Zonitoides nitidus

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Zonitoides nitidus
Zonitoides nitidus1pl.jpg
Two shells of Zonitoides nitidus
Conservation status
NE[1]
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Mollusca
Class: Gastropoda
(unranked): clade Heterobranchia
clade Euthyneura
clade Panpulmonata
clade Eupulmonata
clade Stylommatophora
informal group Sigmurethra
clade limacoid clade
Superfamily: Gastrodontoidea
Family: Gastrodontidae
Genus: Zonitoides
Subgenus: Zonitoides
Species: Z. nitidus
Binomial name
Zonitoides nitidus
(Müller, 1774)[2]

Zonitoides nitidus is a species of small, air-breathing land snail, a terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusk in the family Gastrodontidae.

Zonitoides nitidus is the type species of the genus Zonitoides.

Distribution[edit]

The distribution of Zonitoides nitidus includes the Holarctic zone. It is found almost all over Europe except the southernmost regions:[3]

The non-indigenous distribution of this species includes:

  • introduced to Menorca[3]

Description[edit]

The shell is reddish brown.[3] The umbilicus is large (almost 25% of shell diameter).[3] The shell is with radial growth lines.[3] The width of the shell is 6–7 mm.[3] The height of the shell is 3.5-4.0 mm.[3]

The animal is black with a characteristic orange dash: the (mantle gland is visible under the shell's aperture).[3]

Juveniles are whitish grey with light brown translucent shells.[3]

Photo of the shell.
Drawing of the shell.

Ecology[edit]

Zonitoides nitidus occurs in wet meadows and river woods, usually near water bodies, swamps and swampy forests, in the zone of emergent vegetation.[3] Man-made habitats such as pools in old quarries are sometimes colonized after a few years.[3] In Switzerland it is found up to 2100m of altitude.[3]

Zonitoides nitidus is herbivorous.[3] These snails feed on disintegrating leaves, mushrooms, roots and fruit.[3] They do not eat dry leaves.[3] Humid leaves are preferred.[3] When consuming soft food such as mushrooms or soft fruits, Zonitoides nitidus penetrates perpendicularly inside, producing characteristic holes; the entire animal including its shell can penetrate inside the fruit.[3]

In Germany up to three clutches of 2-9 eggs per individual are laid in all seasons, with some days or weeks spacing between egg-laying.[3] Egg diameter is 1.0-1.6 mm.[3] Eggs are laid loose into the soil.[3] Juveniles have 1.5 whorls (diameter 1-1.2 mm) after hatching.[3] They start feeding on disintegrating plant remains in the soil.[3] After 3 months the shell diameter reaches up to 3 mm under favourable conditions, after 10 months 6 mm, and full size after slightly more than one year.[3] Maximum age is 18 months under laboratory conditions.[3]

Parasites of Zonitoides nitidus include:

References[edit]

This article incorporates public domain text from the reference.[3]

  1. ^ 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Cited 4 March 2007.
  2. ^ Müller O. F. 1774. Vermivm terrestrium et fluviatilium, seu animalium infusoriorum, helminthicorum, et testaceorum, non marinorum, succincta historia. Volumen alterum. pp. I-XXVI [= 1-36], 1-214, [1-10]. Havniæ & Lipsiæ. (Heineck & Faber).
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae "Species summary for Zonitoides nitidus". AnimalBase, last modified 29 August 2010, accessed 3 September 2010.
  4. ^ Juřičková L., Horsák M. & Beran L. (2001). "Check-list of the molluscs (Mollusca) of the Czech Republic". Acta Soc. Zool. Bohem. 65: 25-40.
  5. ^ http://www.anemoon.org/anm/voorlopige-kaarten/landmollusken/wetenschappelijk/zonitoides-nitidus/
  6. ^ http://ecoinf.uran.ru/content/4catalog/55.shtml
  7. ^ Balashov I. & Gural-Sverlova N. 2012. An annotated checklist of the terrestrial molluscs of Ukraine. Journal of Conchology. 41 (1): 91-109.
  8. ^ Olsson I.-M., Stéen M. & Mann H. (1993). "Gastropod hosts of Elaphostrongylus spp. (Protostrongylidae, Nematoda)". Rangifer 13(1): 53-55. PDF.
  9. ^ Michigan Department of Natural Resources and Environment. "Brainworm". accessed 14 December 2010.

External links[edit]