Zoophilia and health
Sexual contact with animals is associated with several significant health risks. Areas of possible concern are infection, physical injury and allergic reaction.
- 1 Zoonoses acquired via sexual contact
- 2 Bites and other physical injury
- 3 Allergic reactions
- 4 See also
- 5 References
- 6 External links
Zoonoses acquired via sexual contact
Infections that are transmitted from animals to humans are called zoonoses. Some zoonoses may be transferred through casual contact, but others are much more readily transferred by activities that expose humans to the semen, vaginal fluids, urine, saliva, feces and blood of animals. This means that sexual activity with animals is sometimes a high risk activity. It is advisable for practitioners of bestiality to assess their relative risk, since risk varies for each species involved, for each disease mentioned below (and others not mentioned), and for each region in the world. Some of the more common zoonoses are listed at the National Agricultural Safety Database (NASD) and the Centers for Disease Control (CDC).
List of zoonoses
|Zoonosis||Mode of transmission||Carrier species||Regions||Risky sex acts||Fact sheet|
|Brucellosis||semen, vaginal fluids, urine||D,E,R,P||A,AF,Er,SA,NAr||A,B,P,S,V||eMedicine|
|See details below|
|semen and urine||D,E,R,P,Z||W||A,P,S||eMedicine|
|Complicated to treat; easily misdiagnosed; requires urgent hospitalization at specialist center|
|Q fever||semen, vaginal fluids, urine||C,D,E,R,P||W||A,B,F,M,P,S,V||eMedicine|
|Treated w/ antibiotics, sometimes long-term; vaccine available in Australia & E. Europe|
|Rabies||saliva||C,D,E||W (not AUS)||B,M||CDC|
|Lethal if untreated; vaccine available (people & animals); post-exposure prophylaxis if exposed|
|Readily treated w/ anti-parasitics|
|Surgical removal of tapeworm cyst; possibly fatal if untreated.|
|Readily treated w/ specific antibiotics|
|Protozoal infection, usually causes a self-limited diarrhea|
|Readily treated w/ anti-parasitics; (rarely) may require surgery (eye, brain)|
|Diarrhea; readily treated w/ anti-protozoal drugs|
|Self-limited diarrhea, complete recovery usual, rarely causes reactive arthritis|
|Treated w/ anti-parasitics; usually benign but may be dangerous (eye)|
† May occur in other areas but at a lower rate. †† Not a definitive list. Not medical advice.
Brucellosis in humans is a potentially life-threatening multisystem disease that can be extremely difficult to treat. There are several varieties of Brucellosis, all caused by bacteria of the genus Brucella, the most notable being B. abortus and B. melitensis which affect larger species of domestic animals, and B. canis which infects dogs and other canids. All are widely spread around the world. The most severe infections are thought to be associated with B. melitensis which primarily infects goats, sheep, and camels in the Mediterranean, Asia, Latin America, parts of Africa and some southern European countries. Humans can catch B. canis through contact with the body fluids of infected dogs, especially semen, urine and vaginal fluids. Dogs can be infected with Brucellosis without showing any signs or symptoms, and infection can only be diagnosed with specific blood tests. The typical symptoms of the type of brucellosis contracted from dogs are: fever that comes and goes, loss of appetite, fatigue, weakness, malaise, sore joints, low back pain, spine pain, headache, depression, abdominal pain, constipation, diarrhoea, vomiting, weakness, dizziness, unsteadiness of gait, and urinary retention. Heart and lung complications can occur. Infected people exhibit only some of these symptoms. Other forms of brucellosis can be more severe.
With approximately 500,000 zoonotic infections a year worldwide (source:CDC), brucellosis places a large burden on humanity. Brucellosis has been reduced to rare disease status in North America (excluding Mexico) and northern Europe through vaccination and eradication programs, but it remains rife throughout the rest of the world. In most countries up to 10% of dogs carry this bacterium, and even up to 42.7% in some provinces of China, representing a major threat to the health of veterinarians and people who handle the blood or semen of infected animals. In the USA, there are only about 100 cases of human brucellosis diagnosed per year, although some sources consider it underdiagnosed and underreported. Most other countries have much higher rates, with high risk areas including the Mediterranean Basin (Portugal, Spain, Southern France, Italy, Greece, Turkey, North Africa), South and Central America (including Mexico), Eastern Europe, Asia, Africa, the Caribbean, and the Middle East.
New diseases that can jump from animals to humans are called emerging zoonoses. The emerging zoonosis situation changes constantly, in an upward trend. An example from the equine species is the rare Hendra virus, originally passed from flying foxes to horses. The implications for zoophilic sexual contact of each emerging disease should be carefully assessed by practitioners.
Zoophilia and human sexually transmitted diseases
HIV / AIDS
HIV (the "AIDS" virus) was originally a zoonosis acquired from primates (notably monkeys) in Africa, probably via hunting and eating but possibly via animal bite. It only lives in primates (humans, apes and monkeys) and is not believed to survive long in other species or away from the human body and fluids.
However, many human pathogens can survive in animal fluids for a limited time, and therefore STDs may theoretically be transmitted by an animal that has multiple consecutive human sexual partners in a short enough time frame to allow pathogen survival.
Bites and other physical injury
Humans may be at substantial physical risk and seriously harmed by sexual activity with animals. Larger animals may have the strength and defensive attributes (e.g. teeth, hooves, horns, claws) to injure a human, either in rejecting physical or sexual contact, or during sexual arousal.
Many animals bite as part of sexual excitement and foreplay. Animals carry numerous bacteria in their mouths capable of causing disease after a bite. The most common risk after an animal bite is simple infection (infection risk approximately 15-20% in the USA, may be higher elsewhere), and for dogs and other large animals injury from the force of the bite. Bacterial bite infections are usually fully curable, although dog bites may cause Pasteurella and Capnocytophaga canimorsus infections, which may have severe consequences.
The sexual organs of other species may not safely conform to the human anatomy. For example, the penis of a sexually aroused dog has a broad bulb at the base which can cause injury if forcibly pulled from a woman's vagina, and equine penises can thrust suddenly and "flare" inside a human orifice.
In 2005, Kenneth Pinyan, a resident of Enumclaw, Washington state died from internal injury after being anally penetrated by a stallion. In 2002, a 62-year-old farmer in Bulgaria was treated for a torn rectum after sex with a boar (male pig). In 1976, a 46-year-old French farmer underwent surgery for peritonitis after sex with a boar.
Sensitization and allergic reactions to animal saliva and semen may occur, ranging from mild irritation to anaphylaxis. Although dried skin flakes, known as dander, are the most commonly cited allergen, dog saliva is a more potent allergen than dander. An estimated 10% of people are allergic to animals in general, rising to 20-30% amongst asthma sufferers; the percentage of people allergic to animal secretions in particular is currently unknown. Repeated exposure to secretions after sensitization has already occurred may subsequently provoke an anaphylactic reaction, which can be life-threatening, and should be avoided.
- Kenneth Rosenman (2006). "Zoonoses - Animals Can Make You Sick". Archived from the original on 2006-10-20. Retrieved 2006-12-09.
- "Diseases spread from animals to people". 2006. Retrieved 2006-12-09.
- An animal that has been nipping at the fleas will still have partially digested fleas in its mouth and can transfer the larvae. "Dog Tapeworms And Children". Retrieved 2006-12-04.
- Schoenemann J, Lutticken R, Scheibner E. (1986). "[Brucella canis infection in man]". Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 111 (1): 20–2. doi:10.1055/s-2008-1068393. PMID 3940831.
- "Canine Brucellosis". 2006. Retrieved 2006-12-09.
- Wafa Al-Nassir (2006). "Brucellosis". eMedicine. Retrieved 2006-12-06.
- Piampiano P, McLeary M, Young LW, Janner D (2000). "Brucellosis: unusual presentations in two adolescent boys". Pediatric radiology 30 (5): 355–7. doi:10.1007/s002470050760. PMID 10836605.
- Shang DQ (1989). "[Investigation of B. canis infection in China]". Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 10 (1): 24–9. PMID 2661007.
- It should be noted that the routine brucellosis test for humans does not test for Brucella canis, only Brucella abortus.
Lucero NE, Escobar GI, Ayala SM, Jacob N (May 2005). "Diagnosis of human brucellosis caused by Brucella canis". J. Med. Microbiol. 54 (Pt 5): 457–61. doi:10.1099/jmm.0.45927-0. PMID 15824423.
- Sauret JM, Vilissova N. (2002). "Human brucellosis.". J Am Board Fam Pract 15 (5): 401–6. PMID 12350062.
...family physicians are not well versed in recognizing and treating this potentially life-threatening condition .... Studies have shown that in the United States human brucellosis is underdiagnosed and underreported. The reporting rate in some states, ie, California, has been as low as 10%.
- "Emerging zoonoses on the rise". 2004. Retrieved 2006-12-09.
- Stefan Lovgren (2003). "HIV Originated With Monkeys, Not Chimps, Study Finds". National Geographic News. Retrieved 2007-07-25.
- Gurtler L. (2004). "[SIV as a source of HIV. On the origin of human immunodeficiency viruses from non-human primates]". Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz 47 (7): 680–4. doi:10.1007/s00103-004-0862-z. PMID 15254823.
- From educational material published by the Perinatal HIV Research Unit (phru) and HIVSA, a UK based charity supporting HIV/AIDS awareness and training in Africa: "Resilient: Within the human body, HIV is a strong virus and can live and grow under almost any conditions ... Dependent: HIV depends on the environment in the human body (the temperature of the blood and other factors) to survive. Volatile: Outside of the human body, HIV is very weak and can survive for a short period only: between three seconds and one minute. If a scab forms over an open wound or if the blood is contained within a needle capsule, however, then the virus within that blood may be protected and enabled to live slightly longer." (ie, the presence of blood or fluids allows longer survival.)
- "Animal bite infections". healthatoz. 2006. Retrieved 2006-12-07.
- "Pasteurellosis". BBC News. 2006-08-21. Retrieved 2006-12-06.
- D J Brenner, D G Hollis, G R Fanning, and R E Weaver (1 February 1989). "Capnocytophaga canimorsus sp. nov. (formerly CDC group DF-2), a cause of septicemia following dog bite, and C. cynodegmi sp. nov., a cause of localized wound infection following dog bite". J Clin Microbiol. 27 (2): 231–5. PMC 267282. PMID 2915017.
- Bodil Joensen commented in a 1980s interview that "I was afraid to let other women do the same with the [stallion] as I. It requires a special technique. When they cum, their glans swells up, and it can split your vagina. I have had some stitches once I didn't pull it out in time"
- Kirov GK, Losanoff JE, Kjossev KT (2002). "Zoophilia: a rare cause of traumatic injury to the rectum". Injury 33 (4): 367–8. doi:10.1016/S0020-1383(01)00189-9. PMID 12091035.
- Blondel PH (1976). "[Digestive perforation of unusual origin. 2 cases]". Nouv Presse Med. 5 (14): 915–6. PMID 1083973.
- Vanto T (1985). "Immediate sensitivity of asthmatic children to dog allergens". Klin Padiatr 197 (4): 363–5. doi:10.1055/s-2008-1034004. PMID 4046495.
- Holden TE, Sherline DM. (1973). "Bestiality, with sensitization and anaphylactic reaction". Obstet Gynecol. 24 (1): 138–40. PMID 4737141.
- Dog hair, or fur is often cited as an allergen in respect of dogs. In fact the fur itself is not a significant allergen; rather it is the dander, or other allergens such as pollen on the fur, which are normally responsible. 
- "Advice from Your Allergist...Pet Allergy". American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. 2006. Retrieved 2006-12-06.
- UC Davis site on zoonoses by animal species - WHO/PAHO Collaborating Center, PDF slideshows
- Zoonotic infections from pets - Understanding the risks and treatment
- American Veterinary Medical Association - Zoonosis updates
- Janda JM, Graves MH, Lindquist D, Probert WS (February 2006). "Diagnosing Capnocytophaga canimorsus infections". Emerging Infect. Dis. 12 (2): 340–2. doi:10.3201/eid1202.050783. PMC 3373098. PMID 16494769.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (July 2003). "Nonfatal dog bite-related injuries treated in hospital emergency departments—United States, 2001". MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 52 (26): 605–10. PMID 12844076.