|Zinnia × hybrida flower and foliage|
Zinnia peruviana (L.) L.
Zinnia is a genus of 20 species of annual and perennial plants of the family Asteraceae. They are native to scrub and dry grassland in an area stretching from the Southwestern United States to South America, with a centre of diversity in Mexico. Members of the genus are notable for their solitary long-stemmed flowers that come in a variety of bright colors. The genus name honours German botanist Johann Gottfried Zinn (1727–59).
Zinnia leaves are opposite and usually stalkless (sessile), with a shape ranging from linear to ovate, and pale to middle green in color. The flowers have a range of appearances, from a single row of petals, to a dome shape, with the colors white, chartreuse, yellow, orange, red, purple, and lilac.
Zinnias are popular garden flowers, usually grown from seed, and preferably in fertile, humus-rich, and well-drained soil, in an area with full sun. They will reseed themselves each year. Over 100 cultivars have been produced since selective breeding started in the 19th century.
Zinnia elegans, also known as Zinnia violacea, is the most familiar species, originally from Mexico and thus a warm–hot climate plant. Its leaves are lance-shaped and sandpapery in texture, and height ranges from 15 cm to 1 meter.
Zinnia angustifolia is another Mexican species. It has a low bushy plant habit, linear foliage, and more delicate flowers than Z. elegans – usually single, and in shades of yellow, orange or white. It is also more resistant to powdery mildew than Z. elegans, and hybrids between the two species have been raised which impart this resistance on plants intermediate in appearance between the two. The Profusion series, with both single and double-flowered components, is bred by Sakata of Japan, and is among the most well-known of this hybrid group.
A number of species of zinnia are popular flowering plants. Their varied habits allow for uses in several parts of a garden, and their tendency to attract butterflies and hummingbirds is seen as desirable.
Their ability to attract hummingbirds is also seen as useful as a defense against whiteflies, and therefore zinnias are a desirable companion plant, benefiting plants that are intercropped with it. Zinnias are grown in the summer.
|Zinnia seeds resemble arrow heads|
- Zinnia acerosa (DC.) A.Gray – desert zinnia
- Zinnia angustifolia Kunth (=Z. Linearis) – narrowleaf zinnia
- Zinnia angustifolia var. angustifolia
- Zinnia angustifolia var. greggii (B.L.Rob. & Greenm.) McVaugh
- Zinnia anomala A.Gray – shortray zinnia
- Zinnia bicolor (DC.) Hemsl.
- Zinnia citrea A.M.Torres
- Zinnia elegans Jacq. (=Zinnia violacea Jacq.) – elegant zinnia
- Zinnia grandiflora Nutt. – Rocky Mountain zinnia
- Zinnia haageana Regel
- Zinnia juniperifolia (DC.) A.Gray
- Zinnia maritima Kunth – Palmer's Zinnia
- Zinnia maritima var. maritima
- Zinnia maritima var. palmeri (A.Gray) B.L. Turner – Palmer's zinnia
- Zinnia marylandica D.M.Spooner et al.
- Zinnia microglossa (DC.) McVaugh
- Zinnia peruviana (L.) L. – Peruvian zinnia
- "Genus Zinnia". Taxonomy. UniProt. Retrieved October 14, 2010.
- "Genus: Zinnia L.". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. October 5, 2007. Retrieved October 14, 2010.
- Stemart, Dennis; Thomas Boyle (2007). "Chapter 12: Zinnia". In Neil O. Anderson. Flower Breeding and Genetics. Springer. p. 337. ISBN 9781402065699.
- Bees pollinate the florets of Zinnias. The rarest of zinnias are white. Zinnias can be dwarf with more flowers than tall zinnias. Zinnias can only be grown in the seeds. Once dried the seeds are useful for making teas. Dried florets have been good for reproducing the next generation. It wont produce the same color. The parent will die and the offspring will produce mixed of colors. "Monarch Watch". The Kansas Biological Survey, Univ of Kansas. May 27, 2008. Retrieved May 27, 2008.
- "Saving Butterflies Insect Ecologist Spearheads Creation of Oases for Endangered Butterflies". ScienceDaily. January 1, 2005. Retrieved May 27, 2008.
- "GRIN Species Records of Zinnia". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved July 18, 2012.
- "Zinnia". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved October 14, 2010.