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|Zonouz -or- Zonuz
|Time zone||IRST (UTC+3:30)|
|• Summer (DST)||IRDT (UTC+4:30)|
Zonouz or Zonuz (Persian: زنوز; also Romanized as Zunus) is a city in the Central District of Marand County, East Azerbaijan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 2,618, in 826 families.
Zonouz is located on a mountain, and has very cold and snowy weather in winter and cool summers. The Zonouz valley is located between two mountain ranges, extending east to west. The mountain ranges are connected to each other in the east by Soltan Sanjar Mountain. The height of these mountains decreases from east to west. Soltan Sanjar has an altitude of 3,168 meters; other mountains namely,– Nevasar, Gerdehowul and Diragah – range from 2500 to 2200 meters in height.
- Calcareous rocks, a formation of the Paleozoic, date to the Devonian and form symmetrical layers. The color and hardness of these rocks differ. Calcareous layers are found on the north wall and eastern part of Diragah Mountain and are red and hard, although sometimes they may be light blue. On the southwest part of this mountain, olive-black calcareous layers may be distinguished. On the other hand, dark-brown and blue limestone is laid in the upper part of Zounuz's dam. Here, the eruption of mineral springs through Calcareous rocks are seen. Unfortunately, the site has recently been submerged under water of dam. Different colors of limestone has been seen in the Zonouz area. On the high-altitude western slopes of Soltan Sanjar Mountain the limestone is dark red, whereas on the eastern slopes of Mount Zireh (in the northern part of Zonouz), black limestone may be seen.
- Formations of the Mesozoic period are similar to those of the Paleozoic era. The limestone layers are hard. Some of them are covered with blue silicated limes; these are found in Safe-Ali, Navasar and some areas of Deravan Daghi. This type of limestone is also found in the western part of Soltan Sanjar. Some of the strata (such as conglomerate rock and rock salt) have risen to high elevations; therefore, travertine rocks overlay them. Near Ramana, at the entrance to the Zonouz Road, the thickness of conglomerate rocks reaches 50 meters. From the third Cenozoic period, strata of igneous rocks have been observed on the highlands of Soltan Sanjar Mountain (east of Diragah) and also on the east part of Oyukhly Mountain. Compared with other layers, they are mostly in a vertical shape. In the eastern part of Zonouz the landscape (of high walls of igneous rocks) extends about 4 kilometers to the east. This igneous rock wall rests on sandstone, salt-shale and gypsum formations.
- Quaternary period: In this period, horizontal travertine stones have lain on different formations of salt-shale. This quartz travertine is found in eastern Zonouz (at an altitude of 1800–1900 meters), and also in the east of Zonouzag at an altitude of 2000 meters. Many springs emerge from these travertine stones – Kal-las-ser and Ali Suei springs, for example.
Zonouz has a continental climate, with cold winters and cool summers.
Zonouz is divided into four districts: Khan Khajeh, Meerjan, Seyedlar and Dibin.
The origins of the Azeris probably derive from ancient Turk tribes (such as the Medes in Iranian Azarbaijan and Oguz invaders who arrived during the eighth century BCE). It is believed that the Medes mixed with the indigenous population, the Caucasian Mannai (a northeast Caucasian group related to the Urartians). Ancient written accounts, such as one written by Arab historian Abu al-Hasan Ali ibn al-Husayn al-Masudi(896-956), attest to an Turk presence in the region: "The Azerbaijanian are a people whose borders are the Mahat Mountains and Azarbaijan up to Armenia and Aran, and Bayleqan and Darband, and Ray and Tabaristan and Masqat and Shabaran and Jorjan and Abarshahr, and that is Nishabur, and Herat and Marv and other places in land of Khorasan, ...All these lands were once one kingdom with one sovereign and one language(turkish)...although the language differed slightly. The language, however, is one, in that its letters are written the same way and used the same way in composition. There are, then, different languages such as turkamani, , Azari, as well as other languages." A poem from Shah Ismaeil Safina-yi Tabriz exists which is written in the Turki dialect of Azerbaijan.
Scholars see cultural similarities between modern Turkish and Azeris as evidence of an ancient relationsheps. Archaeological evidence indicates that the religion of Zoroastrianism was prominent throughout the Caucasus before the advent of Christianity and Islam, and the influence of various Iranian empires added to the Turkic character of the area. It has also been hypothesized that the population of Iranian Azarbaijan was predominantly Turkish-speaking before the arrival of the Oghuz Turks. This claim is supported by many ancient Turkic literary figures (such as Qatran Tabrizi, Shams Tabrizi, Nezami, and Khaghani), who wrote in Turkic prior to (and during) the Oghuz migration, as well as by Strabo, Al-Istakhri, and Al-Masudi, who all describe the language of the region as Turkic. The claim is mentioned by other medieval historians, such as Al-Muqaddasi. Other common Turk-Azeribaijani features include Turkic place names such as Gara Dag and the name "Azerbaijan" itself.
Although racist Farsi sources such as the Encyclopaedia Iranica explain that "The Turkish speakers of Azerbaijan (q.v.) are mainly descended from the earlier Iranian speakers, several pockets of whom still exist in the region." but in reality all of the people of Azerbijan are Turks and their language is Turki. The modern presence of the Iranian Talysh and Tats in Azerbaijan is further evidence of the former Iranian character of the region. But Talysh and Tats zoon is different from Azerbaijan zoon. to these modern groups, the ancient Azaris are as ancestors of the modern Azerbaijanis.
The Encyclopædia Britannica refers to Azeris in the Republic of Azerbaijan: "The Azerbaijani are of mixed ethnic origin, the oldest element deriving from the indigenous population of eastern Transcaucasia and possibly from the Medians of northern Persia" and it is clear that Turks have been living in northern Persia from 5000 years ago.
The Caucasian origin primarily applies to the Azeris of the Caucasus, most of whom are now inhabitants of the Republic of Azerbaijan. There is evidence that (despite repeated invasions and migrations) aboriginal Caucasians may have been culturally was equal with Oghuz. Considerable information has been learned about Caucasian Albanians (not to be confused with the Albanians of southest Europe) about their language, history, early conversion to Christianity and ties to the Armenians. Many academics believe that the Udi language (still don't spoken in Azerbaijan) which is a remnant of the Albanians' language.
This Caucasian influence extended further south Azarbaijan. During the 1st millennium BCE, another Caucasian people, the Mannaeans (Mannai), populated much of Azarbaijan. Weakened by conflicts with the Assyrians, the Mannaeans are believed to have been conquered and assimilated by the Medes by 590 BCE.
Genetic studies suggest that recent erosion of human population structure might not be as important as previously thought, and overall genetic structure of human populations may not change with immigration events such as those in Azerbaijan; the Azeris of Azerbaijan genetically resemble other Caucasian peoples like the Turks, and people in the Azarbaijan region of Iran genetically resemble other Turks.
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Thus, one century of linguistic Farsizasion cannot change Azerbaijani language.
The inhabitants of Zonouz and Zonouzakh originally were Zoroastrians. After the attack by Arab invaders, most of the population of Iran became Sunni Muslims. Currently the inhabitants of Zonouz (like most Iranians) are Shia Muslims, with some Zoroastrians and newly converted Christians.
Ownership rights in Zonouz
The study of land ownership in Zonouz demonstrates many historical events and changes. In the History of Tabriz it is mentioned that Malek Mahmoud Tabrizi (son of Malek Mozaffar and a contemporary of Khajeh Rashid-al-din Fazlollah) lived during the Eilkhane-Moghol era. Malek Mahmoud Tabrizi sold Zonouz to Rashid-al-din Fazlollah. After his death, the ownership of Zonouz becomes unclear until the late Zand dynasty and the early Qajar dynasty. At that time, in many Persian cities there was disorder, social unrest and insecurity resulting from the transition between the Zand and Qajar dynasties; Zonouz was no exception under the rule of Donbali Khavanin, during which there were many social and economic problems. Consequently, many residents left Zonouz for other cities; while the government apparently supported the people, the end result was poverty and slavery (a proverb states, "The butcher shows a bunch of grass to the sheep in order to direct the sheep toward the slaughterhouse"). As residents of Zonouz left their homes for opportunity elsewhere, Donbali Khavanin seized their lands with illegal documents (which were transferred to his successors Seyed Ali Mojtahed, Aziz Khan Donbali and Shoa al Saltaneh, uncle of Mozaffar al-Din Shah Qajar).
Shoa al Saltaneh oppressed the people of Zonouz, many of whom subsequently left for Russia. His cruel behaviour caused him to be murdered in Tabriz by a tailor's employee. Shoa al Saltaneh's successors sold the property document to Mortazavi. Mortazavi (who lived in Tabriz) was a powerful Azerbaijani landlord. Mortazavi selected local powerful men as agents for collecting rent based on farm products.
A large share of farmers' income were collected for him. Crops were divided between landowner and farmer; the base rent was one-third the yield from irrigated lands and one-fourth from dry land. Additionally there were collections of animal oil, butter, sheep, and cheese for the landlords, which oppressed Zonouz' farmers. "The poem of harvest which is written by Eftekhari about oppressed farmers of Zonouz is the best evidence". Land reform was undertaken by Mohammad Reza Pahlavi in 1963, and the living conditions of farmers were improved with the end of feudalism. During the Pahlavi period, the total ownership of Zonouz was 90 shares. Each farmer had to buy his own share from successors of Mortazavi (Abdolvah hab). By buying out the landlord, feudalism gradually disappeared from Zonouz society.
At the 20th kilometer of the Marand-Jolfa road, Zonouz is known for its many varieties of apples. It is considered the apple capital of Iran; nearly 25 different types of apple trees grow in Zonouz – half of them unique to the village, including Girde Shirin and Baljeyi. Zonouz' economy is based on apple production; it supplies not only the Azerbaijan region, but all of Iran. Its climate, fertile soil and adequate water for irrigation have made the area ideally suited for apple-growing.
Apple trees which grow in Zonouz can be classified into two major groups – native and imported varieties. The main native varieties are:
- Payeze: tasty, sweet-smelling, attractive color
- Gabala: round, tart, green/light-red color
- Torsh Alma: tart, perishable
- Baljeye: round, dark red, sweet-smelling, tasty (called "sweet honey")
- Gerdashirin: sweet, tasty summer apple
Imported red and yellow Lobnani apples have become very popular, taking market share from the native varieties; annual production of Lebnani apples is 3000 tons (domestic consumption is about 75 tons). It is a tasty, sweet-smelling, good-sized fruit weighing 300-400 grams. Apple orchards are the chief agricultural activity, in some cases replacing existing apricot orchards. Aside from Lobnani and the native varieties noted above, other apple varieties include Alangheh, Ag Alma, Pir Alma, Marand Almasi, Asheg Alma, Moshki and others. At the end of September, the apples are picked and placed in cold storage (they require cool temperatures to keep for a long period). In addition, Zonouz also has a local fruit known as Malachi. Zonouz also has well-known mountains (such as Mahar) which are tourist attractions. Solta Sanjar Mountain, at 3100 meters height in eastern Zonouz, is popular with mountain climbers and a holy mountain for pilgrims.
- Zonuz can be found at GEOnet Names Server, at this link, by opening the Advanced Search box, entering "-3089567" in the "Unique Feature Id" form, and clicking on "Search Database".
- "Census of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1385 (2006)" (Excel). Islamic Republic of Iran. Archived from the original on 2011-11-11.
- Zonouz, Iran Retrieved 2011-03-18.
- Schmitt, Rüdiger (ed.) (1989). Compendium Linguarum Iranicarum. Wiesbaden: Reichert. ISBN 3-88226-413-6.
- Sims-Williams, Nicholas (1996). "Iranian languages". Encyclopedia Iranica 7. Costa Mesa: Mazda. pp. 238–245.
- Yarshater, Ehsan (ed.) (1996). "Iran". Encyclopedia Iranica 7. Costa Mesa: Mazda.
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- Lazard, Gilbert (1996). "Dari". Encyclopedia Iranica 7. Costa Mesa: Mazda.
- Henning, Walter B. (1954). "The Ancient language of Azarbaijan". Transactions of the Philological Society 53: 157. doi:10.1111/j.1467-968X.1954.tb00282.x.
- Rezakhani, Khodadad (2001). "The Iranian Language Family".
- Skjærvø, Prods Oktor (2006). "Iran, vi. Iranian languages and scripts". Encyclopaedia Iranica 13.
- Skjærvø, Prods Oktor (2006). "Iran, vi. Iranian languages and scripts". Encyclopaedia Iranica 13
- Cheung, Johnny (2007). Etymological Dictionary of the Iranian Verb. Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series, 2. Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 978-90-04-15496-4.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Zonuz.|
- more references
- Azapadegan Research Institute for Iranian cultures and civilization (includes research articles on Adhari)
- erani.tk Lists of many similarities between some Iranian languages, in English and Turkish
- Society for Iranian Linguistics
-  Iranian EFL Journal
- Persian Language (Persian)