Zimbabwe-Rhodesia

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Republic of Zimbabwe Rhodesia
Unrecognized state

1979
Flag Coat of arms
Capital Salisbury
Languages English (official)
Shona and Sindebele widely spoken
Government Parliamentary Republic
President Josiah Gumede
Prime Minister Abel Muzorewa
Historical era Cold War
 -  Established 1 June 1979
 -  Disestablished 12 December 1979
Area
 -  1979 390,580 km² (150,804 sq mi)
Population
 -  1979 est. 6,930,000 
     Density 17.7 /km²  (46 /sq mi)
Currency Rhodesian dollar

Zimbabwe Rhodesia /zɪmˈbɑːbw rˈdʒə/, officially the Republic of Zimbabwe Rhodesia, was an unrecognised state that existed from 1 June 1979 to 12 December 1979. Zimbabwe Rhodesia was preceded by the unrecognised Republic of Rhodesia and was briefly followed by the re-established British colony of Southern Rhodesia, which according to British constitutional theory had remained the proper government after UDI in 1965. About three months later, the re-established colony of Southern Rhodesia was granted independence as the Republic of Zimbabwe.

An "Internal Settlement" between the Smith administration of the Republic of Rhodesia and moderate African nationalist parties not involved in the Rhodesian Bush War led to the end of white minority government and the birth of majority rule in Zimbabwe Rhodesia.

Naming[edit]

As early as 1960 African nationalist political organisations in Rhodesia agreed that the country's name should be "Zimbabwe" and used that name as part of the titles of their organisations. The name Zimbabwe broken down to Dzimba dzamabwe in Shona (one of the two major languages in the country) means 'Houses of stone'.

Government of Zimbabwe Rhodesia[edit]

During its brief existence, the Republic of Zimbabwe Rhodesia had one election which resulted in its short-lived biracial government.

Constitution[edit]

Adapting the constitution of the Unilateral Declaration of Independence (UDI), the Republic of Zimbabwe-Rhodesia was governed by a Prime Minister and Cabinet chosen from the majority party in a one-hundred member House of Assembly. A forty member Senate acted as the upper House, and both together chose a figurehead President in whose name the government was conducted.

Legislative branch[edit]

House of Assembly[edit]

Of the one hundred members of the House of Assembly, seventy-two were "common roll" members for whom the electorate was every adult citizen. All of these members were Africans. Those on the previous electoral roll of Rhodesia (mostly white constituencies) elected twenty members; although this did not actually exclude non-whites, it was very rare for black Africans to meet the qualification requirements. A delimitation commission sat in 1978 to determine how to reduce the previous fifty constituencies to twenty. The remaining eight seats for white non-constituency members were filled by members chosen by the other 92 members of the House of Assembly once their election was complete. In the only election held by the Republic of Zimbabwe Rhodesia, Bishop Abel Muzorewa's United African National Council (UANC) won a majority in the common-roll seats, while Ian Smith's Rhodesian Front (RF) won all of the white seats. Ndabaningi Sithole's Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU) won twelve seats.

Senate[edit]

The Senate of Zimbabwe-Rhodesia had 40 members. Ten members each were returned by the white members of the House of Assembly and the common roll members, and five members each by the council of Chiefs of Mashonaland and Matabeleland. The remaining members were directly appointed by the President under the advice of the Prime Minister.

Executive branch[edit]

President[edit]

The President of Zimbabwe Rhodesia was elected by the members of the Parliament, sitting together. At the election on 28 May 1979, Josiah Zion Gumede of the United African National Council (UANC)[1] and Timothy Ngundu Bateson Ndlovu of the United National Federal Party (UNFP) were nominated. Gumede won by 80 votes to 33, as reported in the Daily Telegraph of 29 May 1979.

Prime Minister[edit]

Starting with fifty-one seats out of one-hundred, Abel Muzorewa of the UANC was appointed as Prime Minister. He formed a joint government with Ian Smith, the former Prime Minister of Rhodesia, who was a Minister without Portfolio. Muzorewa also attempted to include the other African parties who had lost the election. Rhodesian Front members served as Muzorewa's Ministers of Justice, Agriculture, and Finance. White control over the country's civil service, judiciary, police and armed forces continued.

Once in office, Muzorewa sought to drop 'Rhodesia' from the country's name, and in fact adopted a new national flag that featured the Zimbabwe soapstone bird. The national airline, Air Rhodesia, was also renamed Air Zimbabwe. No stamps were issued. Postage stamps; issues of 1978 still used "Rhodesia," and the next stamp issues were in 1980, after the change to just "Zimbabwe," and were inscribed accordingly. The country was also nicknamed 'Rhobabwe'.[2]

End of Zimbabwe Rhodesia[edit]

The Lancaster House Agreement stipulated that control over the country be returned to the United Kingdom in preparation for elections to be held in the spring of 1980. On 11 December 1979, the Constitution of Zimbabwe-Rhodesia (Amendment) (No. 4) Act received Presidential Assent and Lord Soames arrived the next day to take control. The name of the country formally reverted to Southern Rhodesia at this time, although the name Zimbabwe Rhodesia remained in many of the country's institutions. From 12 December 1979 to 17 April 1980, Zimbabwe Rhodesia was again the British colony of Southern Rhodesia. On 18 April, Southern Rhodesia became the independent Republic of Zimbabwe.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Library of Congress Foreign Affairs and National Defense Division, United States Congress. Chronologies of Major Developments in Selected Areas of Foreign Affairs.
  2. ^ Under The Skin: The Death of White Rhodesia, David Caute, Northwestern University Press, 1983, page 354