Zoological Society of London
|Founder(s)||Sir Stamford Raffles, Marquess of Lansdowne, Lord Auckland, Sir Humphry Davy, Robert Peel, Joseph Sabine, Nicholas Aylward Vigors and others|
|Focus||London Zoo and Whipsnade Zoo, carries out scientific research in the Institute of Zoology, and is actively involved in field conservation projects worldwide|
|Mission||To promote and achieve the worldwide conservation of animals and their habitats|
The Zoological Society of London (sometimes known by the abbreviation ZSL) is a charity devoted to the worldwide conservation of animals and their habitats. It was founded in London in April 1826 by Sir Stamford Raffles, the Marquess of Lansdowne, Lord Auckland, Sir Humphry Davy, Robert Peel, Joseph Sabine, Nicholas Aylward Vigors along with various other nobility, clergy, and naturalists. Raffles was also the first chairman and president but died shortly afterwards in July 1826. He was succeeded by the Marquess of Lansdowne who supervised the building of the first animal houses, a parcel of land in Regent's Park having already been obtained from the Crown at the inaugural meeting. It received a Royal Charter from George IV on 27 March 1829.
ZSL's conservation work 
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For over 180 years ZSL has played an essential role in wildlife science and conservation by convening experts to address challenging issues. This includes hosting high-profile public meetings and symposia as well as national and international workshops.
ZSL works with governments, civil society and the private sector, both at home in the UK and around the globe, to conserve species and their habitats. It contributes to building conservation capacity and skills by running various educational programmes and workshops. Through the Institute of Zoology ZSL runs wildlife science and biology Masters and PhD programmes. The Society also supports young conservationists with awards such as the ZSL Conservation Expeditions programme.
The Institute of Zoology 
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The Institute of Zoology is the scientific research division of the Zoological Society of London. It is a government-funded research institute, which specialises in scientific issues relevant to the conservation of species and their habitats. The five areas on which the Insititute of Zoology focuses its research are: evolutionary biology, genetics, ecology, reproductive biology and wildlife epidemiology. The Institute of Zoology was graded 4 in the 1997–2001 UK Research Assessment Exercise, and publishes reports annually. From the late 1980s the Institute of Zoology had been affiliated to the University of London. However in 2000 this was replaced with a partnership with the University of Cambridge.
The Zoological Society was formed by a number of leading scientists who felt that they needed an organisation. The Royal Society, "the dignified parent of all our scientific societies," was found to have an emphasis on the physical sciences and this led to the establishment of the Linnean Society in 1788, by Dr. (Sir in 1814) James Edward Smith, a young Norwich physician. Its aim was defined as " the cultivation of the science of Natural History in all its branches, and more especially of the Natural History of Great Britain and Ireland." It was however considered that since Linnaeus worked on botany, that the society had a greater focus on botany.
On 29 November 1822, the birthday of John Ray, "the father of modern zoology," a meeting held in the Linnean Society in Soho Square and led by Rev. William Kirby, resolved to form a "Zoological Club of the Linnean Society of London". Between 1816 and 1826 discussions between Sir Stamford Raffles, Sir Humphry Davy, Sir Joseph Banks and others led to the idea that an establishment along the lines of the Jardin des Plantes was needed that would house a zoological collection "which should interest and amuse the public."
The purpose of the society was to create a collection of animals for study at leisure, an associated museum and library. In April 1828 the Zoological Gardens were opened to members. In 1831 William IV presented the royal menagerie to the Zoological Society, and in 1847 the public were admitted to aid funding, and Londoners soon christened the Zoological Gardens the "Zoo". London Zoo soon had the most extensive collection of animals in the world.
A History of the ZSL, written by Henry Scherren (FZS), was published in 1905. The History was criticised as inadequately researched by Peter Chalmers Mitchell in 1929; both histories were labelled inaccurate by John Bastin in 1970.
As the twentieth century began, the need to maintain and research large animals in a more natural environment became clear. Peter Chalmers Mitchell (ZSL Secretary 1903–35) conceived the vision of a new park no more than 70 miles (110 km) away from London and thus accessible to the public, and at least 200 acres (0.81 km2) in extent. In 1926, profiting from the agricultural depression, the ideal place was found: Hall Farm, near Whipsnade village, was derelict, and held almost 600 acres (2.4 km2) on the Chiltern Hills. ZSL bought the farm in December 1926 for £13,480 12s 10d. In 1928 the first animals arrived at the new Whipsnade Park – two Amherst pheasants, a golden pheasant and five red jungle fowl. Others soon followed, including muntjac deer, llamas, wombats and skunks. In 1931 Whipsnade Park was opened to the public as the world's first open zoological park.
In 1960–61, Lord Zuckerman, then Secretary of ZSL, raised funds from two medical foundations to found laboratories as an Institute of Zoology where scientists would be employed by ZSL and undertake research.
Today ZSL is an international scientific, conservation and educational charity. Its key role is the conservation of animals and their habitats. ZSL runs ZSL London Zoo, ZSL Whipsnade Zoo and Biota!, carries out scientific research in the Institute of Zoology and is actively involved in field conservation in other countries worldwide. The society published the Zoological Record (ZR) from 1864 to 1980, when the ZR was transferred to BIOSIS. It has also published the Journal of Zoology since 1830. The Society's Patron is Queen Elizabeth II.
The Society published the Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London from around 1833. Its modern title is the Journal of Zoology. It also publishes "Animal Conservation", since 1998.
The society administers several awards programmes. These include:
- Frink Medal
- Stamford Raffles Award
- Silver Medal
- Scientific Medal
- Marsh Award for Conservation Biology
- Marsh Award for Marine and Freshwater Conservation
- Thomson Reuters/Zoological Record Award for Communicating Zoology
- Prince Philip Award and Marsh Prize
- Charles Darwin Award and Marsh Prize
- Thomas Henry Huxley Award and Marsh Prize
Honorary Fellows 
The Society also elects Honorary Fellows. These include:
- 2007 Professor John Beddington
- 2006 Professor Sir John Lawton
- 2005 Professor Sir John Krebs, Professor Katherine Ralls, Professor Sir Brian Heap
- 2004 Sir Martin Holdgate
- 2003 Professor Sir Brian Follett
- 2002 Professor Robert McNeill Alexander
- 2002 Dr William G. Conway
- 2001 Professor Patrick Bateson
- 1999 Sir Robert May
- 1998 Sir David Attenborough
- 1997 The Hon. Miriam Rothschild
- 1996 Professor John Maynard Smith
- 1992 Professor Edward Wilson
- 1991 Emperor Akihito of Japan
- 1990 Professor Knut Schmidt-Nielsen
- 1988 Professor Milton Thiago de Mello
- 1984 Professor Ernst Mayr
- 1977 HRH Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh
- 1975 Professor Jean Anthony, Professor Jean Dorst
The Council is the governing body of The Zoological Society of London. There are 15 Council members, led by the President and served by the Secretary and Treasurer. Council members are the Trustees of the Society and serve for up to five years at a time.
The Presidency is a voluntary position, with the role of leading the Council. The following is a list of the Society's Presidents.
- Sir Stamford Raffles (1826)
- The Marquess of Lansdowne (1827–1831)
- The Earl of Derby (1831–1851)
- Prince Albert, Prince Consort (1851–1862)
- Sir George Clerk, Bt (1862–1868)
- The Marquess of Tweeddale (1868–1878)
- Sir William H. Flower (1879–1899)
- The Duke of Bedford (1899–1936)
- The Earl of Onslow (1936–1942)
- Henry Gascoyne Maurice (1942–1948)
- The Duke of Devonshire (1948–1950)
- The Viscount Alanbrooke (1950–1954)
- Sir Landsborough Thomson (1954–1960)
- Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh (1960–1977)
- Lord Zuckerman (1977–1984)
- Sir William MacGregor Henderson (1984–1989)
- Avrion Mitchison (1989–1992)
- Field Marshal Sir John Chapple (1992–1994)
- Sir Martin Holdgate (1994–2004)
- Professor Sir Patrick Bateson (2004–present)
This is a list of those who have held the post of Secretary of the Society. The post of secretary is honorary and under the society's constitution carries the responsibility for the day-to-day management of the affairs of the society.
- Nicholas Aylward Vigors (1826–1833)
- Edward Turner Bennett (1833–1836)
- William Yarrell (1836–1838)
- John Barlow (1838–1840)
- William Ogilby (1840–1847)
- David William Mitchell (1847–1859)
- Philip Lutley Sclater (1859–1902)
- William Lutley Sclater (1903)
- Peter Chalmers Mitchell (1903–1935)
- Julian Huxley (1935–1942)
- Sheffield Airey Neave (1942–1952)
- Viscount Chaplin (1952–1955)
- Solly Zuckerman (1955–1977)
- Ronald Henderson Hedley (1977–1980)
- Erasmus Darwin Barlow (1980–1982)
- John Guest Phillips (1982–1984)
- Richard M. Laws (1984–1988)
- Barry Albert Cross (1988–1992)
- R. McNeill Alexander (1992–1999)
- Paul H. Harvey (2000–present)
See also 
- Living Planet Index
- Red List Index
- Regional Red List
- EDGE of Existence Programme
- EDGE Species
- 21st Century Tiger
- (Advertisements). The Times (London). Tue, 2 May 1826. Issue 12956, col C, p. 1.
- "Zoological Society" The Times (London). Tue, 2 May 1826. Issue 12956, col C, p. 3.
- Scherren, Henry (1905). The Zoological Society of London. Cassell & Co.
- John Bastin. The first prospectus of the Zoological Society of London: new light on the Society's origins. Archives of Natural History. Volume 5, Issue 5. Pages 369–388. Edinburgh University Press, 1 October 1970. Deepdyve
- ZSL scientific awards
- The Zoological Society of London Honorary Fellows
- Current ZSL Council Members
- New president for ZSL promises public a gateway into conservation ZSL press release announcing the new president in 2004
- The Zoological Society of London. Charter and Byelaws. 1995.
- Denton, Peter (12 May 1994). "Obituary: Sir Barry Cross". The Independent. Retrieved 14 October 2011.