Zubr class LCAC
People's Liberation Army Navy
|Type:||Air-cushioned landing craft|
|Displacement:||340 tons (light)
415 tons (normal)
555 tons (full load)
|Length:||57 m (187 ft)|
|Beam:||25.6 m (84 ft)|
|Draught:||1.6 m (5.2 ft)|
|Propulsion:||5 Kuznetsov NK-12MV gas turbines;
2 for lift, 3 for propulsion; 5 x 11,836 horsepower
Propellers: 3 four bladed variable pitch propellers
55 knots if sustained 
|Range:||300 mi (480 km) at 55 knots|
|Complement:||31 (4 officers, 27 enlisted)|
|General detection radar
Surface search radar
|Electronic Countermeasures System: Decoys, MS227 chaff launcher, ESM: Tool Box; intercept|
|Armament:||Strela-3 Portable Air Defense Missile System 4 x 4 launchers plus 32 Anti-Personnel missiles; or 2 SA-N-5 "Grail" quad launchers, manual aiming, infrared homing to 6 km at 1.5 Mach, altitude to 2,500 m, warhead 1.5 kg
30 mm AK-630 Air Defense Gun Mount 2 x 6 with 6000 rounds, 3,000 rounds/min combined to 2 km
140 mm Ogon launchers 2 x 22 with 132 rockets; or 2 retractable 122mm rocket launchers
Mines (one set of removable equipment for laying from 20 to 80 mines, depending on their types)
The Zubr-class (Project 1232.2 class, NATO reporting name Pomornik) is a class of air-cushioned landing craft of Soviet design. This class of military hovercraft is, as of 2012, the world’s largest hovercraft. It is designed to sealift landing assault units (such as marines or tanks) from equipped/non-equipped vessels to non-equipped shore, as well as transport and plant mines.
There are currently nine ships in active service in the world. The Zubr is used by the Russian, Ukrainian, and Greek navies. The transfer of the Kefalonia (L- 180), the first of two Zubr hovercraft purchased by Greece, to the Hellenic Navy marked the first time that a Russian-made ship was purchased by the navy of a NATO member.
High strength and buoyancy of the craft are provided by a rectangular pontoon, the main load-carrying part of the ship's hull. The superstructure built on the pontoon is divided into 3 compartments with two longitudinal bulkheads: combat material compartment in the midsection fitted with tank ramps, and outboard sections housing main and auxiliary propulsion units, troop compartments, living quarters, and NBC protection systems. To improve working conditions in the battle stations, troop compartments and living quarters are fitted with air-conditioning and heating-systems, sound/heat-insulating coatings, and structures made of vibration damping materials. The ship provides normal conditions for the crew to take meals and rest.
Personnel are protected against the effects of weapons of mass destruction by airtight sealing of combat stations, crew and troop compartments, augmented with individual gas masks and protection suits. The ship is also protected from magnetic influence mines with an active system to compensate for the magnetic fields generated by the ship and transported materials. The central command post and MS-227 device compartments are strengthened with alloy armor.
The Zubr landing craft has a cargo area of 400 square metres (4,300 sq ft), and a fuel capacity of 56 tons. It can carry three main battle tanks (up to 150 tonnes), or ten armoured vehicles with 140 troops (up to 131 tonnes), or 8 armoured personnel carriers of total mass up to 115 tonnes, or 8 amphibious tanks or up to 500 troops (with 360 troops in the cargo compartment).
At full displacement the ship is capable of negotiating up to 5-degree gradients on non-equipped shores and 1.6m-high vertical walls. The Zubr remains seaworthy in conditions up to Sea State 4. The vessel has a cruising speed of 30-40 knots.
- Russian Navy
- 770 Evgeny Kocheshkov (former MDK-118)
- 782 Mordovia (former MDK-94)
- Ukrainian Navy
- Donetsk (former U 420)
- Artemivsk (former MDK-93, U 424)
- Hellenic Navy, which operates four ships. Three vessels were commissioned in 2001: the Kefalonia (L180) was purchased used from the Russian Navy and upgraded, the Ithaki (L181) which was completed in Ukraine, and the Zakynthos (L183) which was built in Russia. A fourth vessel, the Kerkyra (L182), was launched in June 2004 at St. Petersburg yard and was commissioned in January 2005.
- HS Kefalonia (L180) - ex Russian Navy 717, commissioned 2001
- HS Ithaki (L181) - hull launched in Ukraine 1992, commissioned 2001
- HS Kerkyra (L182)
- HS Zakynthos (L183)
- People's Liberation Army Navy. The Chinese PLAN has reportedly placed an order for four craft at a cost of 315 million US dollars. Two will be built by a Ukrainian firm in Feodosiya, and a second pair of vessels will be built in China under the supervision of Ukrainian technicians.  The first unit was delivered in April 2013.
- Wertheim, The Naval Institute Guide to Combat Fleets of the World: Their Ships, Aircraft, and Systems, 128
- Jane's Information Group, Jane's international defence review
- "Zubr Class (Pomornik) Air Cushioned Landing Craft, Russia". naval-technology.com. 2011. Retrieved 2011-08-02.
- Hellenic Navy (2008). "Hellenic Command Amphibious Forces: Ships". Hellenic Navy. Retrieved 2009-04-18.
- Hellenic Navy (2008). "Hellenic Command Amphibious Forces: Introduction". Hellenic Navy. Retrieved 2009-04-18.
- Kitov, Vladimir (2000-11-04). "Almaz launches NATO-bound craft". The Russia Journal. Retrieved 2009-04-18.
- Titova, Irina (2000-12-29). "City Shipyard Hovercraft Is 1st Delivery to NATO State". The St. Petersburg Times. Retrieved 2009-04-18.
- "Ukraine military hovercraft to equip Chinese navy". EarthTimes.org. 2009. Retrieved 2009-08-08.
- Saunders, Stephen (RN) (2003). Jane's Fighting Ships 2003-2004. Jane's Information Group. ISBN 978-0-7106-2546-5.
- Jane's Information Group (2002). Jane's international defence review: IDR. Jane's Information Group. Retrieved 209-04-18.
- Wertheim, Eric (2007). The Naval Institute Guide to Combat Fleets of the World: Their Ships, Aircraft, and Systems (15, illustrated ed.). Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-1-59114-955-2. Retrieved 2009-04-18.
- Vessel description (in Russian) on Youtube
- (Greek) http://www.hellenicnavy.gr/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=57%3Adad-istoriko&catid=74%3Adad&Itemid=226&lang=el
- (Greek) http://www.hellenicnavy.gr/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=325&Itemid=315&lang=el
- (English) All Zubr class LCAC - Complete Ship List