Isotopes of zinc

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Naturally occurring zinc (Zn) is composed of the 5 stable isotopes 64Zn, 66Zn, 67Zn, 68Zn, and 70Zn with 64Zn being the most abundant (48.6% natural abundance). Twenty-five radioisotopes have been characterised with the most abundant and stable being 65Zn with a half-life of 244.26 days, and 72Zn with a half-life of 46.5 hours. All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lives that are less than 14 hours and the majority of these have half-lives that are less than 1 second. This element also has 10 meta states.

Zinc has been proposed as a "salting" material for nuclear weapons (cobalt is another, better-known salting material). A jacket of isotopically enriched 64Zn, irradiated by the intense high-energy neutron flux from an exploding thermonuclear weapon, would transmute into the radioactive isotope 65Zn with a half-life of 244 days and produce approximately 1.115 MeV[1] of gamma radiation, significantly increasing the radioactivity of the weapon's fallout for several days. Such a weapon is not known to have ever been built, tested, or used.

The standard atomic mass of zinc is 65.38(2) u.[2]

Table[edit]

nuclide
symbol
Z(p) N(n)  
isotopic mass (u)
 
half-life decay
mode(s)[3][n 1]
daughter
isotope(s)[n 2]
nuclear
spin
representative
isotopic
composition
(mole fraction)
range of natural
variation
(mole fraction)
excitation energy
54Zn 30 24 53.99295(43)# 2p 52Ni 0+
55Zn 30 25 54.98398(27)# 20# ms [>1.6 µs] 2p 53Ni 5/2-#
β+ 55Cu
56Zn 30 26 55.97238(28)# 36(10) ms β+ 56Cu 0+
57Zn 30 27 56.96479(11)# 38(4) ms β+, p (65%) 56Ni 7/2-#
β+ (35%) 57Cu
58Zn 30 28 57.95459(5) 84(9) ms β+, p (60%) 57Ni 0+
β+ (40%) 58Cu
59Zn 30 29 58.94926(4) 182.0(18) ms β+ (99%) 59Cu 3/2-
β+, p (1%) 58Ni
60Zn[n 3] 30 30 59.941827(11) 2.38(5) min β+ 60Cu 0+
61Zn 30 31 60.939511(17) 89.1(2) s β+ 61Cu 3/2-
61m1Zn 88.4(1) keV <430 ms 1/2-
61m2Zn 418.10(15) keV 140(70) ms 3/2-
61m3Zn 756.02(18) keV <130 ms 5/2-
62Zn 30 32 61.934330(11) 9.186(13) h β+ 62Cu 0+
63Zn 30 33 62.9332116(17) 38.47(5) min β+ 63Cu 3/2-
64Zn 30 34 63.9291422(7) Observationally Stable[n 4] 0+ 0.48268(321)
65Zn 30 35 64.9292410(7) 243.66(9) d β+ 65Cu 5/2-
65mZn 53.928(10) keV 1.6(6) µs (1/2)-
66Zn 30 36 65.9260334(10) Stable 0+ 0.27975(77)
67Zn 30 37 66.9271273(10) Stable 5/2- 0.04102(21)
68Zn 30 38 67.9248442(10) Stable 0+ 0.19024(123)
69Zn 30 39 68.9265503(10) 56.4(9) min β- 69Ga 1/2-
69mZn 438.636(18) keV 13.76(2) h IT (96.7%) 69Zn 9/2+
β- (3.3%) 69Ga
70Zn 30 40 69.9253193(21) Observationally Stable[n 5] 0+ 0.00631(9)
71Zn 30 41 70.927722(11) 2.45(10) min β- 71Ga 1/2-
71mZn 157.7(13) keV 3.96(5) h β- (99.95%) 71Ga 9/2+
IT (.05%) 71Zn
72Zn 30 42 71.926858(7) 46.5(1) h β- 72Ga 0+
73Zn 30 43 72.92978(4) 23.5(10) s β- 73Ga (1/2)-
73m1Zn 195.5(2) keV 13.0(2) ms (5/2+)
73m2Zn 237.6(20) keV 5.8(8) s β- 73Ga (7/2+)
IT 73Zn
74Zn 30 44 73.92946(5) 95.6(12) s β- 74Ga 0+
75Zn 30 45 74.93294(8) 10.2(2) s β- 75Ga (7/2+)#
76Zn 30 46 75.93329(9) 5.7(3) s β- 76Ga 0+
77Zn 30 47 76.93696(13) 2.08(5) s β- 77Ga (7/2+)#
77mZn 772.39(12) keV 1.05(10) s IT (50%) 77Zn 1/2-#
β- (50%) 77Ga
78Zn 30 48 77.93844(10) 1.47(15) s β- 78Ga 0+
78mZn 2673(1) keV 319(9) ns (8+)
79Zn 30 49 78.94265(28)# 0.995(19) s β- (98.7%) 79Ga (9/2+)
β-, n (1.3%) 78Ga
80Zn 30 50 79.94434(18) 545(16) ms β- (99%) 80Ga 0+
β-, n (1%) 79Ga
81Zn 30 51 80.95048(32)# 290(50) ms β- (92.5%) 81Ga 5/2+#
β-, n (7.5%) 80Ga
82Zn 30 52 81.95442(54)# 100# ms [>300 ns] β- 82Ga 0+
83Zn 30 53 82.96103(54)# 80# ms [>300 ns] 5/2+#
  1. ^ Abbreviations:
    IT: Isomeric transition
  2. ^ Bold for stable isotopes
  3. ^ Final product of the silicon-burning process; its production is endothermic and accelerates the star's collapse
  4. ^ Believed to undergo β+β+ decay to 64Ni with a half-life over 2.3×1018 a
  5. ^ Believed to undergo β-β- decay to 70Ge with a half-life over 1.3×1016 a

Notes[edit]

  • Values marked # are not purely derived from experimental data, but at least partly from systematic trends. Spins with weak assignment arguments are enclosed in parentheses.
  • Uncertainties are given in concise form in parentheses after the corresponding last digits. Uncertainty values denote one standard deviation, except isotopic composition and standard atomic mass from IUPAC which use expanded uncertainties.
  • Nuclide masses are given by IUPAP Commission on Symbols, Units, Nomenclature, Atomic Masses and Fundamental Constants (SUNAMCO)
  • Isotope abundances are given by IUPAC Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights

References[edit]

  1. ^ Roost, E.; Funck, E.; Spernol, A.; Vaninbroukx, R. (1972). "The decay of 65Zn". Zeitschrift für Physik 250: 395. Bibcode:1972ZPhy..250..395D. doi:10.1007/BF01379752. 
  2. ^ Standard Atomic Weights Revised – IUPAC
  3. ^ Nucleonica: Universal Nuclide Chart

External links[edit]


Isotopes of copper Isotopes of zinc Isotopes of gallium
Table of nuclides