Zoo

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For other uses, see Zoo (disambiguation).
The entrance of the San Diego Zoo, California, May 2007.
Giants of the Savanna Exhibit at the Dallas Zoo, Texas, October 2011

A zoo (short for zoological park or zoological garden, and also called a menagerie) is a facility in which animals are confined within enclosures, displayed to the public, and in which they may also be bred.

The term zoological garden refers to zoology, the study of animals, a term deriving from the Greek zōon (ζῷον, "animal") and lógos (λóγος, "study"). The abbreviation "zoo" was first used of the London Zoological Gardens, which opened for scientific study in 1828 and to the public in 1847.[1] The number of major animal collections open to the public around the world now exceeds 1,000, around 80 percent of them in cities.[2]

Etymology[edit]

London Zoo, which opened in 1828, first called itself a menagerie or "zoological garden," which is short for "Gardens and Menagerie of the Zoological Society of London."[3] The abbreviation "zoo" first appeared in print in the UK around 1847, when it was used for the Clifton Zoo, but it was not until some 20 years later that the shortened form became popular in the song "Walking in the Zoo on Sunday" by music-hall artist Alfred Vance.[3] The term "zoological park" was used for more expansive facilities in Washington, D.C., and the Bronx in New York, which opened in 1891 and 1899 respectively.[4]

Relatively new terms for zoos coined in the late 20th century are "conservation park" or "biopark". Adopting a new name is a strategy used by some zoo professionals to distance their institutions from the stereotypical and nowadays criticized zoo concept of the 19th century.[5] The term "biopark" was first coined and developed by the National Zoo in Washington D.C. in the late 1980s.[6] In 1993, the New York Zoological Society changed its name to the Wildlife Conservation Society and rebranded the zoos under its jurisdiction as "wildlife conservation parks."[7]

History[edit]

Royal Menageries[edit]

Further information: Menagerie
The Tower of London housed England's royal menagerie for several centuries (Picture from the 15th century, British Library).

The predecessor of the zoological garden is the menagerie, which has a long history from the ancient world to modern times. The oldest known zoological collection was revealed during excavations at Hierakonpolis, Egypt in 2009, of a ca. 3500 B.C. menagerie. The exotic animals included hippos, hartebeest, elephants, baboons and wildcats.[8] King Ashur-bel-kala of the Middle Assyrian Empire created Zoological and Botanical Gardens in the 11th Century BC. In the 2nd century BCE, the Chinese Empress Tanki had a "house of deer" built, and King Wen of Zhou kept a 1,500-acre (6.1 km2) zoo called Ling-Yu, or the Garden of Intelligence. Other well-known collectors of animals included King Solomon of the Kingdom of Israel and Judah, queen Semiramis and king Ashurbanipal of Assyria, and King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylonia.[2] By the 4th century BCE, zoos existed in most of the Greek city states; Alexander the Great is known to have sent animals that he found on his military expeditions back to Greece. The Roman emperors kept private collections of animals for study or for use in the arena,[2] the latter faring notoriously poorly. The 19th-century historian W.E.H. Lecky wrote of the Roman games, first held in 366 BCE:

At one time, a bear and a bull, chained together, rolled in fierce combat across the sand ... Four hundred bears were killed in a single day under Caligula ... Under Nero, four hundred tigers fought with bulls and elephants. In a single day, at the dedication of the Colosseum by Titus, five thousand animals perished. Under Trajan ... lions, tigers, elephants, rhinoceroses, hippopotami [sic], giraffes, bulls, stags, even crocodiles and serpents were employed to give novelty to the spectacle ...[9]

Henry I of England kept a collection of animals at his palace in Woodstock, which reportedly included lions, leopards, and camels.[10] The most prominent collection in medieval England was in the Tower of London, created as early as 1204 by King John I.

Henry III received a wedding gift in 1235 of three leopards from Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, and in 1264, the animals were moved to the Bulwark, renamed the Lion Tower, near the main western entrance of the Tower. It was opened to the public during the reign of Elizabeth I in the 16th century.[11] During the 18th century, the price of admission was three half-pence, or the supply of a cat or dog for feeding to the lions.[10] The animals were moved to the London Zoo when it opened.

Enlightenment era[edit]

The Versailles menagerie during the reign of Louis XIV in the 17th century
Further information: List of zoos

The oldest zoo in the world still in existence is the Tiergarten Schönbrunn in Vienna, Austria. It was constructed by Adrian van Stekhoven in 1752 at the order of the Holy Roman Emperor Francis I, husband of Maria Theresa of Austria, to serve as an imperial menagerie as part of Schönbrunn Palace. The menagerie was initially reserved for the viewing pleasure of the imperial family and the court, but was made accessible to the public in 1765.

In 1775, a zoo was founded in Madrid, and in 1795, the zoo inside the Jardin des Plantes in Paris was founded by Jacques-Henri Bernardin, with animals from the royal menagerie at Versailles, primarily for scientific research and education. The Kazan Zoo, the first zoo in Russia was founded in 1806 by the Professor of Kazan State University Karl Fuchs.

The modern zoo[edit]

Until the early 19th century, the function of the zoo was often to symbolize royal power, like King Louis XIV's menagerie at Versailles. The modern zoo that emerged in the early 19th century at London, Paris and Dublin, was focused on providing educational exhibits to the public for entertainment and inspiration.[12]

A growing fascination for natural history and zoology, coupled with the tremendous expansion in the urbanization of London, led to a heightened demand for a greater variety of public forms of entertainment to be made available. The need for public entertainment, as well as the requirements of scholarly research, came together in the founding of the first modern zoos.

London Zoo, 1835.

The Zoological Society of London was founded in 1826 by Stamford Raffles and established the London Zoo in Regent's Park two years later in 1828.[13] At its founding, it was the world's first scientific zoo.[2][14] Originally intended to be used as a collection for scientific study, it was eventually opened to the public in 1847.[14] The Zoo was located in Regent's Park - then undergoing development at the hands of the architect John Nash. What set the London zoo apart from its predecessors was its focus on society at large. The zoo was established in the middle of a city for the public, and its layout was designed to cater for the large London population. The London zoo was widely copied as the archetype of the public city zoo.[15] In 1853, the Zoo opened the world's first public aquarium.

Dublin Zoo was opened in 1831 by members of the medical profession interested in studying animals while they were alive and more particularly getting hold of them when they were dead.[16] The first zoological garden in Australia was Melbourne Zoo in 1860. In the same year, Central Park Zoo, the first public zoo in the United States, opened in New York, although in 1859, the Philadelphia Zoological Society had made an effort to establish a zoo, but delayed opening it until 1874 because of the American Civil War.

In 1907, the German entrepreneur Carl Hagenbeck founded the Tierpark Hagenbeck in Stellingen, now a quarter of Hamburg. His zoo was a radical departure from the layout of the zoo that had been established in 1828. It was the first zoo to use open enclosures surrounded by moats, rather than barred cages, to better approximate animals' natural environments.[17] He also set up mixed-species exhibits and based the layout on the different organizing principle of geography, as opposed to taxonomy.

When ecology emerged as a matter of public interest in the 1970s, a few zoos began to consider making conservation their central role, with Gerald Durrell of the Jersey Zoo, George Rabb of Brookfield Zoo, and William Conway of the Bronx Zoo (Wildlife Conservation Society) leading the discussion. From then on, zoo professionals became increasingly aware of the need to engage themselves in conservation programs, and the American Zoo Association soon said that conservation was its highest priority.[18] Because they wanted to stress conservation issues, many large zoos stopped the practice of having animals perform tricks for visitors. The Detroit Zoo, for example, stopped its elephant show in 1969, and its chimpanzee show in 1983, acknowledging that the trainers had probably abused the animals to get them to perform.[19]

Whipsnade Park in Bedfordshire, England, was opened in 1931 as the first safari park. It allowed visitors to drive through the enclosures and come into close proximity to the animals.

Unfortunately, mass destruction of wildlife habitat has yet to cease all over the world and many species such as elephants, big cats, penguins, tropical birds, primates, rhinos, exotic reptiles, and many others are in danger of dying out. Many of today's zoos hope to stop or slow the decline of many endangered species. Many zoos see their primary purpose as breeding endangered species in captivity and reintroducing them into the wild. Modern zoos also aim to help teach visitors the importance on animal conservation, often through letting visitors witness the animals firsthand.[20] Some critics and the majority of animal-rights activists & extremists say that zoos, no matter what their intentions are, or how noble they are, are immoral and serve as nothing but to fufill human leisure at the expense of the animals(which is an opinion that has shown growth over the years). However, zoo advocates argue that their efforts make a difference in wildlife conservation and education.[21]

Human exhibits[edit]

Ota Benga, a human exhibit in New York, 1906

Human beings were sometimes displayed in cages along with non-human animals, supposedly to illustrate the differences between people of European and non-European origin. In September 1906, William Hornaday, director of the Bronx Zoo in New York—with the agreement of Madison Grant, head of the New York Zoological Society—had Ota Benga, a Congolese pygmy, displayed in a cage with the chimpanzees, then with an orangutan named Dohong, and a parrot. The exhibit was intended as an example of the "missing link" between the orangutan and white man. It triggered protests from the city's clergymen, but the public reportedly flocked to see it.[22][23]

Human beings were also displayed in cages during the 1931 Paris Colonial Exposition, and as late as 1958 in a "Congolese village" display at Expo '58 in Brussels.[24]

Type[edit]

Further information: List of zoos and Immersion exhibit
Monkey islands, São Paulo zoo

Zoo animals live in enclosures that often attempt to replicate their natural habitats or behavioral patterns, for the benefit of both the animals and visitors. Nocturnal animals are often housed in buildings with a reversed light-dark cycle, i.e. only dim white or red lights are on during the day so the animals are active during visitor hours, and brighter lights on at night when the animals sleep. Special climate conditions may be created for animals living in extreme environments, such as penguins. Special enclosures for birds, mammals, insects, reptiles, fish, and other aquatic life forms have also been developed. Some zoos have walk-through exhibits where visitors enter enclosures of non-aggressive species, such as lemurs, marmosets, birds, lizards, and turtles. Visitors are asked to keep to paths and avoid showing or eating foods that the animals might snatch.

Safari park[edit]

Main article: Safari park

Some zoos keep animals in larger, outdoor enclosures, confining them with moats and fences, rather than in cages. Safari parks, also known as zoo parks and lion farms, allow visitors to drive through them and come in close proximity to the animals.[2] Sometimes, visitors are able to feed animals through the car windows. The first safari park was Whipsnade Park in Bedfordshire, England, opened by the Zoological Society of London in 1931 which today (2014) covers 600 acres (2.4 km²). Since the early 1970s, a 1,800 acre (7 km²) park in the San Pasqual Valley near San Diego has featured the San Diego Zoo Safari Park, run by the Zoological Society of San Diego. One of two state-supported zoo parks in North Carolina is the 2,000-acre (8.1 km2) North Carolina Zoo in Asheboro.[25] The 500-acre (2.0 km2) Werribee Open Range Zoo in Melbourne, Australia, displays animals living in an artificial savannah.

Aquaria[edit]

Sea lions at the Melbourne Zoo

The first public aquarium was opened in London Zoo in 1853. This was followed by the opening of public aquaria in continental Europe (e.g. Paris 1859, Hamburg 1864, Berlin 1869, Brighton 1872) and the United States (e.g. Boston 1859, Washington 1873, San Francisco Woodward's Garden 1873, New York Battery Park 1896). In 2005, the non-profit Georgia Aquarium opened with more than 100,000 animals of 500 different species, including whale sharks and beluga whales.

Roadside zoos[edit]

Roadside zoos are found throughout North America, particularly in remote locations. They are small, unregulated, for-profit zoos, often intended to attract visitors to some other facility, such as a gas station. The animals may be trained to perform tricks, and visitors are able to get closer to them than in larger zoos.[26] Since they are sometimes less regulated, roadside zoos are often subject to accusations of neglect[27] and cruelty.[28]

In June 2014 the Animal Legal Defense Fund filed a lawsuit against the Iowa-based roadside Cricket Hollow Zoo for violating the Endangered Species Act by failing to provide proper care for its animals.[29] Since filing the lawsuit, ALDF has obtained shocking records from investigations conducted by the USDA’s Animal and Plant Health Inspection Services. These records show the zoo is also violating the Animal Welfare Act.[30]

Petting zoos[edit]

Main article: Petting zoo

A petting zoo, also called petting farms or children's zoos, features a combination of domestic animals and wild species that are docile enough to touch and feed. To ensure the animals' health, the food is supplied by the zoo, either from vending machines or a kiosk nearby.

Animal theme parks[edit]

Main article: Animal theme park

An animal theme park is a combination of an amusement park and a zoo, mainly for entertaining and commercial purposes. Marine mammal parks such as Sea World and Marineland are more elaborate dolphinariums keeping whales, and containing additional entertainment attractions. Another kind of animal theme park contains more entertainment and amusement elements than the classical zoo, such as a stage shows, roller coasters, and mythical creatures. Some examples are Busch Gardens Tampa Bay in Tampa, Florida, Disney's Animal Kingdom in Orlando, Florida, Flamingo Land in North Yorkshire, England and Six Flags Discovery Kingdom in Vallejo, California .

Sources of animals[edit]

When they arrive at a new zoo, animals usually spend time in quarantine, and are given time to acclimatize to their new enclosures which are often designed to mimic their natural environment. For example, some species of penguins may require refrigerated enclosures. Guidelines on necessary care for such animals is published in the International Zoo Yearbook.[31]

Justification[edit]

Conservation and research[edit]

The African plains exhibit at North Carolina Zoo illustrates the dimension of an open-range zoo.

The position of most modern zoos in Australasia, Europe, and North America, particularly those with scientific societies, is that they display wild animals primarily for the conservation of endangered species, as well as for research purposes and education, and secondarily for the entertainment of visitors,[32][33] an argument disputed by critics. The Zoological Society of London states in its charter that its aim is "the advancement of Zoology and Animal Physiology and the introduction of new and curious subjects of the Animal Kingdom." It maintains two research institutes, the Nuffield Institute of Comparative Medicine and the Wellcome Institute of Comparative Physiology. In the U.S., the Penrose Research Laboratory of the Philadelphia Zoo focuses on the study of comparative pathology.[2] The World Association of Zoos and Aquariums produced its first conservation strategy in 1993, and in November 2004, it adopted a new strategy that sets out the aims and mission of zoological gardens of the 21st century.[34]

The breeding of endangered species is coordinated by cooperative breeding programmes containing international studbooks and coordinators, who evaluate the roles of individual animals and institutions from a global or regional perspective, and there are regional programmes all over the world for the conservation of endangered species.[35]

Surplus animals[edit]

This chimpanzee was passed around five zoos before arriving in a Texas roadside zoo at the age of 37.[36]

In modern, well-regulated zoos, breeding is controlled to maintain a self-sustaining, global captive population. This is not the case in some less well-regulated zoos, often based in poorer regions. Overall "stock turnover" of animals during a year in a select group of poor zoos was reported as 20%-25% with 75% of wild caught apes dying in captivity within the first 20 months.[37] The authors of the report stated that before successful breeding programs, the high mortality rate was the reason for the "massive scale of importations."

One 2-year study indicated that of 19,361 species of mammals that left accredited zoos in the U.S. between 1992 and 1998, 7,420 (38%) went to dealers, auctions, hunting ranches, unaccredited zoos and individuals, and game farms.[38]

In February 2014, Copenhagen Zoo euthanased a healthy, young, male giraffe because he was surplus to their requirements. The giraffe's genes were considered to be too similar to other giraffes in a breeding programme run by the European Association of Zoos and Aquaria (EAZA). The scientific director at the zoo, Bengt Holst, said the zoo was working to maintain "a healthy giraffe population in European zoos". After the giraffe was euthanased with a bolt gun to the head, he was dissected publicly in front of a crowd of children then fed to the lions. Yorkshire Wildlife Park said it was "saddened" to hear of his death, expressing disappointment that its last minute offer to house the giraffe in its "state-of-the-art giraffe house" alongside four other males, including one from Copenhagen Zoo, had been ignored. A Dutch wildlife park had also offered to re-home him.[39]

Animal welfare concerns[edit]

The welfare of zoo animals varies widely. Many zoos work to improve their animal enclosures and make it fit the animals' needs, although constraints such as size and expense make it difficult to create ideal captive environments for many species[40][41]

Bear cages, one square meter in size, in Dalian zoo, Port Arthur, Liaoning Province, China, in 1997.

A four-decade Oxford University study found that polar bears, lions, tigers and cheetahs show evidence of stress in captivity.[42]Zoos can be internment camps for animals, but also a place of refuge. A zoo can be considered an internment camp due the insufficient enclosures that the animals have to live in. When an elephant is placed in a pen that is flat, has no tree, no other elephants and only a few plastic toys to play with; it can lead to boredom and foot problems (Lemonic, McDowel, and Bjerklie 50). Also, animals can have a shorter life span when they are in these types of enclosures. Causes can be human diseases, materials in the cages, and possible escape attempts (Bendow 382). When zoos take time to think about the animal’s welfare, zoos can become a place of refuge. There are animals that are injured in the wild and are unable to survive on their own, but in the zoos they can live out the rest of their life healthy and happy (McGaffin). In recent years, some zoos have chosen to stop showing their larger animals because they are simply unable to provide an adequate enclosure for them (Lemonic, McDowell, and Bjerklie 50).

Moral concerns[edit]

Some critics and many animal-rights activists argue that zoo animals are treated as voyeuristic objects, rather than living creatures, and often suffer due to the transition from being free and wild to captivity.[43]

Behavioural restriction[edit]

Many modern zoos attempt to do everything they can to improve the welfare of their animals. The animals are housed in spacious, natural settings that allow the animals to express some of their natural behaviours, such as roaming and foraging.[44] However, many animals remain in barren concrete enclosures or other minimally enriched cages.[45]

Animals which naturally range over many miles each day are unable to perform this behaviour in zoo enclosures. For example, elephants usually travel around 30 miles each day.[46]

Abnormal behaviour[edit]

Zoo animals often exhibit abnormal behaviours indicative of stress. For example, elephants sometimes perform head-bobbing, bears sometimes pace the surrounds of their enclosure, wild cats sometimes groom themselves obsessively, and parrots have been known to pluck themselves.[46] Critics and animal-rights activists & extremists claim that the animals in zoos are always under physical and mental stress regardless of the quality of care towards the animals.[47] Elephants have been recorded displaying stereotypical behaviours in the form of swaying back and forth, trunk swaying or route tracing. This has been observed in 54% of individuals in UK zoos.[48] Elephants in European zoos have shorter lifespans than their wild counterparts at only 17 years, although other studies suggest that zoo elephants live as long those in the wild.[49]

Climate concerns[edit]

Climactic conditions can make it difficult to keep some animals in zoos in some locations. For example, a zoo in Alaska had an elephant named Maggie. She was housed in a small, indoor enclosure because the outdoor temperature was too low.[citation needed]

Live feeding and "baiting"[edit]

In many countries, feeding live vertebrates to zoo animals is illegal, except in exceptional circumstances. For example, some snakes refuse to eat dead prey. However, in the Badaltearing Safari Park in China, visitors can throw live goats into the lion enclosure and watch them being eaten, or can purchase live chickens tied to bamboo rods for the equivalent of 2 dollars\euros to dangle into lion pens. Visitors can drive through the lion compound in buses with specially designed chutes which they can use to push live chickens into the enclosure. In the Xiongsen Bear and Tiger Mountain Village near Guilin in south-east China, live cows and pigs are thrown to tigers to amuse visitors.[50][51]

In Qingdao zoo (Eastern China), visitors can engage in "tortoise baiting", where tortoises are kept inside small rooms with elastic bands around their necks so that they are unable to retract their heads. Visitors are allowed to throw coins at them. The marketing claim is that if you hit one of the tortoises on the head and make a wish, it will be fulfilled.[50]

Regulation[edit]

WPA 1937 poster promoting visits to American zoos

United States[edit]

In the United States, any public animal exhibit must be licensed and inspected by the United States Department of Agriculture, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Drug Enforcement Administration, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, and others. Depending on the animals they exhibit, the activities of zoos are regulated by laws including the Endangered Species Act, the Animal Welfare Act, the Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918 and others.[52] Additionally, zoos in North America may choose to pursue accreditation by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA). To achieve accreditation, a zoo must pass an application and inspection process and meet or exceed the AZA's standards for animal health and welfare, fundraising, zoo staffing, and involvement in global conservation efforts. Inspection is performed by three experts (typically one veterinarian, one expert in animal care, and one expert in zoo management and operations) and then reviewed by a panel of twelve experts before accreditation is awarded. This accreditation process is repeated once every five years. The AZA estimates that there are approximately 2,400 animal exhibits operating under USDA license as of February 2007; fewer than 10% are accredited.[53]

Europe[edit]

In April 1999, the European Union introduced a directive to strengthen the conservation role of zoos, making it a statutory requirement that they participate in conservation and education, and requiring all member states to set up systems for their licensing and inspection.[54] Zoos are regulated in the UK by the Zoo Licensing Act of 1981, which came into force in 1984. A zoo is defined as any "establishment where wild animals are kept for exhibition ... to which members of the public have access, with or without charge for admission, seven or more days in any period of twelve consecutive months," excluding circuses and pet shops. The Act requires that all zoos be inspected and licensed, and that animals kept in enclosures are provided with a suitable environment in which they can express most normal behavior.[54]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "ZSL's history", Zoological Society of London.
  2. ^ a b c d e f "Zoo," Encyclopædia Britannica, 2008.
  3. ^ a b Blunt 1976; Reichenbach 2002, pp. 151–163.
  4. ^ Hyson 2000, p. 29; Hyson 2003, pp. 1356-1357.
  5. ^ Maple 1995, p. 25.
  6. ^ Robinson 1987a, pp. 10-17; Robinson 1987b, pp. 678-682.
  7. ^ Conway 1995, pp. 259-276.
  8. ^ World's First Zoo - Hierakonpolis, Egypt, Archaeology Magazine, http://www.archaeology.org/1001/topten/egypt.html
  9. ^ Lecky, W.E.H. History of European Morals from Augustus to Charlemagne. Vol. 1, Longmans, 1869, pp. 280-282.
  10. ^ a b Blunt, Wilfred. The Ark in the Park: The Zoo in the Nineteenth Century. Hamish Hamilton, 1976, pp. 15-17.
  11. ^ "Big cats prowled London's tower", BBC News, October 24, 2005.
  12. ^ "Introducing the Modern Zoo". Retrieved 2012-12-17. 
  13. ^ "April 27". Today in Science History. Retrieved 5 March 2008. 
  14. ^ a b "ZSL's History". ZSL. Retrieved 5 March 2008. 
  15. ^ "The Role of Architectural Design in Promoting the Social Objectives of Zoos". Retrieved 2012-12-17. 
  16. ^ Costello, John (June 9, 2011). "The great zoo's who". Irish Independent. 
  17. ^ Rene S. Ebersole (November 2001). "The New Zoo". Audubon Magazine (National Audubon Society). Retrieved 2007-12-18. 
  18. ^ See Kisling, Vernon N. (ed.): Zoo and Aquarium History, Boca Raton 2001. ISBN 0-8493-2100-X; Hoage, R. J. Deiss and William A. (ed.): New Worlds, New Animals, Washington 1996. ISBN 0-8018-5110-6; Hanson, Elizabeth. Animal Attractions, Princeton 2002. ISBN 0-691-05992-6; and Hancocks, David. A Different Nature, Berkeley 2001. ISBN 0-520-21879-5
  19. ^ Donahue, Jesse and Trump, Erik. Political Animals: Public Art in American Zoos and Aquariums. Lexington Books, 2007, p. 79.
  20. ^ Masci, David. "Zoos in the 21st Century." CQ Researcher 28 Apr. 2000: 353-76. Web. 26 Jan. 2014.
  21. ^ Masci, David. "Zoos in the 21st Century." CQ Researcher 28 Apr. 2000: 353-76. Web. 26 Jan. 2014.
  22. ^ Bradford, Phillips Verner and Blume, Harvey. Ota Benga: The Pygmy in the Zoo. St. Martins Press, 1992.
  23. ^ "Man and Monkey Show Disapproved by Clergy", The New York Times, September 10, 1906.
  24. ^ Blanchard, Pascal; Bancel, Nicolas; and Lemaire, Sandrine. "From human zoos to colonial apotheoses: the era of exhibiting the Other", Africultures.
  25. ^ Ferral, Katelyn (2010-07-15). "N.C. Zoo, bucking a trend, sets an attendance record". Newsobserver.com. Retrieved 2013-05-04. 
  26. ^ Guzoo Animal Farm, website about Canadian roadside zoos, accessed June 18, 2009.
  27. ^ Roadside zoo animals starving. Free Lance-Star. 11 Jan. 1997.
  28. ^ Dixon, Jennifer. House panel told of abuses by zoos. Times Daily. 8 July 1992.
  29. ^ Legal Defense Fund Sues Iowa Zoo over Endangered Species Act Violations
  30. ^ - APHIS Inspection Report of Cricket Hollow Zoo, May 21 2014
  31. ^ "Zoo: Procurement and care of animals," Encyclopædia Britannica, 2008.
  32. ^ Tudge, Colin. Last Animals in the Zoo: How Mass Extinction Can Be Stopped, London 1991. ISBN 1-55963-157-0
  33. ^ "Manifesto for Zoos", John Regan Associates, 2004.
  34. ^ "World Zoo and Aquarium Conservation Strategy", World Association of Zoos and Aquariums.
  35. ^ In Africa, conservation is handled by the African Preservation Program APP (African Association of Zoological Gardens and Aquaria; in the U.S. and Canada by Species Survival Plans (American Zoo and Aquarium Association), and the Canadian Association of Zoos and Aquariums); in Australasia, by the Australasian Species Management Program (Australasian Regional Association of Zoological Parks and Aquaria); in Europe, by the European Endangered Species Program (European Association of Zoos and Aquaria); and in Japan, South Asia, and South East Asia, by the Japanese Association of Zoos and Aquariums, the South Asian Zoo Association for Regional Cooperation, and the South East Asian Zoo Association.
  36. ^ "Amarillo Wildlife Refuge", PETA.
  37. ^ Jensen, Derrick and Tweedy-Holmes Karen. Thought to exist in the wild: awakening from the nightmare of zoos. No Voice Unheard, 2007, p. 21; Baratay, Eric and Hardouin-Fugier, Elisabeth. Zoo: A History of the Zoological Gardens of the West. Reaktion, London. 2002.
  38. ^ Goldston, Linda. February 11, 1999, cited in Scully, Matthew. Dominion. St. Martin's Griffin, 2004 (paperback), p. 64.
  39. ^ Johnston, I. (February 9, 2014). "Copenhagen Zoo kills 'surplus' young giraffe Marius despite online petition.". The Independent. Retrieved February 10, 2014. 
  40. ^ Norton, Bryan G.; Hutchins, Michael; Stevens, Elizabeth F.; Maple, Terry L. (ed.): Ethics on the Ark. Zoos, Animal Welfare, and Wildlife Conservation. Washington, D.C., 1995. ISBN 1-56098-515-1
  41. ^ Malmud, Randy. Reading Zoos. Representations of Animals and Captivity. New York, 1998. ISBN 0-8147-5602-6
  42. ^ Derr, Mark. “Big Beasts, Tight Space and a Call for Change in Journal Report,” The New York Times, October 2, 2003.
  43. ^ Jensen, p. 48.
  44. ^ Masci, David. "Zoos in the 21st Century." CQ Researcher 28 Apr. 2000: 353-76. Web. 26 Jan. 2014.
  45. ^ Masci, David. "Zoos in the 21st Century." CQ Researcher 28 Apr. 2000: 353-76. Web. 26 Jan. 2014.
  46. ^ a b "Are Zoos good or bad for animals?". Retrieved 28 October 2013. 
  47. ^ Sterm, A. (28 February 2005). "Elephant deaths at zoos reignite animal debate: Zoo supporters cite conservation, activists cite confined spaces". MSNBC/Reuters. Retrieved 24 October 2012. 
  48. ^ Harris, M.; Sherwin, C.; Harris, S. (10 November 2008). "Defra Final Report on Elephant Welfare". University of Bristol. Retrieved 16 November 2011. 
  49. ^ Mott, M. (11 December 2008). "Wild elephants live longer than their zoo counterparts". National Geographic News. Retrieved 24 October 2012. 
  50. ^ a b Penman, D (January 1, 2008). "Animals torn to pieces by lions in front of baying crowds: The spectator sport China DOESN'T want you to see.". The Daily Mail. 
  51. ^ "Ferocity training". Sunday Morning Post, Hong Kong. November 29, 1999. 
  52. ^ Grech, Kali S. "Overview of the Laws Affecting Zoos", Michigan State University College of Law, Animal Legal & Historical Center, 2004.
  53. ^ AZA Accreditation Introduction[dead link]
  54. ^ a b "The Zoo Licensing Act 1981", Department for Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs.

References[edit]

  • Blunt, Wilfrid (1976). The Ark in the Park: The Zoo in the Nineteenth Century, Hamish Hamilton, London. ISBN 0-241-89331-3
  • Braverman, Irus (2012). Zooland: The Institution of Captivity, Stanford University Press, Stanford. ISBN 9780804783576.
  • Conway, William (1995). "The conservation park: A new zoo synthesis for a changed world", in The Ark Evolving: Zoos and Aquariums in Transition, Wemmer, Christen M. (ed.), Smithsonian Institution Conservation and Research Center, Front Royal, Virginia.
  • Hyson, Jeffrey (2000). "Jungle of Eden: The Design of American Zoos" in Environmentalism in Landscape Architecture, Conan, Michel (ed.), Dumbarton Oaks, Washington. ISBN 0-88402-278-1
  • Hyson, Jeffrey (2003). "Zoos," in Encyclopedia of World Environmental History: O-Z, Krech, Shepard, Mc Neill, John Robert and Merchant, Carolyn (ed.), Routledge, London. ISBN 0-415-93735-3
  • Maple, Terry (1995). "Toward a Responsible Zoo Agenda", in Ethics on the Ark: Zoos, Animal Welfare, and Wildlife Conservation, Norton, Bryan G., Hutchins, Michael, Stevens, Elizabeth F. and Maple, Terry L. (ed.), Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington. ISBN 1-56098-515-1
  • Reichenbach, Herman (2002). "Lost Menageries: Why and How Zoos Disappear (Part 1)", International Zoo News Vol.49/3 (No.316), April–May 2002.
  • Robinson, Michael H. (1987a). "Beyond the zoo: The biopark", Defenders of Wildlife Magazine, Vol. 62, No. 6.
  • Robinson, Michael H. (1987b). "Towards the Biopark: The Zoo That Is Not", American Association of Zoological Parks and Aquariums, Annual Proceedings.

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