Zoloti Vorota (Kiev Metro)

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Zoloti Vorota
Kyiv Metro logo.svg Kiev Metro station
Золоті Ворота.jpg
The central hall is covered with mosaic decorated arcs reminiscent of ancient Rus' temple architecture.
Location Volodymyrska Street, 42[1]
Kiev, Ukraine
Coordinates 50°26′54″N 30°30′48″E / 50.44833°N 30.51333°E / 50.44833; 30.51333Coordinates: 50°26′54″N 30°30′48″E / 50.44833°N 30.51333°E / 50.44833; 30.51333
Owned by Kyivpastrans
Line(s) Syretsko-Pecherska Line Syretsko-Pecherska Line
Construction
Structure type Deep column station
Depth 96.5 m (317 ft)[2]
Architect Vadym and Boris Zhezherin
Mykola Zharikov
Other information
Station code 314
History
Opened December 31, 1989[3]
Traffic
Passengers (2011) 19,900 (daily)[4]
Services
Preceding station   Kiev Metro   Following station
toward Syrets
Syretsko-Pecherska Line
Sviatoshynsko-Brovarska Line
Transfer at: Teatralna
toward Lisova

Zoloti Vorota (Ukrainian: Золотi ворота) is the 29th[2] station of the Kiev Metro system that serves the Ukrainian capital Kiev. The station was opened as part of the first segment of the Syretsko-Pecherska Line on 31 December 1989. It serves as a transfer station to the Teatralna station of the Sviatoshynsko-Brovarska Line.[3] Its only street entrance is located on Volodymyrska Street, near the city's Golden Gate, from which the station takes its name. As of 2011, it has a daily ridership of 19,900,[4] and is operational from 05:39 to 00:06 daily.[3]

The original design plans for the station called for a clean utilitarian structure typical of metro stations of that period. Due to the efforts of the city's chief architect Mykola Zharikov, the design was scrapped in favor of one that resembles an ancient Kievan Rus' temple by Borys Zhezherin, Vadym Zhezherin, and Zharikov himself.[5][6] Such a design was a particularly risky feat, since Ukraine was a part of the secular Soviet Union at the time of the station's construction. Vadym Zhezherin and Mykola Zharikov, among the other artists and architects of the station, were bestowed the State Prize of Ukraine in the Field of Architecture for their work in 1991.[7]

The Zoloti Vorota features 76 distinct mosaic pieces and images depicting the history of Kievan Rus'. In 2011, the station's mosaics were listed as "newly discovered objects of cultural heritage" by the city's Department of Cultural Heritage.[8] The station is regarded as one of the most beautiful metro stations in Europe,[6][9] being placed on a list compiled by The Daily Telegraph in 2013.[5][10]

Construction[edit]

The initial plans for the future Syretsko-Pecherska Line called for a transfer station (named "Kominternivska")[11] to connect with the Sviatoshynsko-Brovarska Line at Universytet station. However, the short central hall at Universytet was inadequate for the high volume of passengers that a transfer station would be subject to, thus the station's future location was moved a few city blocks to coincide with a newly proposed station of the Sviatoshynsko-Brovarska Line.[11] This new station, called Teatralna, would be located in between the Khreshchatyk and Universytet stations, and would serve as a transfer to the future Zoloti Vorota station. Although the Kominternivska station was never built, some of its architectural designs were preserved and used in the creation of the Teatralna station.[11]

Construction for the Syretsko-Pecherska Line, the Kiev Metro system's third line, began on 23 February 1983.[11] It had a projected date of completion in 1986,[11] although the line's opening was delayed until the end of 1989 due to a number of reasons.[11] The line's first segment was officially opened on 31 December 1989, and consisted of three stations; Zoloti Vorota–Palats SportuMechnikova (named Klovska today).

The station is located at a depth of 96.5 m (317 ft), creating the need for an underground vestibule in between the two escalator tunnels.

Since its entrance is located on a hillside, two separate escalator tunnels had to be created, connected by an underground station vestibule.[11] The upper tunnel is 35 m (115 ft) long, while the lower tunnel is 56 m (184 ft) long. The vestibule was built in the same way as with other stations of the Kiev Metro system; it was first completed at ground level, and then lowered to its final location underground. The vestibule is a 20 m (66 ft) tall monolithic dome with an approximately similar diameter.

The installation began in November 1987 and was completed by 1988, lowered at a pace of half a meter a day. Since the construction took place in water-saturated soils, over 200 frozen wells had to be formed so it could be lowered to its proper location.[11] In addition, over 250 m2 (300 sq yd) of rock had to be removed to make way for the vestibule. After it was finally installed, construction work began on the lower escalator tunnel. Due to a difficult hydrogeology, the tunnel was not completed by the station's grand opening and until 1 May 1990, it could only be reached with a transfer from the Teatralna station.[11]

For several years, the Zoloti Vorota station served as the line's northern terminus. Continued construction extended the line northwards to the Lukianivska station. In between the two stations, the Lvivska Brama station was built during the late 1990s; however, it has not been completed to this day.

Design[edit]

The station's massive chandeliers, flanked by the ceiling's mosaic pieces.

From an engineering standpoint, Zoloti Vorota was built as a deep column station, at a depth of 96.5 m (317 ft) underground.[2] It consists of three distinct vaulted halls, featuring one central hall, and two side platform halls, each separated by a row of columns.[3] The central hall is connected to the only above-ground vestibule through two escalator tunnels,[3] separated by an underground vestibule, which was needed because of the depth at which the station is located. Its design and formation is nearly similar to the Maidan Nezalezhnosti station of the system's Kurenivsko-Chervonoarmiyska Line.[11]

The station's original plans were designed by a team of Moscow architects from Metrogiprotrans; their design was strictly utilitarian, architecturally similar to the other metro stations of that period.[5][6] However, due to the socio-economic changes taking place in the country at the time, the original design was scrapped because it was considered "too weak" for one of the city's main metro stations in a historically significant location.[11]

Close-up of a light fixture in the station's underground vestibule.

The city's chief architect Mykola Zharikov approached Vadym Zhezherin to create a new design for the station.[6] Zhezherin enlisted the help of his father, Borys in completing the design.[11] Vadym previously worked on the reconstruction of the city's Leo Tolstoy Square and similarly named metro station, while his father, who was awarded the title of Distinguished Architect of Ukraine, was responsible for the reconstruction of the nearby National Opera House.[11]

They were supported by architects Anatoliy Krushynskyi, Tamara Tselikovska, and Fedir Zaremba, who were responsible for designing the underground vestibule.[3][12] While the redesign was taking place, construction on the station's original utilitarian design continued.[11] The new design was based on the form of a Kievan Rus' temple, featuring unique mosaics situated throughout the station. The central hall's height was increased, and the original design's pylons were replaced with much lower columns, finished off with white marble and matte polish.[13] In particular, the white ceiling was divided with diametrical mosaic stripes with brick grouting on the sides, completed by artists Hryhoriy Korin and Volodymyr Fedko.[12]

The station is illuminated by two-tierd bronze chandeliers, each featuring 12 distinct lighting groups holding candle-like bulbs. The chandeliers, designed by Stanislav Adamenko and Mariya Ralko,[11] were installed between the mosaic stripes.[13] Both the station halls and the underground vestibule feature similar light fixtures, although they are significantly smaller than the main chandeliers. The redesign also called for a gold smalt-covered ceiling, although this was rejected as it was too expensive.[11] To finish it off, gray granite was used on the floor.

Mosaics[edit]

Close up of the gold name inscription which was carried out in an ancient Rus'-style font.[13]

The Zoloti Vorota station features a number of distinct mosaic decorations, which were completed by artists Hryhoriy Korin and Volodymyr Fedko.[12] There are a total of 80 large mosaic pieces; they run in a clockwise direction around the station, depicting the history of Kievan Rus.[2][3][13] The two artists, accompanied by the station's lead architect Vadym Zhezherin, concluded that the station should be decorated with mosaic pieces of historical significance of the period leading up to the Mongol invasion of Rus'.[11] Korin completed the mosaics in either ends of the station and the large ceiling arches, while Fedko was completed the unique images relating to Kievan Rus' and the smaller arches in between each of the station's pillars.[11]

Four large mosaic panels are installed on either ends of the station hall and the two escalator tunnels. On the side that leads to the exit to the city, a panel was installed depicting the patron saint of Kiev, Michael the Archangel. Meanwhile, at the very end of the station, Saint George is depicted, symbolizing Moscow, the Soviet Union's capital at the time. One of the mosaic panels at the end of the station near the escalators includes an inscription featuring a Ukrainian nationalist slogan, stating СЛАВА УКРАЇНІ, which is translated as Glory to Ukraine.[14][nb 1]

In all, the station features 27 mosaics depicting many of the Grand Princes of Kievan Rus'. The mosaic pieces themselves incorporate the princes' years of reigning and their names:[1]

The station also has nine mosaics depicting various other important personalities of the Kievan Rus' era featuring Anthony, Theodosius, Anne, Hilarion, Agapetus, Alypius, Nestor the Chronicler, Petro Mylonig, and Sylvester.[1] The station also features eight mosaic pieces of ancient Kievan Rus' churches in Kiev including the Church of the Tithes, the Saint Sophia Cathedral, Iryninska Church, St. Michael's Golden-Domed Cathedral, Church of the Saviour at Berestove, Dormition Cathedral, Church of the Mother of God Pyrohoshchya, and the St. Cyril's Monastery.[1] In addition, there are 32 mosaic pieces featuring simargls, which are mythical creatures in East Slavic mythology, depicted as a winged lion or dog.[11]

Examples of station mosaics
Mosaic depicting Yaropolk II of Kiev with one of the chandeliers seen in the background. 
An example of the mosaics covering the station's white marble covered pillars. 
Mosaic depicting the Church of the Tithes, which was destroyed by the Bolsheviks in 1928. 
Mosaics depicting the patron saint of Kiev, Michael the Archangel, flanked by two mythical creatures. 
See more on the Wikimedia Commons

References[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ It is important to note that Ukraine was not a sovereign nation-state in 1989, and any reference to Ukrainian nationalism was criminalized.[12][15]
Footnotes
  1. ^ a b c d "Kyiv Metro station Zoloti Vorota (mosaics)". http://kiev-book.narod.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 24 March 2014. 
  2. ^ a b c d "Kyiv Metropoliten. "Zoloti Vorota" station". Prime Excursion Bureau (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 7 April 2014. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g "Zoloti Vorota". Kyiv Metropoliten (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 7 April 2014. 
  4. ^ a b "Passenger traffic". Kiev Meto forum – Unofficial website (in Russian). Retrieved 7 April 2014. 
  5. ^ a b c ""Zoloti Vorota" station was declared one of the most beautiful in Europe (photo)". UNIAN (in Ukrainian). 10 January 2013. Retrieved 7 April 2014. 
  6. ^ a b c d Zheliazo, Elena (20 January 2001). "During the inauguration of the metro station "Zolotye Vorota" in Kiev all present guests suddenly sang...". Fakty i Kommentarii (in Russian). Retrieved 7 April 2014. 
  7. ^ Laws of Ukraine. Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine No. 394-91-п: On the bestowment of the State Prizes of Ukraine in Architecture in 1991 (Про присудження Державних премій України по архітектурі 1991 року). Adopted on 30 December 1991. (Ukrainian)
  8. ^ "Objects of Cultural heritage of the Shevchenko Raion in Kyiv" (DOC). Order of the Department of Cultural Heritage of the Kyiv City State Administration (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 7 April 2014. 
  9. ^ "Top-15 most beautiful metro stations of the world". Ukrayinska Pravda (in Ukrainian). 23 November 2011. Retrieved 7 April 2014. 
  10. ^ "Zoloti Vorota metro station in Kyiv included in list of most impressive stations in Europe". Interfax-Ukraine. Kyiv Post. 11 January 2013. Retrieved 7 April 2014. 
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Totskiy, Oleg. "Zolotye Vorota". Metro, which no longer exists (in Russian). LiveJournal. Retrieved 7 April 2014. 
  12. ^ a b c d "14 metro stations with elements of ethnic design". rukotvory.com.ua (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 7 April 2014. 
  13. ^ a b c d ""Zoloti Vorota" station is considered one of the most beautiful stations in the world". Zerkalo Nedeli (in Russian). 10 January 2013. Retrieved 7 April 2014. 
  14. ^ "Slava Ukraine in the Kiev Metro". metropolis.kiev.ua (in Russian). Brief Guide to Kiev Bridges. Retrieved 7 April 2014. 
  15. ^ "The "most ancient station" of the Kiev Metro was placed on the list of top-2o in Europe". Istorychna Pravda (in Ukrainian). Ukrayinska Pravda. 10 January 2013. Retrieved 6 January 2015. 

External links[edit]

External images
Photo of the original utilitarian design
Second proposed utilitarian design
Source: "Zolotye Vorota" Metro, which no longer exists. Retrieved 7 April 2014.
Preceded by
None
Syretsko-Pecherska Line Syretsko-Pecherska Line terminus
31 December 1989 – 30 March 1996
Succeeded by
Lukianivska