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Not to be confused with Emperor Ruzi of Han, also known as Ruzi Ying.
This is a Chinese name; the family name is Ying.
King of Qin
Reign 207 BC
Regent Zhao Gao
House House of Ying
Died 206 BC

Ziying (Chinesetrad., simp., old*Tsə-eng,[1] mod.Zǐyīng; d. January 206 BC), formerly romanized as Tzu-ying, was the Third Emperor of the Qin Dynasty (皇帝, Qin Sanshi Huangdi). His ancestral name was Ying () and his clan name was Zhao.[2] He was the last ruler of the Qin Empire and ruled as King of Qin (秦王) from mid-October to early December in 207 BC.

Ziying was the only person within the Qin court to defend and try to presuade Qin Er Shi against the wrongful killings of Meng Tian and Meng Yi, brothers who loyally and faithfully served the Qin Empire as a general (Meng Tian) and official (Meng Yi). He lured and killed the powerful chief eunuch Zhao Gao, who was Prime Minister to and murderer of the Second Emperor. Ziying then surrendered to Liu Bang, the first rebel leader to enter the capital Xianyang. (Following the Han–Chu Contention, Liu later went on to found the Han Dynasty.) Ziying was only on the throne for 46 days. He was killed soon after Liu Bang handed him over to the hegemon Xiang Yu.


He is traditionally reckoned to have been the son of Fusu, the eldest son of Qin Shi Huangdi. According to historian Wang Liqun, however, he was probably one of Shi Huangdi's brothers.

The Records of the Grand Historian does not specify his age. It implies that he had at least two sons, when it says that Ziying consulted with them. This suggests that Ziying couldn't be the son of Fusu. In Wang Liqun's analysis, he reasoned that the maximum possible age so that Ziying could have been both the son of Fusu and have two fully grown sons is 19. Therefore, his two sons would have been around 1–2 years old. Therefore, he couldn't have consulted with his sons and, by this logic, he could only have been the uncle of the Second Emperor and not the son of Crown Prince Fusu.

There are also some historians who suggest that Ziying was the son of Chengjiao, the younger half-brother of Qin Shi Huang.


  1. ^ Baxter, William & al. "Baxter–Sagart Reconstruction of Old Chinese", pp. 6 & 148. 2011. Accessed 10 December 2013.
  2. ^ Although he is often referred to in modern Chinese as Ying Ziying according to the practice of present-day Chinese names, it was not customary to combine either surname with the given name in ancient China.

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Third Emperor of Qin
Died: 206 BC
Regnal titles
Title last held by
Qin Shi Huang
King of Qin
207 BC
Titles in pretence
Preceded by
Qin Er Shi
Emperor of China
207 BC
Reason for succession failure:
Crowned with reduced title
Succeeded by
Emperor Yi of Chu