Zidisha

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Zidisha Incorporated
Zidisha Inc. Logo.png
Founded October 2009
Type 501(c)(3) Nonprofit
Focus Economic development
Location
Area served Global
Method Microcredit
Website http://www.zidisha.org

Zidisha is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization that allows people to lend small amounts of money directly to entrepreneurs in developing countries.[1] It is the first peer-to-peer microlending service to link borrowers and lenders across international borders without a local microfinance institution intermediary.[2] The organization is named after the Swahili word zidisha (pronounced [zi.ɗi.ʃɑ]), which means "grow" or "expand".[3]

The Zidisha website facilitates microlending transactions between individual web users worldwide and computer-literate, low-income entrepreneurs in developing countries. Users can fund loans, which borrowers use to develop businesses that improve their families' incomes. Borrowers can share business updates and communicate with lenders as they repay loans.[4]

History[edit]

Zidisha was founded in October 2009 by Julia Kurnia.

After visiting Niger as Portfolio Analyst for the US African Development Foundation, Kurnia became disillusioned with foreign aid.[5] In 2006, she co-founded the Senegal Ecovillage Microfinance (SEM) Fund with John Fay and Nan Guslander.[6] To keep financing and salary costs low, SEM raised money from the online microlending portal Kiva at 0% interest, and its three co-founders all went without salaries and volunteered their time. [6]

SEM struggled with the sustainability of their model, as they were unwilling to raise interest rates to cover the cost of renting an office and hire loan officers and also unable to find outside donors. [6] Eventually Kurnia left in August 2009, and SEM began to struggle with delinquent loans,[6] with its portfolio reaching a high of 77.4% delinquency in December, 2010.[7] In response, SEM's team stopped making new loans and focused on collecting funds from their existing borrowers.[7] Kurnia had donated $30k to subsidize SEM's operating costs,[6] but once those donated funds and others ran out, the organization defaulted on 5.1% of its loans and Kiva closed its partnership with SEM in March 2012.[7]

Kurnia's experience at SEM gave her visibility into the high operational costs of traditional microlenders. By 2008, Internet access in developing nations had become widely available enough to make direct peer-to-peer microlending feasible. Kurnia founded Zidisha to connect lenders and borrowers directly, thereby reducing borrower costs.[5][8]

Zidisha relaunched in January 2014 as one of the first seven non-profits funded by seed accelerator Y Combinator.[9] In March 2014, Y Combinator partner Paul Buchheit donated $100k in a bid to further promote Zidisha online.[10]

As of June 2014, Zidisha has financed $2.1 million in loans to 5,559 borrowers.[11]

Lending process[edit]

Zidisha's lending process works as follows:

Borrowing[edit]

1. A first-time loan applicant creates a profile that describes his or her business and personal details. The applicant's details are independently checked by Zidisha or a Zidisha partner, such as a local credit bureau.[citation needed] If the loan is approved and successfully funded, first-time borrowers are charged roughly $12 (1000 Kenyan Shillings) to cover this cost of processing their application. [12] Zidisha used to contract with local partners to perform telephone-based verifications of each new borrower, but around 2012 the organization discontinued this practice due to fraud, corruption and ineffectiveness. [13]

2. Approved applicants post a loan request that describes the proposed investment, desired loan amount and repayment period, and the maximum interest rate the applicant will accept. Zidisha’s lender participants then have the opportunity to bid to finance all or a portion of the loan at a proposed interest rate that is equal to or less than the applicant's desired rate, net of a transaction fee equal to a flat rate interest rate of 5% of the original amount of the loan for each year the loan is outstanding.

3. If enough lenders commit to lending the designed loan amount before the loan expires, the loan is funded using bids from lenders with the lowest proposed interest rates; otherwise, it's expired.

4. For successfully funded loans, 100% of lenders' accepted bids are disbursed to the borrower. Loan values are fixed in local currency, using the exchange rate effective at the time the loan is disbursed. Because loan values are fixed in local currency, lenders bear the risk of any currency exchange rate fluctuations.

Repayments[edit]

1. The borrower are obligated to repay principal and interest according to the schedule proposed in the loan application. Each time the borrower makes a repayment installment, lenders' shares of principal repayment and interest are credited to their accounts on the Zidisha website.

2. Zidisha borrowers are allowed to reschedule loan payments an unlimited number of times, as long as a single payment has been made since the last rescheduling.[14] Prior to November 11, 2013, borrowers had been allowed to ask for a grace period of 1–2 months on a loan, "during which time no payments would be due, but after which monthly installments would resume in the same amounts as before."[15] After November 11, 2013, borrowers were no longer allowed to add a 1-2 month grace period, but continued to be allowed to lower the amount of money due each month. Borrowers were also given the ability to reschedule payments an unlimited number of times, as long as a single payment has been made since the last rescheduling.[15]

3. Throughout the loan application and repayment period, lenders may post comments and questions, and borrowers may supply additional information and business updates through a weblog on their profile pages.

4. Lenders may post feedback on all lending transactions with which they are involved, thus creating a performance record that allows borrowers to request progressively larger loans with each successful repayment.[16]

Regulatory Status[edit]

Typically, peer-to-peer microlenders offering interest on loans to US lenders are regulated by the Securities and Exchange Commission. In 2008, the SEC required that peer-to-peer lending companies offering interest on loans to register their offerings as securities, pursuant to the Securities Act of 1933.[17][18] Accordingly, Prosper was shut down by the SEC on November 24, 2008, and didn't reopen until July 2009, after it had registered with the SEC.[19] Lending Club announced its completion of the SEC registration process on October 14, 2008.[20] MYC4, a microlending marketplace focused on African entrepreneurs, similarly announced in 2010 that they are "not allowed to disburse money to North American Investors" because of SEC regulations.[21]

Zidisha has not registered with the SEC, and has publicly stated that they are not a securities broker.[22] The website states in its terms of use that unlike a securities broker, Zidisha is under no obligation to return lender funds and honor withdrawal requests: "Zidisha makes no guarantee or representation that funds lent through its website will be repaid to lenders, regardless of whether the loans financed with lender funds are repaid to Zidisha. Any cash payouts are promotional gifts offered solely at Zidisha's discretion." [23]

The tax treatment of these promotional gifts is unclear. Gifts are taxed in the United States, which would mean that for US lenders, the original loan principal as well as any interest income would be subject to taxation. Zidisha states in its terms that, "It is the responsibility of website users to report and pay any applicable taxes on any cash payouts received from Zidisha." [23]

Zidisha does not enable tracking of financial returns of their loans on the website. According to their FAQ, this is because, "We are not intended as a financial investment platform, and are not licensed to market loans as financial securities. We do not display tracking of financial returns in order to avoid giving the impression that our service is a good place to store financial assets or to make for-profit investments, and in order to ensure that we are in compliance with United States regulations governing the marketing of financial securities." [3]

Interest Rates[edit]

The average Zidisha borrower pays a 10.6% flat rate in annual interest, including both interest paid out to lenders and a 5% transaction fee.[24] This is much lower than the global average of 35%.[25] According to an analysis published by microfinance risk consultant Daniel Rozas in July 2011, Zidisha offers loans at less than half the interest rates of traditional microfinance institutions as estimated by MFTransparency.[2]

The inflation rate in developing nations varies widely, and can be as high as 53%,[26] much higher than the interest rates usually paid to microlenders. Zidisha does not provide protection from losses due to currency risk, but also does not restrict lenders' ability to profit from currency fluctuations.[27]

Performance[edit]

Past Year[edit]

In the year from June 2013 to June 2014, Zidisha lenders raised $988,611 for 4,086 individual loans at an average lender interest rate of 5.6%. [24]

The status of the $988,611 as of June 2014 is as follows:

$374,267 (37.9% of amount disbursed) has already been repaid to lenders.

$438,267 (44.3% of amount disbursed) is still outstanding with borrowers who are repaying on time (within a threshold of 30 days and $10).

$128,595 (13.0% of amount disbursed) is still outstanding with borrowers who are more than 30 days and $10 late with scheduled repayments.

$1014 (0.1% of amount disbursed) has been forgiven by the lenders for humanitarian reasons.

$46,605 (3.2% of amount disbursed) has been written off by Zidisha.


All Time[edit]

As of June 2014, Zidisha's lenders have raised $2,106,294 for 6,879 individual loans at an average lender interest rate of 5.1% since the organization was founded in 2009. [24]

The status of the $2,106,294 as of June 2014 is as follows:

$1,082,861 (51.4% of amount disbursed) has already been repaid to lenders.

$454,189 (21.6% of amount disbursed) is still outstanding with borrowers who are repaying on time (within a threshold of 30 days and $10).

$184,530 (8.8% of amount disbursed) is still outstanding with borrowers who are more than 30 days and $10 late with scheduled repayments.

$15,063 (0.7% of amount disbursed) has been forgiven by the lenders for humanitarian reasons.

$369,748 (17.6% of amount disbursed) has been written off by Zidisha.


Performance By Country[edit]

Zidisha's performance has varied by country. For loans disbursed within the year between June 2013 and June 2014, 81.1% of loans in Kenya have been repaid or are repaying on time, 93% of loans in Burkina Faso have been repaid or are repaying on time, 92.8% of loans in Niger have been repaid or are repaying on time, and 92.9% of loans in Indonesia have been repaid or are repaying on time. [28]

Percent of loans disbursed in past 12 months that are:
Country Loans raised Businesses Financed Average lender interest Repaid & Repaying On Time Repaying Late Forgiven Written Off
Kenya $773,667 3,179 6% 81.1% 13.9% 0.1% 5%
Senegal $55,944 107 4.8% 73.1% 20% 0% 6.9%
Burkina Faso $113,950 527 3.7% 93% 3.1% 0.2% 3.7%
Guinea $8,275 19 3.2% 79.3% 18.6% 0.0% 2%
Niger $2,425 15 2.8% 92.8% 3.3% 0.0% 3.9%
Ghana $19,034 129 6.8% 80.2% 19.7% 0.0% 0.0%
Indonesia $13,323 95 3.8% 92.9% 7.2% 0.0% 0.0%
Benin $93 1 5.6% 45.5% 54.5% 0.0% 0.0%
Zambia $121 3 0.3% 34.9% 65.1% 0.0% 0.0%
All Countries $988,611 4,086 5.6% 82.2% 13% 0.1% 4.7%

Changes in reporting methodology[edit]

Zidisha had previously reported a repayment rate of 98% as of August, 2012, but this repayment rate counted only those loans whose final repayment dates had occurred 6+ months ago. [27] Zidisha stated that "incorporating such a long time lag made the statistics less useful, and so we modified the calculations to include all loans whose final repayment dates have already arrived, even though they have not yet had time to be written off." [29]

The revised repayment rate (not incorporating the time lag) was 89.3% as of August 2013. Zidisha subsequently made its write-off policy stricter, classifying a loan as written off if it is not repaid six months after its due date, or if the borrower has not made any payments for six months. This stricter writeoff policy resulted in a reported writeoff rate of 17.6% of ended loans as of June 29, 2014. [24] [30][31]

Zidisha defines its repayment and writeoff statistics more conservatively than other microlending websites. For example, Kiva, the world's largest microlending website, reports any loans not yet written off as repaid, even if they are still outstanding with the borrower. [32] Kiva also counts repayments made by field partners to cover borrower defaults as part of its on-time repayment rate. [33]

Some observers argued that Zidisha's writeoff policy is too strict, as it has often resulted in loans that are still actively repaying (but over six months late) as being written off. Zidisha's stated rationale to maintaining such a strict writeoff policy is that they wish to err on the side of reporting high write-off rates to prospective lenders so that they fully understand the risks of lending with Zidisha, and Zidisha continues to follow up with written off loans and return the repayments collected to lenders.[34]

Recognition[edit]

Zidisha has been a finalist and semifinalist for the Echoing Green foundation for early-stage social enterprises, and is a current Ashoka Fellow nominee.[35]

In 2014 Zidisha became one of the first seven nonprofits to graduate from seed accelerator Y Combinator.[36]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Zidisha Inc. - GuideStar:Amex-Organization Report". Retrieved 2 February 2014. 
  2. ^ a b "Microfinance without the MFI? Zidisha tests the boundaries of microlending methodology". Retrieved 7 March 2014. 
  3. ^ a b "Zidisha Microfinance | Frequently Asked Questions". Retrieved 7 March 2014. 
  4. ^ "Zishida Microfinance | How It Works". Retrieved 2 February 2014. 
  5. ^ a b Kurnia, Julia. "Why I Founded Zidisha". Huffington Post. Retrieved 17 March 2014. 
  6. ^ a b c d e "Would you prefer borrowers to repay their loan". Zidisha Forums. Retrieved 17 March 2014. 
  7. ^ a b c "Senegal Ecovillage Microfinance Fund (SEM)". Kiva.org. Retrieved 17 March 2014. 
  8. ^ edcable. "Father and Daughter bring Mifos Technology to Senegal". Retrieved 17 March 2014. 
  9. ^ "Startup developing HIV/AIDS vaccine is 2nd nonprofit accepted into Y Combinator". Retrieved 7 March 2014. 
  10. ^ Goldberg, Eleanor. "Paul Buchheit, Gmail Creator, Will Donate If You Tweet, Facebook About This Important Cause". Huffington Post. Retrieved 18 March 2014. 
  11. ^ "Zidisha Statistics". Retrieved 29 April 2014. 
  12. ^ "Information for Borrowers". Retrieved 2 April 2014. 
  13. ^ "Should the vms contact all contact information provided by a new borrower before loan is disburst?". Retrieved 2 April 2014. 
  14. ^ "Changes to rescheduling options for borrowers". Retrieved 19 March 2014. 
  15. ^ a b "Changes to rescheduling options for borrowers". Retrieved 18 March 2014. 
  16. ^ "Zidisha: How It Works". Retrieved 7 March 2014. 
  17. ^ "Peer To peer lending crosses $1 billion in loans issued". Retrieved 7 March 2014. 
  18. ^ "Mack moves to cutting edge of P2P lending". Retrieved 7 March 2014. 
  19. ^ "Peer-to-Peer Lender Relaunched". Retrieved 7 March 2014. 
  20. ^ "Lending Club SEC Prospectus". Retrieved 7 March 2014. 
  21. ^ "Dishonesty through inaction". Retrieved 7 March 2014. 
  22. ^ "Zidisha Forum". Retrieved 7 March 2014. 
  23. ^ a b "Zidisha Terms of Use". Retrieved 7 March 2014. 
  24. ^ a b c d "Zidisha Statistics". Retrieved 3 April 2014. 
  25. ^ "Variations in Microcredit Interest Rates". World Bank. Retrieved 18 March 2014. 
  26. ^ "Inflation rate (consumer prices) - World". Index Mundi. Retrieved 18 March 2014. 
  27. ^ a b "Kiva vs. Zidisha: Comparing Microfinance Alternatives". Retrieved 7 March 2014. 
  28. ^ "Zidisha Statistics". Retrieved 29 April 2014. 
  29. ^ "Repayment". Retrieved 21 March 2014. 
  30. ^ "Repayment". Retrieved 21 March 2014. 
  31. ^ "Internet Archive WayBack Machine, August 5, 2013". Retrieved 21 March 2014. 
  32. ^ "How is Kiva's repayment rate defined?". Retrieved 29 April 2014. 
  33. ^ "Kiva repayment data". Retrieved 29 April 2014. 
  34. ^ "Adjustment to Loan Write-Off Policy, Zidisha Forum". Retrieved 29 April 2014. 
  35. ^ "Zidisha In Country Newsletter, January 2012". Retrieved 7 March 2014. 
  36. ^ "Zidisha Launches A Kickstarter-Style Micro-Lending Platform For Low-Income Entrepreneurs In Developing Countries". Retrieved 29 April 2014. 

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