Several Zimbabwean sign languages developed independently among deaf students in different Zimbabwean schools for the deaf starting in the 1940s. It is not clear how many languages they are, as little research has been done; Masvingo School Sign is known to be different from that of other schools, but each school apparently has a separate sign language, and these are different from the language or languages used outside of the schools.American Sign Language is reported to be used, but it is not clear to what extent. "Sign language" became one of Zimbabwe's official national languages in the Constitution of 2013, but there is no indication of what this means.
^a Sign-language names reflect the region of origin. Natural sign languages are not related to the spoken language used in the same region. For example, French Sign Language originated in France, but is not related to French.