Astrological sign

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For astrological sign based on birthday, see Sun sign astrology, Zodiac.

In Western astrology, astrological signs are the twelve 30º sectors of the ecliptic, starting at the vernal equinox (one of the intersections of the ecliptic with the celestial equator), also known as the First Point of Aries. The order of the astrological signs is Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Cancer, Leo, Virgo, Libra, Scorpio, Sagittarius, Capricorn, Aquarius and Pisces.

The concept of the zodiac originated in Babylonian astrology, and was later influenced by Hellenistic culture. According to astrology, celestial phenomena relate to human activity on the principle of "as above, so below", so that the signs are held to represent characteristic modes of expression,[1] or primary energy patterns indicating specific qualities of experience, through which planets manifest their dimension of experience.[2]

The twelve sector division of the ecliptic constitutes astrology's primary frame of reference when considering the positions of celestial bodies, from a geocentric point of view, so that we may find, for instance, the Sun in 23º Aries (23º longitude), the Moon in 7º Scorpio (217º longitude), or Jupiter in 29º Pisces (359º longitude). Beyond the celestial bodies, other astrological points that are dependent on geographical location and time (namely, the Ascendant, the Midheaven, the Vertex and the houses' cusps) are also referenced within this ecliptic coordinate system.

Various approaches to measuring and dividing the sky are currently used by differing systems of astrology, although the tradition of the Zodiac's names and symbols remain consistent. Western astrology measures from Equinox and Solstice points (points relating to longest, equal and shortest days of the tropical year), while Jyotiṣa or Vedic astrology measures along the equatorial plane (sidereal year). Precession results in Western astrology's zodiacal divisions not corresponding in the current era to the constellations that carry similar names,[3] while Jyotiṣa measurements still correspond with the background constellations.[4]

In Western and Asian astrology, the emphasis is on space, and the movement of the Sun, Moon and planets in the sky through each of the zodiac signs. In Chinese astrology, by contrast, the emphasis is on time, with the zodiac operating on cycles of years, months, and hours of the day. A common feature of all three traditions however, is the significance of the Ascendant - the zodiac sign that is rising (due to the rotation of the earth) on the eastern horizon at the moment of a person's birth.

A sidereal period is the time required for a celestial body within the solar system to complete one revolution with respect to the fixed stars(as observed from some fixed point outside the system.) The sidereal period of a planet can be calculated if its synodic period (the time for it to return to the same position relative to the Sun and Earth) is known; the sidereal period of the moon or artificial satellite of Earth is the time needed for it to return to the same position against the background of stars. If earth were spinning over a fixed place on the sun, rather than revolving around it, then every star would rise and set at the same times throughout the year.[5]

There is a group of constellations known as the zodiacal constellations that make a ring around the Earth. To astronomers, this band is called the Ecliptic, and is the path the Sun and Moon both appear to take around the Earth. To Astrologers, this imaginary band is what governs many of our personal traits. When an astrologer says that your Sun is in Cancer, this means that at the time you were born, the Sun appeared to be in the constellation Cancer. Because of this, you cannot see the constellation representing your birth sign on your birthday. Instead, you have to wait a few months until the Sun has moved a sufficient number of signs away.

These constellations are different at different times of the year because on the autumnal equinox each year, the Sun is in the constellation Virgo. As seen from Earth, that part of the sky is in daylight and we see stars only on the other half of the sky, centered around the constellation Pisces. Six months later, the Sun is in Pisces. the side of the sky is then bright, while the side centered on Virgo is in darkness.[5]

Western zodiac signs[edit]

Zodiac history and symbolism[edit]

Main article: Zodiac
The twelve ecliptic signs. Each dot marks the start of a sign and they are separated by 30°. The intersection of the celestial equator and the ecliptic define the equinoctial points: First Point of Aries (Aries.svg) and First Point of Libra (Libra.svg). The great circle containing the celestial poles and the ecliptic poles (P and P'), intersect the ecliptic at 0° Cancer (Cancer.svg) and 0° Capricorn (Capricorn.svg). In this illustration, the Sun is schematically positioned at the start of Aquarius (Aquarius.svg).

While Western astrology is essentially a product of Greco-Roman culture, some of its more basic concepts originated in Babylonia. Isolated references to celestial "signs" in Sumerian sources are insufficient to speak of a Sumerian zodiac.[6] Specifically, the division of the ecliptic in twelve equal sectors is a Babylonian conceptual construction.[7]

By the 4th century BC, Babylonians' astronomy and their system of celestial omens were influencing the Greek culture and, by late 2nd century BC, Egyptian astrology was also mixing in. This resulted, unlike the Mesopotamian tradition, in a strong focus on the birth chart of the individual and in the creation of horoscopic astrology, employing the use of the Ascendant (the rising degree of the ecliptic, at the time of birth), and of the twelve houses. Association of the astrological signs with Empedocles' four classical elements was another important development in the characterization of the twelve signs.

The body of astrological knowledge by the 2nd century AD is described in Ptolemy's Tetrabiblos, a work that was responsible for astrology's successful spread across Europe and the Middle East, and remained a reference for almost seventeen centuries as later traditions made few substantial changes to its core teachings.

The following table enumerates the twelve divisions of celestial longitude, with the Latin names (still widely used) and the English translation (gloss). The longitude intervals, being a mathematical division, are closed for the first endpoint and open for the second - for instance, 30° of longitude is the first point of Taurus, not part of Aries. Association of calendar dates with astrological signs only makes sense when referring to Sun sign astrology.

Sign Aries Taurus Gemini Cancer Leo Virgo Libra Scorpio Sagittarius Capricorn Aquarius Pisces
Celestial longitude

interval (λ)

0°–30° 30°–60° 60°–90° 90°–120° 120°–150° 150°–180° 180°–210° 210°–240° 240°–270° 270°–300° 300°–330° 330°–360°
Symbol Aries.svg Taurus.svg Gemini.svg Cancer.svg Leo.svg Virgo.svg Libra.svg Scorpio.svg Sagittarius.svg Capricorn.svg Aquarius.svg Pisces.svg
Gloss The Ram The Bull The Twins The Crab The Lion The Maiden The Scales The Scorpion The Archer The Goat The Water-bearer The Fish

Polarity and the four elements[edit]

Main article: Triplicity
Further information: Classical element
A simple diagram displaying the planets' sign positions on May 16th, 2012. The signs are colored according to the associated element. Each planet is represented by a glyph next to its longitude within the sign. Additional symbols may be added to represent apparent retrograde motion(Retrograde-symbol.svg), or apparent stationary moment (shift from retrograde to direct, or vice-versa: S).

Empedocles, a fifth-century BC Greek philosopher, identified Fire, Earth, Air, and Water as elements. He explained the nature of the universe as an interaction of two opposing principles called love and strife manipulating the four elements, and stated that these four elements were all equal, of the same age, that each rules its own province, and each possesses its own individual character. Different mixtures of these elements produced the different natures of things. Empedocles said that those who were born with near equal proportions of the four elements are more intelligent and have the most exact perceptions.[8]

Each sign is associated with one of the classical elements,[9] and these can also be grouped according to polarity: Fire and Air signs are considered positive or extrovert, masculine signs; while Water and Earth signs are considered negative or introvert, feminine signs. A modern approach looks at elements as "the energy substance of experience"[2] and the next table tries to summarize their description through keywords.[10][11]

Polarity Element Symbol[12] Keywords Signs
Positive

(self-expressive)

Fire Alchemy fire symbol.svg Enthusiasm; drive to express self; faith Aries; Leo; Sagittarius
Air Alchemy air symbol.svg Communication; socialization; conceptualization Gemini; Libra; Aquarius
Negative

(self-containing)

Earth Alchemy earth symbol.svg Practicality; caution; material world Taurus; Virgo; Capricorn
Water Alchemy water symbol.svg Emotion; empathy; sensitivity Cancer; Scorpio; Pisces

Classification according to element has gained such importance, that some astrologers start their interpretation of a natal chart, by studying the balance of elements shown by the position of planets and angles[13] (especially the Sun, the Moon and the Ascendant).

The three modalities[edit]

Each of the four elements manifests in three modalities: Cardinal, Fixed and Mutable.[14] As each modality comprehends four signs, these are also known as Quadruplicities.[9] They are occasionally referred to as crosses because each modality forms a cross when drawn across the zodiac. Christian astrology relates the three qualities to the three aspects of God in the trinity[citation needed].

Modality Symbol[15] Keywords[16][17] Signs
Cardinal Cardinal symbol.svg Action; initiative; great vitality Aries; Cancer; Libra; Capricorn
Fixed Fixed symbol.svg Resistance to change; great willpower Taurus; Leo; Scorpio; Aquarius
Mutable Mutable symbol.svg Adaptability Gemini; Virgo; Sagittarius; Pisces

The combination of element and modality provides a basic sign characterization. For instance, Capricorn is a cardinal earth sign, meaning that it is associated with action (cardinal modality) in the material world (earth element). That can translate into ambition or practical application to the concrete, everyday necessities of life.[18] The next table displays the twelve combinations of elements and modalities.

Fire Earth Air Water
Cardinal Aries Capricorn Libra Cancer
Fixed Leo Taurus Aquarius Scorpio
Mutable Sagittarius Virgo Gemini Pisces

Planetary rulerships[edit]

Rulership is the connection between planet and correlated sign and house.[19] In traditional Western astrology, each sign is ruled by one and only one of the seven visible planets (note that in astrology, the Sun and Moon are termed The Lights, while the other bodies are called planets, which literally means wanderers, i.e. wandering stars as opposed to the fixed stars). The traditional rulerships are as follows: Aries (Mars), Taurus (Venus), Gemini (Mercury), Cancer (Moon), Leo (Sun), Virgo (Mercury), Libra (Venus), Scorpio (Mars), Sagittarius (Jupiter), Capricorn (Saturn), Aquarius (Saturn), Pisces (Jupiter).[20]

Psychologically-oriented astrologers often believe that Uranus is the ruler or co-ruler of Aquarius instead of Saturn; Neptune is the ruler or co-ruler of Pisces instead of Jupiter, and that Pluto is the ruler or co-ruler of Scorpio instead of Mars. Some[who?] astrologers believe that the planetoid Chiron may be the ruler of Virgo, while other group of modern astrologers claim that Ceres is the ruler of Taurus instead. Other astrologers, still, use the former planets Pallas, Vesta, Juno and Hygiea in their delineations and rulerships, for example Vesta to Taurus and Pallas to Virgo.

Debate continues between those who consider the newly discovered planets as rulers or co-rulers of certain signs and those that do not. Some astrologers do not even use the astrological signs at all (mostly Cosmobiologists and Uranian Astrologers/Hamburg School). Therefore they do not take into account planetary rulerships and the essential dignities when interpreting an astrological chart.

Note that, if one starts from Leo and Cancer, the traditional planetary rulers are arrayed outward in the same order from the sun as they occur in the natural solar system. The Lights ruling Leo and Cancer, Mercury ruling Virgo and Gemini, Venus ruling Libra and Taurus, Mars ruling Scorpio and Aries, Jupiter ruling Sagittarius and Pisces, Saturn ruling Capricorn and Aquarius. The result is a symmetry of traditional rulerships across the 0° Leo/Aquarius axis. Note that modern rulerships, which attribute Pluto as ruler of Scorpio, break this symmetry.

The following table shows both, traditional[20] and modern,[21] rulerships.

Symbol Sign names Ruling
celestial body

Classical

Ruling
celestial body

Modern

Aries.svg Aries Mars Mars
Taurus.svg Taurus Venus Venus
Gemini.svg Gemini Mercury Mercury
Cancer.svg Cancer Moon Moon
Leo.svg Leo Sun Sun
Virgo.svg Virgo Mercury Mercury
Libra.svg Libra Venus Venus
Scorpio.svg Scorpio Mars Pluto
Sagittarius.svg Sagittarius Jupiter Jupiter
Capricorn.svg Capricorn Saturn Saturn
Aquarius.svg Aquarius Saturn Uranus
Pisces.svg Pisces Jupiter Neptune

Dignity and detriment, exaltation and fall[edit]

A traditional belief of astrology, known as essential dignity, is the idea that the Sun, Moon and planets are more powerful and effective in some signs than others, because the basic nature of both is held to be in harmony. By contrast, they are held to find some signs to be weak or difficult to operate in because their natures are thought to be in conflict. The most important of these categories are Dignity, Detriment, Exaltation and Fall.

  • Dignity and Detriment : A planet is strengthened or dignified if it falls within the sign that it rules. In other words it is said to exercise Rulership of the sign. For example, the Moon in Cancer is considered "strong" (well-dignified). Seventeenth century astrologer William Lilly compared rulership to a king on his throne, with considerable dignity. If a planet is in the sign opposite that which it rules (or is dignified), it is said to be weakened or in Detriment (for example, the Moon in Capricorn).[22]

In traditional astrology, other levels of Dignity are recognised in addition to Rulership. These are known as Exaltation (see below), Triplicity, Terms or bounds, and Face or Decan, which together are known as describing a planet's Essential dignity, the quality or ability to give of one's true nature. Contemporary traditional astrologers like John Frawley or J Lee Lehman explain further on the concept of Essential Dignity.[22]

  • Exaltation and Fall : In addition, a planet is also strengthened when it is in its sign of Exaltation. In traditional horary astrology, Exaltation denotes a level of dignity somewhat exaggerated compared to rulership. Exaltation was considered to give the planet (or what it signified in a horary chart) dignity, with the metaphor of an honoured guest – who is the centre of attention but the extent of their ability to act is limited. Examples of planets in their Exaltation are: Saturn (Libra), Sun (Aries), Venus (Pisces), Moon (Taurus), Mercury (Virgo, although some disagree to this classification), Mars (Capricorn), Jupiter (Cancer). A planet in the opposite sign of its Exaltation is said to be in its Fall, and thus weakened, perhaps seemingly more so than Detriment. The Planet in fall is passively rejected or ignored by the sign that it's in. It can be likened to a mayor of a rival city trying to make suggestions to the hosting mayor for how he should run his city: The host mayor finds it difficult to trust him and cannot see how his input could have relevancy to his city. The people of the city feel the same as their ruler. The result is impasse and failure on behalf of both mayors and the city.[22] There is no agreement as to the signs in which the three extra-Saturnian planets may be considered to be exalted.[23]

The following table summarizes the positions described above:

Planet (Symbol) Dignity Detriment Exaltation Fall
Sun (Sol) Leo Aquarius Aries Libra
Moon (First quarter moon) Cancer Capricorn Taurus Scorpio
Mercury (Mercury) Gemini and Virgo Sagittarius and Pisces Aquarius Leo
Venus (Venus) Libra and Taurus Aries and Scorpio Pisces Virgo
Mars (Mars) Aries and Scorpio Libra and Taurus Capricorn Cancer
Jupiter (Jupiter) Sagittarius and Pisces Gemini and Virgo Cancer Capricorn
Saturn (Saturn) Capricorn and Aquarius Cancer and Leo Libra Aries

In addition to essential dignity, the traditional astrologer considers Accidental dignity of planets. This is placement by house in the chart under examination. Accidental dignity is the planet's "ability to act." So we might have, for example, Moon in Cancer, dignified by rulership, is placed in the 12th house it would have little scope to express its good nature.[24] The 12th is a cadent house as are the 3rd, 6th and 9th and planets in these houses are considered weak or afflicted. On the other hand, Moon in the 1st, 4th, 7th or 10th would be more able to act as these are Angular houses. Planets in Succedent houses of the chart (2nd, 5th, 8th, 11th) are generally considered to be of medium ability to act. Besides Accidental Dignity, there are a range of Accidental Debilities, such as retrogradation, Under the Sun's Beams, Combust, and so forth.

Additional classifications[edit]

For more details on this topic, see Decans.

Each sign can be divided into three 10° sectors known as decans or decanates, though these have fallen into disuse. The first decanate is said to be most emphatically of its own nature and is ruled by the sign ruler.[25] The next decanate is sub-ruled by the planet ruling the next sign in the same triplicity. The last decanate is sub-ruled by the next in order in the same triplicity.[26]

While the element and modality of a sign are together sufficient to define it, they can be grouped to indicate their symbolism. The first four signs, Aries, Taurus, Gemini and Cancer, form the group of personal signs. The next four signs, Leo, Virgo, Libra and Scorpio form the group of interpersonal signs. The last four signs of the zodiac, Sagittarius, Capricorn, Aquarius and Pisces, form the group of transpersonal signs.[27]

Dane Rudhyar presented the tropical zodiac primary factors,[28] used in the curriculum of the RASA School of Astrology. The tropical zodiac is the zodiac of seasonal factors as opposed to the sidereal zodiac (constellation factors). The primary seasonal factors are based on the changing ratio of sunlight and darkness across the year. The first factor is whether the chosen time falls in the half of the year when daylight is increasing, or the half of the year when darkness is increasing. The second factor is whether the chosen time falls in the half of the year when there is more daylight than darkness, or the half when there is more darkness than daylight. The third factor is which of the four seasons the chosen time falls in, defined by the first two factors. Thus[29][30]

  • the 'winter' season is when daylight is increasing and there is more darkness than daylight.[29]
  • the 'spring' season is when daylight is increasing and there is more daylight than darkness.[29]
  • the 'summer' season is when darkness is increasing and there is more daylight than darkness.[29]
  • the 'autumn' season is when darkness is increasing and there is more darkness than daylight.[29]

Indian astrology[edit]

Further information: Hindu astrology

In Indian astrology, there are four elements: fire, earth, air, and water. The master of fire is Mars, while Mercury is of earth, Saturn of air, and Venus of water.

Jyotish astrology recognises twelve zodiac signs (Rāśi),[31] that correspond to those in Western astrology. The relation of the signs to the elements is the same in the two systems.

Nakshatras[edit]

Main article: Nakshatra

A nakshatra (Devanagari: नक्षत्र, Sanskrit nakshatra, from naksha- 'approach', and tra- 'guard') or lunar mansion is one of the 27 divisions of the sky, identified by the prominent star(s) in them, as used in Hindu astronomy and astrology (Jyotisha).[32]

Chinese zodiac signs[edit]

Main article: Chinese zodiac

Unlike the Western or Indian zodiacs, the Chinese zodiac signs are not derived from constellations, and are not assigned to sections of the ecliptic. Instead, Chinese astrological signs operate on cycles of years, lunar months, and two-hour periods of the day (also known as shichen). A particular feature of the Chinese zodiac is its operation in a 60-year cycle in combination with the Five Phases of Chinese astrology (Wood, Fire, Metal, Water, and Earth).[33] Nevertheless some researches say that there is an obvious relationship between the Chinese 12-year cycle and zodiac constellations: each year of the cycle corresponds to a certain disposal of Jupiter. For example, in the year of Snake Jupiter is in the Sign of Gemini, in the year of Horse Jupiter is in the Sign of Cancer and so on. So the Chinese 12-year calendar is a solar-lunar-jovian calendar.

Zodiac symbolism[edit]

The following table shows the twelve signs and their attributes.

Sign Yin/Yang Direction Season Fixed Element Trine
Rat Yang North Mid-Winter Water 1st
Ox Yin North Late Winter Water 2nd
Tiger Yang East Early Spring Wood 3rd
Rabbit Yin East Mid-Spring Wood 4th
Dragon Yang East Late Spring Wood 1st
Snake Yin South Early Summer Fire 2nd
Horse Yang South Mid-Summer Fire 3rd
Goat Yin South Late Summer Fire 4th
Monkey Yang West Early Autumn Metal 1st
Rooster Yin West Mid-Autumn Metal 2nd
Dog Yang West Late Autumn Metal 3rd
Pig Yin North Early Winter Water 4th

The twelve signs[edit]

Chart showing the 24 cardinal directions and the symbols of the sign associated with them.

In Chinese astrology the zodiac of twelve animal sign represents twelve different types of personality. The zodiac traditionally begins with the sign of the Rat, and there are many stories about the Origins of the Chinese Zodiac which explain why this is so. When the twelve zodiac signs are part of the 60-year calendar in combination with the four elements, they are traditionally called the twelve earthly branches. The Chinese Zodiac follows the lunisolar Chinese calendar and thus the "changeover" days in a month (when one sign changes to another sign) vary each year. The following are the twelve zodiac signs in order.[34]

  1. Rat (Yang, 1st Trine, Fixed Element Water): Rat years include 1900, 1912, 1924, 1936, 1948, 1960, 1972, 1984, 1996, 2008. The Rat also corresponds to a particular month in the year. The hours of the Rat are 11pm – 1am.
  2. Ox (Yin, 2nd Trine, Fixed Element Water): Ox years include 1901, 1913, 1925, 1937, 1949, 1961, 1973, 1985, 1997, 2009. The Ox also corresponds to a particular month in the year. The hours of the Ox are 1am – 3am.
  3. Tiger (Yang, 3rd Trine, Fixed Element Wood): Tiger years include 1902, 1914, 1926, 1938, 1950, 1962, 1974, 1986, 1998, 2010. The Tiger also corresponds to a particular month in the year. The hours of the Tiger are 3am – 5am.
  4. Rabbit (Yin, 4th Trine, Fixed Element Wood): Rabbit Years include 1903, 1915, 1927, 1939, 1951, 1963, 1975, 1987, 1999, 2011. The Rabbit also corresponds to a particular month in the year. The hours of the Rabbit are 5am – 7am.
  5. Dragon (Yang, 1st Trine, Fixed Element Wood): Dragon years include 1904, 1916, 1928, 1940, 1952, 1964, 1976, 1988, 2000, 2012. The Dragon also corresponds to a particular month in the year. The hours of the Dragon are 7am – 9am.
  6. Snake (Yin, 2nd Trine, Fixed Element Fire): Snake years include 1905, 1917, 1929, 1941, 1953, 1965, 1977, 1989, 2001, 2013. The Snake also corresponds to a particular month in the year. The hours of the Snake are 9am – 11am.
  7. Horse (Yang, 3rd Trine, Fixed Element Fire): Horse years include 1906, 1918, 1930, 1942, 1954, 1966, 1978, 1990, 2002, 2014. The Horse also corresponds to a particular month in the year. The hours of the Horse are 11am – 1pm.
  8. Goat (Yin, 4th Trine, Fixed Element Fire): Goat years include 1907, 1919, 1931, 1943, 1955, 1967, 1979, 1991, 2003, 2015. The Goat also corresponds to a particular month in the year. The hours of the Goat are 1pm – 3pm.
  9. Monkey (Yang, 1st Trine, Fixed Element Metal): Monkey years include 1908, 1920, 1932, 1944, 1956, 1968, 1980, 1992, 2004, 2016. The Monkey also corresponds to a particular month in the year. The hours of the Monkey are 3pm – 5pm.
  10. Rooster (Yin, 2nd Trine, Fixed Element Metal): Rooster years include 1909, 1921, 1933, 1945, 1957, 1969, 1981, 1993, 2005, 2017. The Rooster also corresponds to a particular month in the year. The hours of the Rooster are 5pm – 7pm.
  11. Dog (Yang, 3rd Trine, Fixed Element Metal): Dog years include 1910, 1922, 1934, 1946, 1958, 1970, 1982, 1994, 2006, 2018. The Dog also corresponds to a particular month in the year. The hours of the Dog are 7pm – 9pm.
  12. Pig (Yin, 4th Trine, Fixed Element Water): Pig years include 1911, 1923, 1935, 1947, 1959, 1971, 1983, 1995, 2007, 2019. The Pig also corresponds to a particular month in the year. The hours of the Pig are 9pm – 11pm.

The five elements[edit]

  • Wood: The wood person has high morals, is self-confident, expansive and co-operative, with wide and varied interests and idealistic goals. The direction associated with Wood is East, and the season is spring, which makes it the fixed element for the animal signs Tiger and Rabbit.[35]
  • Fire: The fire person has leadership qualities, dynamic passion, and is decisive, self-confident, positive and assertive. The direction associated with Fire is South, and the season is summer, which makes it the fixed element for the animal signs Snake and Horse.[35]
  • Earth: The earth person is serious, logical and methodical, intelligent, objective and good at planning. The direction associated with Earth is Center. The season for Earth is the changeover point of the four seasons. It is the fixed element for the animal signs Ox, Dragon, Goat and Dog.[35]
  • Metal: The metal person is sincere, has fixed values and opinions, is strong of will, and has eloquence of speech. The direction associated with Metal is West. The season for Metal is Autumn. It is the fixed element for the animal signs Monkey and Rooster.[35]
  • Water: The water person is persuasive, intuitive, and empathetic. The water person is objective and often sought out for their counsel. The direction associated with water is North. The season for Water is Winter. It is the fixed element for the animal signs Rat and Pig.[35]

The five elements operate together with the twelve animal signs in a 60-year calendar. The four elements appear in the calendar in both their yin and yang forms and are known as the eight heavenly stems. When trying to calculate the relevant year of the cycle in relation to the Western calendar, an easy rule to follow is that years that end in an odd number are Yang (representing masculine, active and light), those that end with an even number are Yin (representing feminine, passive and darkness).[35]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Mayo (1979), p. 35.
  2. ^ a b Arroyo (1989), p. 27.
  3. ^ Bobrick (2005), p. 10, 23.
  4. ^ Johnsen (2004).
  5. ^ a b Discovering the Universe Neil F. Comins (2009)p. 14, 15.
  6. ^ Rochberg (1998), p. ix.
  7. ^ Sachs (1948), p. 289.
  8. ^ “Astrology and The Four Elements by Charlie Higgins” 1997. http://accessnewage.com/Articles/astro/HIGELEMS.HTM
  9. ^ a b Robert Pelletier & Leonard Cataldo Ibid p 43-44, 1984; Maritha Pottenger, Ibid, pp 383–93, 1991
  10. ^ Arroyo (1989), pp. 30-34
  11. ^ Hone (1978), p. 42
  12. ^ Glyphs from the alchemical symbology.
  13. ^ Arroyo (1975)
  14. ^ Arroyo (1989), p. 29.
  15. ^ As used in Sepharial's "The Manual of Astrology"-Brazilian edition (1988) by Editora Nova Fronteira S/A, Rio de Janeiro
  16. ^ Hone (1978), p. 40
  17. ^ Arroyo (1989), p. 30
  18. ^ Hone (1978), p. 75
  19. ^ Hone (1978), p. 22
  20. ^ a b "Rulerships." Carol Wills 2007. astrologynow.com 25 Nov.2007. http://www.astrologynow.com/carolwillis/Rulerships.txt
  21. ^ Hone (1978), p. 21.
  22. ^ a b c “Glossary of Astrological Terms”. Logos, Asaa 1998–2004. 26 Nov 2007. http://logosastrology.dk/glossary.htm
  23. ^ Hone (1978), p. 144
  24. ^ “Accidental Dignity”. Astrological Dictionary 1998–2007. gotohoroscope.com. 26 Nov 2007. http://www.gotohoroscope.com/dictionary/astrological/5.html
  25. ^ Hone (1978), p.87
  26. ^ Hone (1978), p.88
  27. ^ "An Introduction to Astrology." Spiritsingles.com 25 Nov.2007. http://www.spiritsingles.com/Astrology/aboutAstrology.cfm
  28. ^ Rudhyar (1943)
  29. ^ a b c d e "The Signs and the Houses", by Robin Armstrong, RASA School of Astrology 2009 http://www.rasa.ws/index.php/rasa-library-articles-signs-and-houses-
  30. ^ "I Ching: The Sequence of Change", by Robin Armstrong, RA Publications 2009 http://thewakingdream.net/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1392&Itemid=1551
  31. ^ Sutton (1999) pp. 74–92.
  32. ^ Sutton (1999), p.168.
  33. ^ ""Almanac" "lunar" zodiac beginning of spring as the boundary dislocation? — China Network". 16 February 2009. Retrieved 5 January 2011. 
  34. ^ Theodora Lau, Ibid, pp 2–8, 30–5, 60–4, 88–94, 118–24, 148–53, 178–84, 208–13, 238–44, 270–78, 306–12, 338–44, 2005
  35. ^ a b c d e f Chinese Astrology: Exploring the Eastern Zodiac by Shelly Wu

References[edit]

  • Arroyo, Stephen (1975). Astrology, Psychology and The Four Elements. California: CCRS Publications.
  • Arroyo, Stephen (1989). Chart Interpretation Handbook. California: CCRS Publications.
  • Bobrick, Benson (2005). The Fated Sky: Astrology in History. Simon&Schuster.
  • Caiozzo, Anna (2003). Images of the Sky. Paris-Sorbonne. Signs and Constellations.
  • Hone, Margaret (1978). The Modern Text-Book of Astrology. Revised edition. England: L. N. Fowler & Co. Ltd.
  • Johnsen, Linda (2004 March). A Thousand Suns: Designing Your Future with Vedic Astrology. Yes International Publishers.
  • Mayo, Jeff (1979). Teach Yourself Astrology. London: Hodder and Stoughton.
  • Rochberg, Francesca (1998), "Babylonian Horoscopes", American Philosophical Society, New Series, Vol. 88, No. 1, pp i-164
  • Rudhyar, Dane (1943). Astrological Signs – The Pulse of Life. http://www.khaldea.com/rudhyar/pofl/pofl_p1p1.shtml
  • Sachs, Abraham (1948), "A Classification of the Babylonian Astronomical Tablets of the Seleucid Period", Journal of Cuneiform Studies, Vol. 2, No. 4, pp. 271–290
  • Sutton, Komilla (1999). "The Essentials of Vedic Astrology". England: The Wessex Astrologer Ltd.