Zimbabwe Rhodesia general election, 1979

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Zimbabwe Rhodesia general election, 1979
Zimbabwe-Rhodesia
1977 ←
10 April 1979 (White Roll)
21 April 1979 (Common Roll)
→ 1980

All 100 seats in the House of Assembly
  First party Second party
  Muzorewa 1978 b.jpg Ian Smith 1975.jpg
Leader Abel Muzorewa Ian Smith
Party UANC RF
Last election N/A 50
Seats won 51
(Common Roll)
28
(White Roll)
Seat change N/A Decrease 22

Prime Minister before election

Ian Smith
RF

Prime Minister-designate

Abel Muzorewa
UANC

The Zimbabwe Rhodesia general election of April 1979 was held under the internal settlement negotiated by the Rhodesian Front government of Ian Smith intended to provide a peaceful transition to majority rule on terms not harmful to Rhodesians of white descent. The internal settlement was not approved internationally but the incoming government under Bishop Abel Muzorewa did decide to participate in the Lancaster House talks which led to the end of the dispute and the creation of Zimbabwe.

Electoral procedure[edit]

Under the agreement of 1978, the new Zimbabwe Rhodesia House of Assembly was to consist of 100 members. 20 were to be elected on the "White Roll" which was previously used to elect the majority of the Rhodesia House of Assembly. 72 seats were elected by the "Common Roll" which every adult in the country had a vote. Owing to the lack of an electoral roll, voters were instead marked with ink on their fingers to stop multiple voting. Once the 92 members had been elected, they assembled to vote for eight White non-constituency members. All the candidates for these posts were members of the Rhodesian Front.

The 20 White Roll members were elected from new constituencies made up of combinations of the previous constituencies. The Common Roll members were elected by province using a closed list system. It was intended to set up a full electoral register and institute single-member constituencies for future elections.

Election campaign[edit]

The main question in the election campaign was how many Africans would vote in the common roll election. The Patriotic Front parties, Zimbabwe African National Union - Patriotic Front and Zimbabwe African People's Union, pledged to disrupt the election and called for a boycott. By 1979, all of Rhodesia apart from the central area between Salisbury and Bulawayo was under a form of martial law due to attacks by the Patriotic Front's armies, the Zimbabwe African National Liberation Army and Zimbabwe People's Revolutionary Army (ZIPRA).

In the event the turnout was quite respectable in Mashonaland, although somewhat depressed in Manicaland and Victoria. In Matabeleland South, where ZIPRA was strongest, the turnout was lowest.

Results[edit]

The final state of the parties was:

Party Seats
United African National Congress 51
Rhodesian Front 28
Zimbabwe African National Union 12
United People's National Federation Party 9

White Roll[edit]

Rural constituencies used at this election.
Constituencies in Salisbury.
Constituencies in Bulawayo.

Polling day was 10 April 1979.

Constituency Candidate Party Votes
AVONDALE John Alfred Landau RF unopposed
BORROWDALE Hilary Gwyn Squires RF unopposed
BULAWAYO CENTRAL Patrick Francis Shields RF unopposed
BULAWAYO NORTH Wilfred Denis Walker RF unopposed
BULAWAYO SOUTH Wallace Evelyn Stuttaford RF 4,140
Francis Robert Bertrand Ind 500
Jan (John) Francis Betch Ind 57
CENTRAL Rowan Cronjé RF unopposed
EASTERN Desmond Butler RF 2,538
John Constantinos Kircos Ind 485
GATOOMA/HARTLEY Pieter Kenyon Fleming-Voltelyn van der Byl RF unopposed
HATFIELD Richard Cartwright RF 2,672
Charles James Britton Ind 334
Neville Ronald Arthur Skeates Ind 314
HIGHLANDS Mark Henry Heathcote Partridge RF unopposed
KOPJE Dennis Divaris RF 2,263
Mrs. Esther Rawson Ind 834
Leslie Thomas Hayes Ind 28
LUNDI Theunis Christian de Klerk RF unopposed
MAKONI Jacobus Phillipus du Plessis RF unopposed
MARLBOROUGH William Michie Irvine RF unopposed
MAZOE/MTOKO Cecil Millar RF unopposed
MIDLANDS Henry Swan Elsworth RF unopposed
MOUNT PLEASANT Jonas Christian Andersen RF unopposed
NORTHERN Esmond Meryl Micklem RF unopposed
SOUTHERN Ian Douglas Smith RF unopposed
WESTERN Alexander Moseley RF unopposed

Common Roll members[edit]

Polling day was 21 April 1979.

Province Est. electorate NDU UANC UNFP ZANU ZUPO
Votes % Seats Votes % Seats Votes % Seats Votes % Seats Votes % Seats
Manicaland (10) 402,700 97,994 53.7 6 8,398 4.6 69,136 37.9 4 7,115 3.9
Mashonaland Central (5) 187,800 138,360 80.7 5 9,593 5.6 16,968 9.9 6,582 3.8
Mashonaland East (15) 588,300 18,175 3.3 428,599 78.2 15 20,292 3.7 39,461 7.2 41,767 7.6
Mashonaland West (6) 264,300 245,737 83.4 6 12,941 4.4 24,682 8.4 11,228 3.8
Matabeleland North (10) 383,400 79,108 40.8 5 75,350 38.9 4 22,242 11.5 1 16,985 8.8
Matabeleland South (5) 191,200 10,318 20.0 1 30,318 58.9 3 7,365 14.3 1 3,502 6.8
Midlands (11) 419,600 137,120 60.6 7 24,006 10.6 1 47,525 21.0 3 17,551 7.8
Victoria (10) 388,900 75,403 56.1 6 13,543 10.1 1 35,549 26.5 3 9,840 7.3

Candidates and elected members[edit]

NDU UANC UNFP ZANU ZUPO
MANICALAND PROVINCE
  1. Edward Stewart Mazaiwana 1. A. Siwellah 1. Rev Ndabaningi Sithole 1. P. Ndoro
  2. David Charles Zvinaiye Mukome 2. C. Jenah 2. Noel Mukono 2. P. Mubekati
  3. Simpson Victor Mtambenengwe 3. G. Gwenzi 3. David Zamchiya 3. T. Makunde
  4. Elijah Smile Magavan Nyandoro 4. L. Chiyangwa 4. Arnold Sawanha 4. N. Chingomo
  5. John Moses Chirimbani 5. E. Matsika 5. D. Charangwa 5. L. Mufararipwa
  6. Maxwell Pfereyegota Chambara 6. K. Dhlamini 6. [C. Chiremba (deceased)] 6. J. Tandi
  7. John Zwenhamo Ruredzo 7. J. Manjengwa 7. Miss Vesta Saungweme 7. A. Katso
  8. P. Chakaza 8. A. Moyo 8. R. Chikosi 8. R. Hlatiwayo
  9. M. Chingwara 9. T. Meda 9. W. Chadokwa 9. D. Jamela
  10. Kagoro Felix Kadzombe 10. J. Dhliwayo 10. Mrs S. Nduku 10. Mrs P. Nyahe
MASHONALAND CENTRAL PROVINCE
  1. Mucheki Kachidzwa 1. R. Madanire 1. Dr N. Munyoro 1. N. Mutuma
  2. Reki Mashayamombe 2. D. Panashe 2. E. Charirye 2. S. Chimanikire
  3. Micheck Nyika Chagadama 3. A. Nyandoro 3. L. Masawi 3. K. Chitsike
  4. Actor Mupinyuri 4. R. Chiwaridza 4. C. Katsande 4. S. Chipiro
  5. Terrence Mashambanhaka 5. B. Chasi 5. B. Gambanga 5. S. Moyo
MASHONALAND EAST PROVINCE
1. Henry Chihota 1. Abel Tendekai Muzorewa 1. Kingdom Sithole 1. Joel Mandaza 1. Leonard Mapuranga
2. James Clever Mavunga Shereni 2. Silas Mundawarara 2. Ben Chanetsa 2. Dr Joseph Gopo 2. Alice Chinamora
3. Rosten Gore 3. Simon Chivaware Paraffin* 3. Cyril Kachidza 3. Abel Rumano 3. Patrick Bwanya
4. X. Mutendere 4. Claudius Nhongonhema 4. Robert Kachindamoto 4. Dr Willie Nduka 4. Walter Gawe
5. W. Chitongo 5. George Bodzo Nyandoro 5. Fibion Munyuki 5. Absolom Ndoro 5. Mrs Stella Musarira
6. D. Madamombe 6. Ben Kuda Taputsa Mutasa 6. Dominic Machaka 6. Benjamini Muvuti 6. Rogers Rutsito
7. K. Muswe 7. Enoch Dumbutshena* 7. Marshall Mukono 7. Mrs Evelyn Sithole 7. Kenneth Dhluni
8. L. Marufu 8. Dr Dennis Nyamuswa 8. Patrick Zemura** 8. Mrs Siphikelelo Chizengeni 8. Samuel Goredema
9. J. Munda 9. Beatrice Manyara Mutasa 9. Mrs Sheila Tamuka 9. Kesiwe Malindi 9. Lewis Msengezi
10. P. Mavunga 10. Rev Farai David Muzorewa 10. Nimrod Ndhlela 10. Davison Sambo 10. Canaan Gomwe
11. Mrs. H. Shereni 11. Essiah Zhuwarara* 11. M. Chingate 11. Tennyson Magura 11. Joseph Chipiro
12. Mrs L. Mzinyani 12. Lazarus Mtungwazi 12. Dexter Sibanda 12. Stephen Marara 12. Phillip Munzwa
13. Aaron Rusike 13. Raymond Chikarara Nyaude Madzima 13. Dickson Moyo 13. Douglas Mudzi 13. Sidney Musoni
14. Miss P. Matanda 14. Evelyn Joyce Shava* 14. Gilbert Moyo 14. Moses Zhanje 14. Stephen Gumbe
15. D. Chitunda 15. Avis Chikwana 15. Stephen Kazingizi** 15. Nassan Nengere 15. Samuel Mavani
MASHONALAND WEST PROVINCE
  1. Titus Garikayi Mukarati 1. S. Mazibananga 1. P. Mhlanga 1. G. Magaramombe
  2. Ronald Takawira Sadomba 2. T. Kasvinga 2. Mrs I. Chitate 2. S. Nyamweda
  3. Josiah Zinanga Mudzengi 3. D. Ngondo 3. N. Bangajena 3. B. Nyandoro
  4. Prof Stanlake John Samkange* 4. Patrick Tozivepi** 4. N. Mutandiwa 4. A. Mudenda
  5. Boniface Mhariwa Gumbo* 5. F. Musiwa 5. S. Mariga 5. S. Chirenda
  6. James Robert Dambaza Chikerema* 6. Charles Zviyambwa** 6. Mrs R. Mombeshore 6. S. Mangwiro
MATABELELAND NORTH PROVINCE
  1. Ernest Leonard Bulle 1. Lwazi Joel Mahlangu 1. Phineas Sithole 1. A. Mgutshini
  2. Walter Nqabeni Mthimkhulu 2. Peter Nkomo 2. Zachariah Tongai Chigumira 2. T. Madhana
  3. David Murambiwa Mutasa 3. M. Nyathi 3. R. Zemura 3. E. Chiwunye
  4. Morgan Kugaraunzwana Machiya 4. Brown Luza 4. J. Ngaliwe 4. R. Gunyela
  5. Gerald Mthimkhulu 5. Geshom Maplanka 5. J. Ndebele 5. T. Thebe
  6. Abel Chimombe 6. T. Ncube 6. Mrs H. Zwambila 6. W. Mapukanka
  7. M. Tshuma 7. Lot Enoch Dewa 7. E. Ncube 7. D. Mangena
  8. Mrs Gladys Tiriboyi 8. A. Mpofu 8. G. Ncube 8. A. Khumalo
  9. P. Zumbika 9. E. Mkandla 9. L. Dlodlo 9. L. Moyo
  10. A. Mutasa 10. A.M. Mpofu 10. S. Dube 10. S. Jubane
MATABELELAND SOUTH PROVINCE
  1. Joel Madewe Sigola 1. Zephania Bafana 1. Abraham Mazwi Khumalo 1. G. Dewa
  2. J. Tarugarira 2. Robert Siyoka 2. T. Mbuya 2. E. Maposa
  3. K. Nyabadzu 3. Timoth Ndlovu 3. P. Mpofu 3. H. Dube
  4. I. Ngulube 4. S. Noko 4. C. Malikongwa 4. J. Bango
  5. P. Maphosa 5. E. Velile 5. R. Simbi 5. G. Ncube
MIDLANDS PROVINCE
  1. Misheck Hove 1. Elijah Mukuchambano 1. James Dzvova 1. M. Malumisa
  2. Lovemore Christopher Mbanga 2. A. Gwemende 2. Dr Edward Chitate 2. Philip Elijah Chigogo
  3. Joseph Jumo Bheka 3. J. Dondo 3. William Kambasha 3. P. Chirinda
  4. Lewis Bonda Gumbo 4. S. Shama 4. C. Mutambisi 4. J. Maziwisa
  5. John Kingston Nyahwata 5. G. Tshuma 5. J. Nyaguse 5. L. Nhamo
  6. Edmund Macheka 6. K. Dube 6. B. Magaisa 6. A. Tafirenyika
  7. John Karimanzira Kokera 7. F. Ngulube 7. U. Gokwe 7. S. Hove
  8. Abraham Chirwa 8. N. Dhlamini 8. V. Mashita 8. S. Sibanda
  9. F. Mutiti 9. N. Ndhlovu 9. Mrs O. Chidzongwa 9. Chingona
  10. W. Mugabiri 10. M. Moyo 10. J. Sithole 10. M. Chibvute
  11. S. Makura 11. S. Mbambo 11. L. Mambo  
VICTORIA PROVINCE
  1. Francis John Zindoga 1. Peter Munyaradzi Mandaza 1. Leonard Nyemba 1. E. Badza
  2. Smollie Poshi Mugudubi 2. J. Chikukwa 2. Edward Watungwa 2. D. Gurajena
  3. Christopher Donald Sakala 3. P. Makoni 3. Julius Chimedza 3. John Hungwe
  4. Herbert Office Benjamin Zimuto 4. C. Marezva 4. S. Mangwengwe 4. B. Mazungunye
  5. David Munandi 5. G. Dziwa 5. V. Chikukutu 5. H. Makoni
  6. John Lewis Mashakada 6. E. Maphosa 6. J. Hlalsi 6. W. Mukaganwi
  7. J. Maswoswe 7. D. Mandishora 7. L. Shinya 7. J. Tagwireyi
  8. G. Sadomba 8. L. Sithole 8. A. Mashiri 8. T. Sithole
  9. J. Muchineripi 9. Mrs J. Sibanda 9. Mrs E. Masangu 9. R. Mhungu
  10. B. Basera 10. D. Makotere 10. C. Marozva 10. J. Masvinga

* – Subsequently formed the Zimbabwe Democratic Party (see below)

** – These candidates had resigned from the United National Federal Party and joined the Zimbabwe United Peoples' Organisation after nominations had closed. It was ruled that their candidatures stood.

White non-constituency members[edit]

Polling day was 7 May 1979. Eight seats were up for election.

Rank Party Votes
1 Trevor Duncan Dollar 71
2 Derek Foxon Gawler 63
3 Wing-Commander Frederick Roy Simmonds 62
4 André Sothern Holland 60
5 Denys Sinclair Parkin 58
6 Bertram Ankers 53
7 Charles McKenzie Scott 52
8 Stanley Norman Eastwood 46
9= Arthur Denis Crook 20
9= Wing-Commander Robert James Gaunt 20
11 Donald Galbraith Goddard 17
12 Reginald Reed Beaver 15
13 John Cornelius Gleig 12
14 Air Marshal Archibald Oliver Garfield Wilson 11
15 Bernard Horace Mussett 10
16 Albertus Herman du Toit 9

Changes during the Assembly[edit]

John Moses Chirimbani (UANC, Manicaland) was elected as the Speaker of the House of Assembly on 8 May 1979, and therefore an ex officio member. On 25 May, John Zwenhamo Ruredzo was appointed to replace him.

Robert Siyoka (UNFP, Matabeleland South) resigned, and was replaced by Sami Thomani Siyoka on 28 June 1979.

On 25 June 1979 James Chikerema led a group of eight elected UANC members in resigning from the party, and on 29 June seven of the eight formed the Zimbabwe Democratic Party. Actor Mupinyuri (UANC, Mashonaland Central) rejoined the UANC shortly after resigning from it. The seven who joined are denoted by asterisks in the lists above. A questionable wording in the electoral law led to the UANC taking legal action to disqualify the seven on the grounds that they had to keep their membership of the party to remain members of the Assembly, but Chikerema was successful in defending the right to break away.

Hilary Gwyn Squires resigned in June 1979, moving to South Africa to take up a legal career. David Colville Smith was returned unopposed as Rhodesian Front candidate for Borrowdale constituency on 24 July 1979.

Terrence Mashambanhaka (UANC, Mashonaland Central) was murdered on 16 September 1979 after being lured to an ambush at 'peace talks' with ZANLA forces. Abel Muringazuwa Madombwe was appointed to the Assembly to replace him on 27 November 1979.

Theunis Christian de Klerk (RF, Lundi) was killed in a rocket attack on his home on 20 September 1979. Donald Galbraith Goddard was returned unopposed to follow him on 30 November 1979.

United Nations reaction[edit]

The United Nations Security Council passed several resolutions against the "illegal" election, including Resolution 445 and Resolution 448, both of which argued that the election was not representative of the Zimbabwean people and was designed to entrench white minority rule. In these resolutions, the UN declared the results of the election null and void.

References[edit]

  • Rhodesia Government Gazette (candidates for White Roll constituencies; elected MPs)
  • The Herald (common roll constituencies and election results)