Zsófia Torma

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Zsófia Torma

Zsófia Torma (September 26, 1832 – November 14, 1899) was a Hungarian archaeologist, anthropologist and paleontologist.

Torma was born in Csicsókeresztúr (today Cristeștii Ciceului), Hunyad County, Austria-Hungary (today Bistrița-Năsăud County, Romania). She was mostly self-educated. The symbols and scripts on clay objects she found during an excavation in Hunedoara County were an archaeological sensation. She also found artifacts of the 6,000–7,000-year old Turdaş culture, some of which were covered with Vinca symbols.

Her most well-known work, the Ethnographische Analogien, was published in Jena in 1894.

Torma had an important role in the founding of the National Museum of Transylvanian History of Kolozsvár (Cluj-Napoca), to which she left her archaeological collection in her will. She was the first female to become an honorary doctor in Kolozsvári m. kir. Ferencz József Tudomány Egyetem Bölcsészeti kara, what is today Babeș-Bolyai University, on May 24, 1899. She died in Szászváros (Orăştie) in 1899.


  • Lozny, Ludomir R., ed. (2011). Comparative Archaeologies A Sociological View of the Science of the Past (1., neue Ausg. ed.). New York, NY: Springer New York. pp. 285, 305. ISBN 9781441982254. 
  • "Zsófia Torma". Pagina Municipiului Orăștie (in Romanian). Secui Adrian-Iulian. Retrieved 24 May 2014. 

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