|Native to||Tanzania, Somalia|
|Ethnicity||Zigula people, Somali Bantu|
ziw – Zigula
xma – Mushunguli
It shows affinities with other adjacent Bantu varieties. In particular, Mushunguli shares strong lexical and grammatical similarities with the language of the Zigua people who inhabit Tanzania, one of the areas in south-eastern Africa where many Bantu in Somalia are known to have been captured from as slaves during the 19th century. Ethnologue notes that the Mushunguli in Tanzania are the Wazegua.
|voiceless fricatives||f||s ~ θ||ʃ|
|voiced fricatives||v||z ~ ð|
The fricatives [z] and [s] freely vary with [ð] and [θ], respectively.
- Zigula at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
Mushunguli at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
- Jouni Filip Maho, 2009. New Updated Guthrie List Online
- Declich, Francesca. 1995. "Gendered Narratives," History, and Identity: Two Centuries along the Juba River among the Zigula and Shanbara. History in Africa 22: 93-122.
- Ethnologue – Mushungulu
- Refugee Reports November 2002 Volume 23, Number 8
- Kenstowicz, Michael. 1989. Tone and accent in Kizigua – a Bantu language. in P.M. Bertinetto & M. Loporcaro (eds). Certamem phonologicum: papers from the 1987 Cortona Phonology Meeting, pp. 177-188. Torino: Rosenberg and Sellier.
- Kenstowicz, Michael. & Charles Kisseberth. 1990. Chizigula tonology: the word and beyond. In S. Inkelas & D. Zec(eds) The phonology-syntax connection, pp. 163-194. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.