Zinc hydroxide

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Zinc hydroxide
Zinc hydroxide
Identifiers
CAS number 20427-58-1 YesY
PubChem 9812759
ChemSpider 7988510 YesY
Jmol-3D images Image 1
Properties
Molecular formula Zn(OH)2
Molar mass 99.424 g/mol
Appearance white powder
Density 3.053 g/cm3, solid
Melting point 125 °C (decomposition)
Solubility in water slightly soluble
Solubility product, Ksp 3.0×10−16
Solubility in alcohol insoluble
Thermochemistry
Std enthalpy of
formation
ΔfHo298
−642 kJ·mol−1[1]
Hazards
EU Index not listed
Flash point Non-flammable
Related compounds
Other anions Zinc oxide
Other cations Cadmium hydroxide
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
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Infobox references

Zinc hydroxide Zn(OH)2 is an inorganic chemical compound. It also occurs naturally as 3 rare minerals: wülfingite (orthorhombic), ashoverite and sweetite (both tetragonal).

Like the hydroxides of other metals, such as lead, aluminium, beryllium, tin and chromium, zinc hydroxide (and zinc oxide), is amphoteric. Thus it will dissolve readily in a dilute solution of a strong acid, such as HCl, and also in a solution of an alkali such as sodium hydroxide.

It can be prepared by adding sodium hydroxide solution, but not in excess, to a solution of any zinc salt. A white precipitate will be seen:

Zn2+ + 2 OH → Zn(OH)2.

If excess sodium hydroxide is added, the precipitate of zinc hydroxide will dissolve, forming a colorless solution of zincate ion:

Zn(OH)2 + 2 OH → Zn(OH)42-.

This property can be used as a test for zinc ions in solution, but it is not exclusive, since aluminum and lead compounds behave in a very similar manner. Unlike the hydroxides of aluminum and lead, zinc hydroxide also dissolves in excess aqueous ammonia to form a colorless, water-soluble ammine complex

Zinc hydroxide will dissolve because the ion is normally surrounded by water ligands; when excess sodium hydroxide is added to the solution the hydroxide ions will reduce the complex to a −2 charge and make it soluble. When excess ammonia is added, it sets up an equilibrium which provides hydroxide ions; the formation of hydroxide ions causes a similar reaction as sodium hydroxide and creates a +2 charged complex with a co-ordination number of 4 with the ammonia ligands - this makes the complex soluble so that it dissolves.

One major use is as an absorbent in surgical dressings.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Zumdahl, Steven S. (2009). Chemical Principles 6th Ed. Houghton Mifflin Company. p. A23. ISBN 0-618-94690-X. 
  • Chemistry in Context - By Graham Hill, John Holman (pp. 283,284)