Ziyarid dynasty

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Ziyarid dynasty
زیاریان

930–1090
 

Map of the Ziyarid dynasty, lighter blue shows their greatest extent for a small period of time.
Capital Isfahan
(931-935)
Ray
(935–943)
Gorgan
(943–1090)
Languages Persian
Deylami
Religion Zoroastrianism (930–935)[1]
Sunni Islam (935-1090)
Government Monarchy
King
 -  930-935 Mardavij (first)
 -  1087-1090 Gilanshah (last)
Historical era Middle Ages
 -  Established 930
 -  Disestablished 1090
History of Iran
History of Iran
ANCIENT PERIOD
Proto-Elamite 3200–2700 BCE
Elam 2700–539 BCE
Mannaeans 850–616 BCE
IMPERIAL PERIOD
Median Empire 678–550 BCE
  (Scythian Kingdom 652–625 BCE)
Achaemenid Empire 550–330 BCE
Atropatene 320s BC – 3rd century AD
Seleucid Empire 312–63 BCE
Parthian Empire 247 BCE – 224 CE
Sasanian Empire 224–651
MEDIEVAL (EARLY ISLAMIC) PERIOD
Umayyad Caliphate 661–750
Abbasid Caliphate 750–1258
  Minor dynasties of northern Iran
Dabuyids 642–760 Bavandids 651–1349
Masmughans
of Damavand
651–760
Paduspanids 665–1598
Justanids 791–974
Alids of northern Iran 864–14th century
  Iranian Intermezzo 821–1062
Tahirid dynasty
821–873
Samanid dynasty
819–999
Saffarid dynasty
861–1002
Ziyarid dynasty
930–1090
Sallarid dynasty
919–1062
Sajid dynasty
889/890–929
Buyid dynasty
934–1062
Ilyasids
932–968
Ghaznavid Empire 977–1186
Kakuyids 1008–1141
Ghurid dynasty 1011–1215
Nasrids 1029–1236
Great Seljuq Empire 1037–1194
Khwarazmian Empire 1077–1231
Atabegs of Yazd 1141–1319
Mihrabanids 1236–1537
Kurt dynasty 1244–1396
Ilkhanate Empire 1256–1335
Chobanid dynasty
1335–1357
Muzaffarid dynasty
1335–1393
Jalayirid dynasty
1336–1432
Sarbadars
1337–1376
Injuids 1335–1357
Afrasiyab dynasty 1349–1504
Marashis 1359–1596
Timurid Empire 1370–1405
Qara Qoyunlu
1406–1468
Timurid dynasty
1405–1507
Agh Qoyunlu
1468–1508
Kia'i dynasty 1389–1592
EARLY MODERN PERIOD
Safavid Empire 1501–1736
  (Hotaki dynasty 1722–1729)
Afsharid Empire 1736–1747
Zand dynasty
1750–1794
Afsharid dynasty
1747–1796
Qajar dynasty 1785–1925
MODERN PERIOD
Pahlavi dynasty 1925–1979
Interim Government 1979–1980
Islamic Republic 1980–present

The Ziyarid dynasty (Persian: زیاریان‎) was an Dailamite[2] dynasty that ruled Tabaristan from 930 to 1090, and at its greatest extent, ruled much of present-day western and northern Iran.

Origins[edit]

The dynasty was descended from Vardanshah, leader of the Dailamite Arghich tribe, which further traced its descent back to the legendary Arghush Farhadan, who was the ruler of Gilan, and lived during the time of Kai Khosrow.[3] Vardanshah had two sons named Ziyar and Harusindan; Ziyar later had a son named Mardavij, who was a Zoroastrian that served another Dailamite named Asfar ibn Shiruya, but later betrayed the latter and conquered Tabaristan, which led to the foundation of the Ziyarid dynasty, which he named after his father.

History[edit]

Mardavij then began aggressively expanding his territories, killing Asfar and capturing several important cities in Iran, such as Hamadan, Dinavar, Kashan, Isfahan, Shiraz[4] and Ahvaz.[5] He further planned to restore the Sasanian Empire through conquering Baghdad and ousting the Abbasid caliphate, but was instead murdered in 935.[5] After Mardavij's death, his brother and general Vushmgir, was crowned as the new Ziyarid ruler in Ray.

Hasan ibn Buya, one of the brothers of the Buyid ruler Ali ibn Buya, took advantage of Mardavij's death by seizing Isfahan from Ziyarid rule. The Samanids also took advantage of the oppurtinity, but were defeated by Vushmgir, who then wrested Gorgan from Samanid control.

However, Vushmgir soon decided to acknowledge Samanid supremacy, and in 936 he also turned over Gorgan to Makan.[6][7] Turning against Hasan, he retook Isfahan in 938. In 939 or 940 the Samanid governor Abu 'Ali Chaghani attacked Gorgan; Vushmgir sent Makan aid, but the city fell after a long siege. Abu 'Ali Chaghani then engaged Vushmgir in battle in Ray and defeated him, killing Makan in the process. Vushmgir fled to Tabaristan, but was faced there with a revolt by his governor of Sari, al-Hasan ibn al-Fairuzan, who was a cousin of Makan and blamed the Ziyarid for his death. Vushmgir defeated him, but al-Hasan convinced Abu 'Ali Chaghani to invade Tabaristan. Vushmgir was forced to recognize Samanid authority again. Hasan furthered the Ziyarid's troubles by retaking Isfahan in 940.

When Abu 'Ali Chaghani left for Samanid Khurasan, Vushmgir retook control of Ray. He then lost it for good in 943, to the Buyid Hasan. Returning to Tabaristan, he was defeated there by al-Hasan, who had previously occupied Gorgan. Vushmgir fled to the Bavandids of the mountains in eastern Tabaristan, then to the court of the Samanid Nuh I. Al-Hasan meanwhile allied with Hasan, but when Ibn Muthaj took Ray from the Buyids in 945, he recognized Samanid authority. Still, in 945 Vushmgir captured Gorgan with Samanid support, but did not manage to retain his rule there. It was only in 947 when he was able to take Gorgan and Tabaristan from al-Hasan with the help of a large Samanid army.

In 948 Hasan (who since the Buyids' entrance into Baghdad in 945 had used the title Rukn al-Dawla) invaded Tabaristan and Gorgan and took them from Vushmgir. While al-Hasan supported the Buyids, Vushmgir relied on his Samanid allies. Tabaristan and Gorgan changed hands several times until 955, when in a treaty with the Samanids, Rukn al-Daula promised to leave Vushmgir alone in Tabaristan. Peace between the two sides did not last long, however; in 958 Vushmgir briefly occupied Ray, which was Rukn al-Dawla's capital. Rukn al-Dawla later made a counter-attack, temporarily taking Gorgan in 960, then taking both Tabaristan and Gorgan for a short time in 962. He may have also taken Tabaristan and Gorgan in 966, but did not hold on to them for long.[8]

Vushmgir was killed by a boar during a hunt in 967, shortly after a Samanid army had arrived for a joint campaign against the Buyids. He was succeeded by his eldest son Bisutun, however, the Samanid army favored another son, Qabus, and challenged Bisutun's rule. Bisutun then agreed with Rukn al-Dawla to become his vassal in return for protection against the Samanids, which forced the Samanid army to withdraw to Khorasan. In 971, the Abbasid caliph al-Muti, gave Bisutun the title of Zahir al-Dawla. Bisutun later died in 977, and was succeeded by Qabus. However, he was expelled by the Buyid ruler Adud al-Dawla in in 980, because giving refugee to his rival and brother Fakhr al-Dawla. The Buyids now dominated Tabaristan over 17 years while Qabus was in exile in Khorasan. In 998, Qabus returned to Tabaristan and re-established his authority there. He then established good relations with the Ghaznavid ruler Mahmud of Ghazni who had taken control of Khorasan, but still acted as an independent sovereign. During the reign of Qabus, his kingdom was a major attraction to scholars; Abu Rayhan Biruni, the great scientist of the Middle Ages, was supported by Qabus. In fact he dedicated his work Chronology to Qabus around 1000 and observed eclipses of the moon in his capital of Gorgan.[9]

Due to his tyranny rule, Qabus was in 1012 overthrown by own army, and was succeeded by his son Manuchihr, who quickly recognized the sovereignty of Mahmud of Ghazni, and married one of his daughters. Manuchihr died in 1031, and was succeeded by his son Anushirvan Sharaf al-Ma'ali whom Mahmud of Ghazni had chosen as the heir of the Ziyarid dynasty. From 1032 to 1040, the real power behind the throne was held by Abu Kalijar ibn Vayhan, a relative of Anushirvan. In 1035, Abu Kalijar stopped paying tribute to the Ghaznavids, which resulted in a Ghaznavid invasion of Tabaristan. Abu Kalijar, after having learned the consequences of not paying tribute to the Ghaznavids, agreed to continue in paying tribute. This gave Anushirvan the opportunity to imprison Abu Kalijar, and gain a firm over his kingdom. In 1041/1042, the Seljuqs, now the new masters of Khorasan, invaded Anushirvan's domains, which forced him to accept their authority.

Anushirvan died in 1059 and was succeeded by his cousin Keikavus, the celebrated author of the Qabus nama, a major work of Persian literature. Keikavus died in 1087, and was succeeded by his son Gilanshah. Gilanshah's reign, was, however, short; in 1090, the Nizari Ismaili state under Hassan-i Sabbah invaded and conquered his domains, which ended Ziyarid rule in Tabaristan.

Art and architecture[edit]

One of the most famous architectural works of Ziyarid dynasty is the Gonbad Kavous (meaning the "Dome of Qabus"). The tomb is one of the earliest architectural monuments with a dated inscription surviving in post-Islamic Iran. The tomb, built of fired brick, is an enormous cylinder capped by a conical roof. The circular plan, broken by 10 flanges, is 17 m in diameter, and the walls are 5.2 , thick. The height from base to tip is 49 m. Legend has it, that the body of Qabus was enclosed in a glass coffin which was suspended by chains from the interior dome inside the tower.

Ziyarid rulers[edit]

Family tree[edit]

 
 
 
 
Vardanshah
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ziyar
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Mardavij
930-935
 
 
 
Vushmgir
935-967
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Farhad
 
Bisutun
967-977
 
Qabus
977-1012
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Manuchihr
1012-1031
 
Dara
 
Iskandar
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Anushirvan
1030-1050
 
 
 
 
 
Keikavus
1050-1087
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Gilanshah
1087-1090
 

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ A. Christian Van Gorder, Christianity in Persia and the Status of Non-Muslims in Modern Iran, (Rowman & Littlefield, 2010), 81 n27.
  2. ^ Ziyarids, C.E. Bosworth, The Encyclopaedia of Islam, Vol.XI, Ed. P.J.Bearman, T.Bianquis, C.E.Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P.Heinrichs, (Brill, 2002), 539.
  3. ^ Madelung 1975, p. 212.
  4. ^ Madelung 1975, p. 213.
  5. ^ a b Ziyarids, C.E. Bosworth, Encyclopaedia Iranica, (October 1, 2010).[1]
  6. ^ Nazim (1987), pp. 164–165
  7. ^ Madelung (1975), p. 213
  8. ^ The Minor Dynasties of Northern Iran, C.E. Bosworth, The Cambridge History of Iran, Vol. 4, ed. W. Madelung, (Cambridge University Press, 1975), 214.
  9. ^ The Exact Sciences, E.S.Kennedy, The Cambridge History of Iran: The period from the Arab invasion to the Saljuqs, Vol. 4, 394.

Sources[edit]