 °F). Though rainfall occurs mostly during summer, precipitation is still significant during the winter months, which are the driest. There are 1,938 hours of bright sunshine annually.
|Climate data for Dinghai District (1971−2000)|
|Average high °C (°F)||9.4
|Average low °C (°F)||3.2
|Precipitation mm (inches)||67.6
|Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)||12.1||12.1||17.0||15.0||14.8||16.2||11.2||14.2||12.9||10.6||9.0||8.4||153.5|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||121.6||115.2||124.2||155.4||170.1||147.8||239.6||225.7||175.0||165.3||147.4||150.4||1,937.7|
|Percent possible sunshine||38||37||34||40||40||35||56||55||47||47||46||48||43.6|
|Source: China Meteorological Administration|
According to the report from the Sixth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China, the total population of Zhoushan Municipality is 1,121,261 with 588,414 males and 532,847 females as of November 1, 2010, among which an overwhelmingly majority is Han Chinese (1,109,813). The number of household is about 454,800. For an administrative division distribution, Dinghai District has a population of 464,184, Putuo District has a population of 378,805, Daishan County has a population of 202,164 and Shengsi County has a population of 76,108. In terms of education attainment, about 10 percent of the total population (115,286) has received higher education, while a population of 77,577 is illiterate or half-illiterate. In terms of age distribution, there is a children (aged 0–14) population of 114,265 and a senior population of 176,331.
- Two major ferry routes with high frequency (intervals vary from fifteen minutes to an hour) connect Zhoushan Main Island to Shanghai to the north and Ningbo to the south. Besides, there are scheduled ships travelling between Zhoushan and other ports, such as Wenzhou and Fuzhou. Major inhabited islands within the municipality are served by smaller scale ferries and speedboat fleets. Frequencies depend on levels of population.
- Zhoushan Putuoshan Airport (舟山普陀山机场), in fact located at Zhujiajian Island, is a domestic hub with scheduled passenger flights to several cities in China, including Shanghai, Beijing, Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Xiamen, and Jinjiang, provided by five airlines. The airport was opened on August 8, 1997, and is rated as a 4D airport. As of the year of 2010, Zhoushan Airport is the 77th civic airport in Mainland China in terms of passengers served with 356,869 passengers coming through that year.
- Zhoushan Trans-Oceanic Bridges (舟山跨海大桥 or 舟山大陆连岛工程), the indispensable component of Yongzhou Expressway (甬舟高速) (numbered G9211 in the National Trunk Highway System), consist of five consecutive bridges which connect Zhoushan to the mainland, Zhenhai District of Ningbo to be specific. These five bridges are Cengang Bridge (岑港大桥), Xiangjiaomen Bridge (响礁门大桥), Taoyaomen Bridge (桃夭门大桥), Xihoumen Bridge (西堠门大桥) and Jintang Bridge (金塘大桥). The painstaking huge project, started in 1999 and completed in 2010, is the largest bridge group in China. Xihoumen Bridge, in particular, is the world's second-longest suspension bridge in terms of the length of the central span.
- Mount Putuo(普陀山) is considered the bodhimanda of Avalokitesvara (Guanyin), a revered Bodhisattva in many parts of East Asia. It is one of the four sacred mountains in Chinese Buddhism, the others being Mount Wutai, Mount Jiuhua, and Mount Emei.
- Zhujiajian (朱家尖) is the fifth largest island of the archipelago and a newly developed seaside resort with intriguing seascapes, unmarred beaches, dense woods, sheer rock cliffs, hills for hiking, extraordinary seafood and displays of fisher folk culture. It is home to the Zhoushan International Sand Sculpture Festival.
- Taohua Island (桃花岛) is the most botanically diversified island in Zhejiang's coastal area, with nearly 600 species of trees and plants, including oranges, orchids and narcissus – and now peach trees. It is also a popular site for shooting movies and TV series based on Mr. Jin Yong’s novels. Four Chinese TV serials - “The Eagle-Shooting Heroes,” “Demi-Gods and Semi-Devils,” “The Return of the Condor Heroes” and “Duke of Mount Deer” - were filmed on the island. Starting from 2004, the Jin Yong Martial Arts (Wuxia) Culture Festival is held here every other year around summer. It offers dazzling martial arts performances and competitions, all thrilling for Cha’s fans.
- Dongji Islands (东极岛), formerly known as Zhongjieshan Chain of Islands (中街山列岛), is a group of islands located at the eastmost end of the Zhoushan Archipelago, extending far into the East China Sea. It is famous for well-preserved original fishing villages, and unpolluted natural seascapes.
- Shenjiamen Fishing Port (沈家门渔港) is the traditional center of Zhoushan Fishery and the largest fishing port of China. Its seafront promenade of open-air seafood restaurants is widely appreciated for fresh seafood served, wonderful views of the port and plenty of strolling musicians.
- Opium War Memorial (Zhushan Park) (鸦片战争遗址公园(竹山公园)) is an urban park at the southwestern corner of Dinghai county town in memory of the battle fought between Zhoushaners and the British around 1840, notably the heroic deeds of three generals, Ge Yunfei, Wang Xipeng and Zheng Guohong.
Notable People 
- Ying Yao (應繇; ?-1255) - martial official who has a biography in the History of Song
- Ge Yunfei (葛雲飛; 1789-1841), Wang Xipeng (王錫朋; 1786-1841), Zheng Guohong (鄭國鴻; 1777-1841) - three high-ranking generals died in the Capture of Chusan of the First Opium War
- Zhu Baosan (朱葆三; 1848–1926) - banker and insurance capitalist
- Liu Hongsheng (劉鴻生; 1888–1956) - one of the early industrialists in Shanghai, founder of Zhoushan High School
- Zhou Xiangsheng (周祥生; 1895-1974) - founder of Shanghai taxi industry
- Dong Haoyun (董浩雲; 1912–1982) - shipping tychoon and founder of several major shipping companies
- Tung Chee Hwa (董建華; 1937-) - eldest son of Dong Haoyun, the first elected Chief Executive of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China
- An Zijie (安子介; 1912-2000) - famous social activist, industrialist, scholar and translator, vice-chairman of the 8th and 9th CPPCC National Committee
- Ding Guangxun (丁光訓, 1915-) - vice-chairman of the 10th CPPCC National Committee, chairman of the China Amity Foundation
- Qiao Shi (喬石; 1924-) - former chairman of People's Congress of the People's Republic of China
- Jin Weiying (金維映; 1904-1941) - female communist, Deng Xiaoping's second wife
- Yang Jingjuan (楊靜娟; 1924–1941) - famous female communist
- Jin Xingyao (金性堯; 1916-2007) - classical literature and history researcher
- He Wei (何為; 1922-2011) - famous writer
- Wang Yongnian (王永年; 1927-2012) - renowned translator and foreign language editor
- Sanmao (三毛; 1943–1991) - famous Taiwanese writer
- Michael Miu (苗僑偉; 1958-) - Hong Kong TVB actor
- Wong Kar-wai (王家衛; 1958-) - famous Hong Kong filmmaker
- He Saifei (何賽飛; 1963-) - famous actress
- Yang Yuanqin (楊元慶; 1964-) - chief executive officer of Lenovo
- Zhu Renmin (朱仁民; 1949-) - famous painter, professor of Zhejiang University and the creator of the Lotus Island Sculpture Park
- Fang Fukang (方福康; 1935-) - Professor of Physics and former president (1989-1995) of Beijing Normal University
- Tang Zhibo (唐志波; 1971-) - professor at College of Ship and Civil Engineering, Zhejiang Ocean University
- Fang Hanming (方漢明; 1972-) - Professor of Economics at University of Pennsylvania
- Chai Songyue (柴松嶽; 1941-) - former governor of Zhejiang Province (1997-2002)
- Xu Jingbo (徐靜波; 1963-) - well-known journalist and president of Asia News Agency
Zhoushan City has 111 licensed kindergartens, 62 primary schools, 34 middle schools, 16 high schools, 7 vocational schools, and 3 higher-educational level colleges and universities. Zhoushan High School, Dinghai First High School, Putuo High School, Daishan High School, and Shengsi High School are province level key public high schools. Nanhai Experimental School, located at Lincheng Sub-District of Dinghai and established in 2001, is a major private school. Zhejiang Ocean University is the only full-fledged university in the city. Zhejiang University Zhoushan Campus is currently under construction and scheduled to complete in 2015.
Sister cities 
- Cangzhou, Hebei
- Richmond, California, United States
- La Spezia, Province of La Spezia, Italy
- Szekszárd, Tolna County, Hungary
- Tinos, Cyclades, Greece
- Kesennuma, Miyagi, Japan
- Ganghwa County, Incheon Metropolitan City, South Korea
- Gokseong County, South Jeolla Province, South Korea
- Sacheon City, South Gyeongsang Province, South Korea
- Imus, Cavite, Philippines
- Gernet 2002, pp. 182-183.
- David McCraw (2003). "Magic Precincts: Five Buddhist temples and How They Grew" (PDF). Center for Chinese Studies, University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa.
- Gernet 2002, p. 422.
- Spence 1991, p. 120.
- See "Ch'ien lung's Letter to George III," http://web.jjay.cuny.edu/~jobrien/reference/ob41.html.
- Spence 1991, p. 156.
- Welsh 1997, p. 108.
- Spence 1991, p. 157.
- Walter Graham Blackie (1875). The Imperial gazetteer. LONDON. p. 696. Retrieved 17 July 2011.(Original from Oxford University)
- This article incorporates text from The Imperial gazetteer, by Walter Graham Blackie, a publication from 1875 now in the public domain in the United States.
- Gernet, Jacques (2002). A History of Chinese Civilization. translated by J.R. Foster and Charles Hartmann (2nd edition ed.). New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-49781-7.
- Spence, Jonathan (1991). The Search for Modern China. New York: W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-30780-8.
- Welsh, Frank (1997). A History of Hong Kong (revised edition ed.). London: HarperCollins Publishers. ISBN 0-00-638871-X.
Further reading 
- China. Statistical Dept (1880). Special catalogue of the Ningpo collection of exhibits for the international fishery exhibition, Berlin, 1880: Preceded by a description of the fisheries of Ningpo and the Chusan Archipelago. SHANGHAI: STATISTICAL DEPARTMENT OF THE INSPECTORATE GENERAL: Statistical Dept. p. 132. Retrieved 1 March 2012.(the New York Public Library)(Digitized December 2, 2009)
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Zhoushan|
- Government website of Zhoushan (Chinese)
- New Area website of Zhoushan (Chinese)
- Government website of Zhoushan (English)
- 舟山网 (Zhoushan Net) (Chinese): Local news and info
- "Undiscovered Zhoushan" (English): Maps and tourist information