|Meaning||Vermillion; named after the ancient State of Zhu (邾)|
|Related names||Zou (邹)|
- 1 Origination and distribution
- 2 Notable people surnamed 朱
- 3 References
- 4 External links
Origination and distribution
The Zhu (朱) family originated from the minor state of Zhu (邾, later renamed Zou) (p. 43, Chao) in present-day southwestern Shandong Province. King Wu of Zhou granted Cao Xie, a descendant of the Yellow Emperor through his grandson Zhuanxu, control over the small state. He was a vassal ruler under the Lu (state) (魯) and held the feudal title Viscount (子), but later held the title Duke of Zhu (邾公) during the Spring and Autumn Period. (p. 138, Li Chi; p. 239, Tan & p. 306, Wu).
The ancestral surname (姓) of the ruling family was Cao). (p. 144, Li Xueqin). The state of Zou was conquered and annexed by the state of Chu during the reign of King Xuan of Chu (楚宣王) (369–340 BC). (p. 43, Chao). The ruling family and its descendants adopted Zhu (朱) as their surname in memory of their former state of Zhu (邾). (p. 43, Chao & p. 239, Tan).
During the Ming Dynasty, some Zhus moved to Taiwan, and others later migrated to Southeast Asia, Europe and the Americas. The clan is also found in Korea and is known as: 주 (朱; Ju, Joo); it is the 32nd most common name in Korea though it is combined with the Zhou (周) surname.
Zhu has been one of the most influential clans in Chinese history. Zhu (朱) is technically a branch of the Cao (曹) surname, but now surpasses the parent ranking 13th and 27th respectively in terms of population size. 
Notable people surnamed 朱
Qin State, later changed to the Han State (783 - 784 C.E.)
- Zhu Ci, general and military governor under the Tang Dynasty after succeeding his predecessor Zhu Xicai; subsequently removed from command due to a rebellion by his brother Zhu Tao he declared himself the Emperor of the state of Qin (later changed to Han); he was killed in 784 after a short reign
- Zhu Tao, general under the Tang Dynasty; formally designated Crown Prince and the Prince of Tongyi by his brother Zhu Ci as Emperor of the state of Qin (later Han); received a pardon and restored to office by the Tang Dynasty Emperor Dezong but died in 785
- Zhu Kerong, grandson of Zhu Tao and military governor under the Tang Dynasty; formally designated the Prince of Wuxing by Zhu Ci; killed with his eldest son, Zhu Yanling, in 826 by their own soldiers in a mutiny
- Zhu Yansi, second son of Zhu Kerong; ruled as a military governor for less than four months before being killed in 826 by another officer, Li Zaiyi who alleged that Zhu committed many crimes; Li slaughtered the Zhu household and later became the new military governor
- Zhu Xicai, general and military governor under the Tang Dynasty; assassinated by his secretary for his arrogrance, extravagance and mistreatment of soldiers; replaced by his deputy Zhu Ci and posthumously designated the Prince of Miyun once Zhu Ci declared himself Emperor
Later Liang Dynasty (907 - 923 C.E.)
- Zhu Quanzhong, founder of the Later Liang Dynasty, which ushered in the era of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms; he reigned as the Taizu Emperor from 907 - 912
- Zhu Yougui, second emperor of the Later Liang Dynasty; he reigned from 912 - 913 having murdered his father Zhu Quanzhong
- Modi Emperor, third emperor of the Later Liang Dynasty; he reigned from 913 - 923 having deposed his brother Zhu Yougui for having killed their father, Zhu Quanzhong
Ming Dynasty (1368 - 1644 C.E.)
- Hongwu Emperor, key leader of the rebel movement which ousted the Mongolian Yuan Dynasty; founder of the Ming Dynasty
- Jianwen Emperor, grandson of the Hongwu Emperor; second emperor of the Ming Dynasty reigned from 1399–1402; overthrown by his uncle the Yongle Emperor
- Yongle Emperor, fourth son of the Hongwu Emperor and third emperor of the Ming Dynasty; reigned from 1403–1424; he was responsible for expanding China's influence throughout Asia, East Africa and perhaps beyond through his fleet of treasure ships led by the admiral eunuch Zheng He; he founded the Forbidden City and the Ming Dynasty Tombs
- Hongxi Emperor, eldest son of the Yongle Emperor and fourth emperor of the Ming Dynasty; he reigned for one year, 1425
- Xuande Emperor, eldest son of the Hongxi Emperor and fifth emperor of the Ming Dynasty; he reigned from 1426–1435
- Zhengtong Emperor, also known as the Tianshun Emperor; eldest son of the Xuande Emperor and sixth emperor of the Ming Dynasty; he reigned twice from 1436–1449 and from 1457–1464
- Jingtai Emperor, second son of the Xuande Emperor and seventh emperor of the Ming Dynasty; he reigned from 1450–1457
- Chenghua Emperor, eldest son of the Zhengtong Emperor and eighth emperor of the Ming Dynasty; he reigned from 1465–1487
- Hongzhi Emperor, third and eldest surviving son of the Chenghua Emperor and ninth emperor of the Ming Dynasty; he reigned from 1488–1505
- Zhengde Emperor, eldest son of the Hongzhi Emperor and tenth emperor of the Ming Dynasty; he reigned from 1506–1521
- Jiajing Emperor, grandson of the Chenghua Emperor and eventh emperor of the Ming Dynasty; he reigned from 1522–1567
- Longqing Emperor, third son of the Jiajing Emperor and twelfth emperor of the Ming Dynasty; he reigned from 1567–1572
- Wanli Emperor, third and eldest surviving son of the Longqing Emperor and thirteenth emperor of the Ming Dynasty; he reigned from 1573–1620
- Taichang Emperor, eldest son of the Wanli Emperor and sixteenth emperor of the Ming Dynasty; he reigned only one year, 1620
- Tianqi Emperor, eldest son of the Taichang Emperor and seventeenth emperor of the Ming Dynasty; he reigned from 1621–1627
- Chongzhen Emperor, fifth son of the Taichang Emperor and eighteenth/last emperor of the Ming Dynasty; he reigned from 1628–1644
Prominent Princes of the Ming Dynasty (1368 - 1644 C.E.)
- Zhu Biao, Emperor Hongwu's first son and Crown Prince until his death 1392; succeeded by his son the Jianwen Emperor.
- Zhu Quan, Prince of Ning, Seventeenth son of the Hongwu Emperor and younger half-brother to the Yongle Emperor; military commander, historian and playwright
- Zhu Zaiyu, Prince of Zheng, a sixth-generation descendant of the Hongxi Emperor, the fourth emperor of the Ming Dynasty; a musician and one of the first people to describe equal temperament in music in 1584
- Zhu Zhenhao, Prince of Ning; 5th generation descendant of Zhu Quan, Prince of Ning; a rebel Prince
- Zhu Zhifan, Prince of Anhua; a rebel Prince
Southern Ming Dynasty (1644 - 1662 C.E.)
- Zhu Changqing, Prince of Huai, Ming pretender reigning as Emperor Dongwu of the Southern Ming Dynasty
- Hongguang Emperor, born Zhu Yousong, Prince of Fu; Ming pretender and emperor of the Southern Ming Dynasty which resisted the Qing Dynasty
- Longwu Emperor, born Zhu Yujian, Prince of Tang; Ming pretender and emperor of the Southern Ming Dynasty
- Yongli Emperor, born Zhu Youlang, Prince of Gui; Ming pretender and emperor of the Southern Ming Dynasty
- Prince of Lu, born Zhu Yihai; a leader of the Southern Ming Dynasty
- Prince of Ningjing, born Zhu Shugui; ninth-generation descendant of Zhu Yuanzhang, the founder of the Ming Dynasty of China, via the line of his 15th son, Zhu Zhi, the Prince of Liao; a leader of the Southern Ming Dynasty
- Koxinga whose title literally means Lord with the Imperial Surname; he was born Zheng Chenggong but given the right to bear the imperial surname, Zhu, by the Longwu Emperor, a pretender to the then collapsing Ming Dynasty, for his noteworthy loyalist efforts; Koxinga founded the short-lived Kingdom of Taiwan
Government, Politics and Military
- Zhu Jun (Han Dynasty), politician during the late Han Dynasty; also a character in the Romance of the Three Kingdoms.
- Zhu Maichen, an impoverished student working as woodcutter; his wife divorced him to remarry a richer man; subsequently he became a provincial governor under Emperor Wu of Han; he rejected his ex-wife's subsequent attempts at reconciliation and is credited with the Chinese proverb: "Poured water cannot be retrieved". His biography is recorded in Volume 64 of the Book of Han.
- Hua Mulan, allegedly disguised herself as a man to take her elderly father's place in the army; asserted by Ming historians as of the Zhu clan though this assertion may have been politically motivated; later Qing historians, however, claim she was of the Wei clan but again this could have been politically motivated; in the movie Mulan Walt Disney Pictures avoided the debate by attributing her to the Fa clan
- Zhu Ling, ardent vassal of the Wei Kingdom during the Three Kingdoms period in China; created the Marquess of Gaotang by Cao Pi
- Zhu Zhi, military general for the Kingdom of Wu during the Three Kingdoms era of China
- Zhu Ran, military general for the Eastern Wu during the Three Kingdoms era of China
- Zhu Can, an agrarian rebel leader during the disintegration of the Sui Dynasty
- Zhu Jingze, a prominent official during the Tang Dynasty and Wu Zetian's Zhou Dynasty
- Zhu Mei, a prominent general during the Tang Dynasty
- Zhu Pu, an official of the Tang Dynasty, serving briefly as a chancellor during the reign of Emperor Zhaozong
- Zhu Jin, a warlord in the late Tang Dynasty
- Zhu Youqian, a warlord in the late Tang Dynasty, he was falsely accused of plotting a rebellion and Emperor Zhuangong put him and his entire family to death
- Zhu Hongzhang, a loyalist general during the Qing Dynasty; he helped put down the Taiping Rebellion
- Zhu Zhixin, Revolutionary and comrade of Sun Yat-sen who named Zhixin High School after his dead comrade
- Zhu Shaoliang, general in the National Revolutionary Army of the Republic of China
- Sir Moilin Jean Ah-Chuen (Chu Moi-Lin 朱梅麟), Hakka Chinese Mauritian politician; First Chinese member, Legislative Council, 1949; Minister of Local Government, 1967–1976; Second Hakka after Sun Yatsen to have his portrait printed on the bills of a country's currency
- Marie Madeleine Ah-Chuen (朱志筠), Hakka Chinese Mauritian diplomat; Mauritius' first ambassador to China, 1999–2000
- Zhu Lühe, a politician and judicial officer in the Republic of China; he became an important politician during the Reformed Government of the Republic of China and the Wang Jingwei regime
- Zhu Shen, a politician and public prosecutor in the Republic of China; he became an important politician during the Provisional Government of the Republic of China and the Wang Jingwei regime
- Zhu De, co-founder of the Chinese Red Army, forerunner of the People's Liberation Army
- Zhu Qi, general of the People's Liberation Army; currently commander of the Beijing Military Region
- Zhu Jiahua, famous politician of the Republic of China
- Zhu Rongji, former PRC Premier; he is a direct descendant of the Hongwu Emperor of the Ming Dynasty
- David S.C. Chu, United States Under Secretary of Defense appointed by George W. Bush
- Jim Chu, Chief Constable of the Vancouver Police Department
- Zhu Qizhen, former Vice Foreign Minister and Ambassador to the United States
- Steven Chu, the 12th United States Secretary of Energy.
- Eric Chu, a former Vice Premier of the Republic of China; subsequently the first Mayor of New Taipei.
- Choo Leong Huat, Singapore Crown Service government official, descendant of the Straits-Chinese.
- Choo Han Teck, a Judge of the Supreme Court of Singapore.
Government, Politics and Military (Unconfirmed)
- Ju Hala (Sinicized: 朱氏), a Manchu clan during the Qing Dynasty, perhaps founded by and composed of assimilated Han Chinese of the Zhu surname. One example might be Zhu Guozhi (朱國治), a Chinese Bannerman in the Eight Banners during the Qing Dynasty who was appointed the Governor of Yunnan. He was captured by Wu Sangui in 1674 and died cursing the rebels. In 1742, he was included into the Temple of Patriots. Zhu Hongzhang could possibly be regarded as another example.
Philosophy and Religion
- Zhu Xi, Song Dynasty scholar and main proponent for Neo-Confucianism; he was elevated to a position of honor in the Temple of Confucius several decades after his death and recognized as the third sage of Confucianism after Confucius and Mencius during the reign of the Kangxi Emperor of the Qing Dynasty
- Zhu Qianzhi, Chinese intellectual and historian; influenced Mao Zedong
- Zhu Da, renowned painter and calligrapher of the Qing Dynasty; agnatic descendant of Zhu Quan, Prince of Ning
- Zhu Dake, Chinese scholar, cultural critic and essayist.
- Zhu Ziqing, renowned contemporary writer and poet
- Zhu Jian'er, a prominent Chinese composer.
- Chu Yibing, one of the most influential cellists in the world.
- Zhu Wen, contemporary writer and director.
Science and Technology
- Zhu Shijie, one of the greatest Chinese mathematicians
- Steven Chu, one of three co-recipients of the 1997 Nobel Prize in Physics; 12th US Secretary of Energy
- Chu Ching-wu, renowned physicist; expert on superconductivity
- Gilbert Chu, professor of medicine and biochemistry at Stanford Medical School; older brother of Steven Chu, the 12th US Secretary of Energy
- Zhu Xiping, professor of mathematics at Sun Yat-sen University; winner of the 2004 Morningside Medal of Mathematics at the Third International Congress of Chinese Mathematicians (ICCM)
- Zhu Qingshi, famous chemist, member of the Royal Society of Chemistry. He was the former president of the University of Science and Technology of China. He was also a delegate of the 8th and 9th National People's Congress, and the 10th National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference.
- David Chu, Taiwanese-American founder of Nautica, men's designer outerwear company
- Zhu Baoguo, Chinese billionaire founder of Joincare Pharmaceutical Group Industrial
- Zhu Gongshan, Chinese billionaire founder of GCL-Poly Energy Holdings Limited, an energy supplier in China
- Zhu Huiming, Chinese billionaire founder of Hangzhou Binjiang Real Estate Group
- Zhu Jun (businessman), Chinese industrialist and businessman; Chairman of Nasdaq listed company, the Nine City (NASDAQ: NCTY); also chairman of the Shanghai Shenhua football club.
- Zhu Mengyi (朱孟依), Chairman of Guangdong Zhujiang Invest, Hopson Development
- Zhu Xingliang, Chinese multi-millionaire founder of Suzhou Gold Mantis Construction Decoration
- Zhu Xinli, Chinese multi-millionaire founder and chairman of China Huiyuan Juice Group
- Zhu Yicai, Chinese billionaire founder and chairman of China Yurun Group
- Zhu Yunlai, CEO of China International Capital Corp; he is the son of Zhu Rongji, former Premier of the People's Republic of China, and a direct descendant of the Hongwu Emperor of the Ming Dynasty
- Abehymann Zhu, Managing Director of APX World Logistics Inc., a Shanghai-based 3PL provider formed in July 1993
Sports and Entertainment
- Choo Hoey, Singaporean musician and conductor; formerly Music Director of the Singapore Symphony Orchestra
- Ken Chu, F4 member
- Dadawa, real name Zhu Zheqin; singer/songwriter/indie producer, who is well known for her vocalization
- Julie Chu, U.S. Olympic Team hockey player
- Loletta Chu, Ethnic Chinese from Myanmar; winner of the 1977 Miss Hong Kong Pageant
- Athena Chu 朱茵, Hong Kong Actress
- Zhu Jianhua, P.R.C. Olympic high jumper
- Zhu Lin, a Chinese badminton player
- Zhu Ling (volleyball), a Chinese volleyball player who competed in the 1984 Summer Olympics
- Chu Mu-Yen 朱木炎, Hakka Chinese; Gold medalist, Taekwondo, 2004 Athens Olympics; Champion, World Taekwondo Championships, 2003
- Zhu Xiaolin, a Chinese long-distance runner, who specialises in marathon running; won the Xiamen International Marathon and was third at the 2010 Rotterdam Marathon. She represented China at the 2008 Beijing Olympics
- Morgan Chu, an intellectual property attorney and one of the first Asian Americans to lead a major U.S. law, Irell & Manella LLP; younger brother of Steven Chu, the 12th US Secretary of Energy
- Zhu Ling (poisoning victim), victim of an unsolved 1995 thallium poisoning case in Beijing, China
- Zhu Yunzhong, a retired doctor and cousin of the former Premier of the People's Republic of China, Zhu Rongji; he is a direct descendant of the Hongwu Emperor of the Ming Dynasty
- Chu Van An 朱文安, a Confucian, teacher, physician and high-ranking mandarin of the Trần Dynasty in Đại Việt
- Chau Van Tiep 朱文接, an 18th century Vietnamese military commander, best known for his role as a general of Nguyễn Ánh
- Joo Ji Hoon 朱智勳, a popular model and actor from South Korea
- Brook, Timothy, 1998, The Confucian of Pleasure: Commerce and Culture in Ming China, University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-21091-3
- Chao, Sheau-yueh J., 2000, "In Search of Your Asian Roots: Genealogical Research on Chinese Surnames", Clearfield. ISBN 0-8063-4946-8
- Li, Chi, 1967, "The Formation of the Chinese People: An Anthropological Inquiry", Russell & Russell. U.S. Library of Congress Card No: 66-27117.
- Li, Xueqin, 1985 "Eastern Zhou and Qin Civilizations", (Kwang-Chih Chang trans.). Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-03286-2
- Mote, F.W., 1999, "Imperial China 900 - 1800", Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-44515-5
- Paludan, Ann, 1998, "Chronicle of the Chinese Emperors: The Reign-By-Reign Record of the Rulers of Imperial China", Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-500-05090-2
- Paludan, Ann, 1981, "The Imperial Ming Imperial Tombs", Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-02511-4
- Tan, Thomas Tsu-wee, 1986, "Your Chinese Roots: The Overseas Chinese Story", Times Books International. ISBN 0-89346-285-3
- Wu, Kuo-Cheng, 1982, The Chinese Heritage. Crown Publishers, Inc. ISBN 0-517-54475-X
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