Zuffa

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Zuffa, LLC
Type Limited liability company
Industry Sports promotion
Founded 2001 (2001)
Founders Frank Fertitta III
Lorenzo Fertitta
Headquarters Las Vegas, Nevada, USA
Key people Lorenzo Fertitta
(Chairman & CEO)
Dana White
(President)[1]
Owners Frank Fertitta III (40.5%)
Lorenzo Fertitta (40.5%)
Flash Entertainment (10%)
Dana White (9%)[2]
Subsidiaries Ultimate Fighting Championship
Defunct:
World Fighting Alliance (2006)
Pride Fighting Championships (2007)
World Extreme Cagefighting (2010)
Strikeforce (2013)

Zuffa, LLC /ˈzfə/ is an American sports promotion company specializing in mixed martial arts. It was founded in January 2001 in Las Vegas, Nevada by Station Casinos executives Frank Fertitta III and Lorenzo Fertitta to be the parent entity of the Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC) after they purchased it from the Semaphore Entertainment Group. Lorenzo Fertitta is the company’s CEO and Chairman while Dana White runs the day-to-day operations.[2] Zuffa is co-owned by Fertitta brothers (40.5% each), Dana White (9%) and Flash Entertainment (10%).[3]

Zuffa is universally credited for turning around the UFC and increasing the status of mixed martial arts in the United States from one with a limited audience and regional competitions to a multi-million dollar enterprise with millions of viewers and internationally popular events.[citation needed]

The word "Zuffa" is an Italian word, meaning "scuffle".[4]

Relationship with MMA organizations[edit]

International Fight League[edit]

Throughout the existence of the International Fight League (IFL) between 2006 to 2008, both Zuffa and the IFL had competed in a hostile relationship. Zuffa accused the IFL of and sued them for illegally using proprietary information obtained by hiring executives from the UFC organization. The IFL responded with their own suit claiming that Zuffa was threatening potential partners not to work with the IFL, including Fox Sports Net (a deal with Fox Sports was later signed before resolution of the suit[5]). The tension between the IFL and the UFC worsened with accusations that the IFL had attempted to buy out several top UFC fighters.

In July 2008, there were reports of the IFL's possible purchase by the UFC.[6] That same month, Joe Favorito, former IFL senior vice president, cited financial troubles for the closing of the company on July 31, 2008. Anonymous sources stated that Zuffa had bought the IFL.[7] Other reports cited the UFC's airing of IFL footage on its programming, and the signing of previous IFL fighters, as an indirect confirmation of the purchase.[8]

WFA[edit]

On December 11, 2006, Zuffa acquired the assets of the World Fighting Alliance, and formed WFA Enterprises, LLC. as a subsidiary to handle these assets, including select fighter contracts.[9] On the same day, it was reported that Zuffa was formalizing plans to buy World Extreme Cagefighting, to be run as a separate promotion from the UFC.

WEC[edit]

Following the purchase of the WEC, Zuffa made several changes to the promotion. This included modifying the WEC's cage, transferring to a focus on lighter weight classes, giving it the ability to host events in Las Vegas and having the championships of fighters who were contracted UFC fighters vacated.

From 2007 to the end of 2010, the WEC was run as a separate promotion under the Zuffa banner, airing events 28 to 53 on Versus in the USA and on The Score in Canada.

On October 28, 2010 Dana White announced that the WEC would be absorbed into the UFC in early 2011.[10]

Pride Fighting Championships[edit]

On March 27, 2007, it was announced that Frank Fertitta III and Lorenzo Fertitta were acquiring the assets of Pride Fighting Championships, the UFC's largest rival, from Dream Stage Entertainment. To handle the take over, the Fertitta brothers created a new corporate entity to handle the assets, Pride FC Worldwide Holdings LLC. With common ownership in place, Zuffa and Pride Worldwide would be working closely together.[11][12] Although goals of reviving Pride were not realized, many of Pride's assets, including contracts with fighters and intellectual property, are now regularly utilized by the UFC.

Strikeforce[edit]

Early Relationship (2008–2010)[edit]

Starting around 2008 with a rising interest in Strikeforce, UFC president Dana White began a long media battle with their main competitor Strikeforce and their main media partner, Showtime.

Dana White had expressed that he had "no beef with Strikeforce", instead indicating a greater dislike for Showtime, and Ken Hershman in particular.

However, White did express in an interview that he had a mutual relationship with Strikeforce founder and CEO, Scott Coker, explaining that Coker is caught up in his battle with Showtime.

2011 Acquisition and Beyond (2011–2013)[edit]

On March 1, 2011 Scott Coker was noted for dismissing rumors of a pending sale to Zuffa as "crazy." Coker, went onto explain that Strikeforce was searching for "strategic partners" and that there were at least two (some reports say three) potential investors, but that "the UFC is not one of them."[13][14] One of the potential investors has been documented to have been ProElite.[13][15]

However, on March 12, 2011, it was announced in an interview between Dana White and journalist Ariel Helwani that Zuffa had purchased Strikeforce.[15][16][17][18][19] The deal was made between Zuffa and partial Strikeforce owner Silicon Valley Sports and Entertainment.[15][20] The amount of money involved has not been officially disclosed, however it has been reported that the deal was worth $40 million.[21]

Sources have confirmed that Scott Coker attempted to not sell Strikeforce to Zuffa. However, Coker ultimately failed and agreed to sell Strikeforce's licensing rights, fighter contracts, and video library to Zuffa on March 10 or 11th.[13][15]

On March 14, 2011, Zuffa held a conference call to officially announce the acquisition of Strikeforce.[22][23]

On March 28, 2011, Scott Coker was noted for saying that he felt that acquisition would be good for the sport of mixed martial arts. This is in contradiction of his original resistance of selling Strikeforce to Zuffa.[24]

Ultimately Strikeforce was operated as a separate company, similar to that of the WEC, until January 12, 2013 when the final Strikeforce show was held in Oklahoma City. After which the promotion was dissolved and all fighter contracts were either ended or absorbed into the UFC.

United Glory[edit]

When United Glory was originally formed in 2006, it was known as Ultimate Glory before a lawsuit with Zuffa forced a name change.[25]

Invicta Fighting Championships[edit]

In June 2014 the UFC announced that they had signed a multi-year, multi-event broadcast deal to show and archive all Invicta FC events on UFC Fight Pass.[26][27] This has allowed the UFC to further expand it's women's divisions by adding a Strawweight division in July 2014 and signing Invicta fighters such as Carla Esparza and Felice Herrig.

Shooto[edit]

In June 2014 the UFC announced that they has signed a development deal with the recently revived, Vale Tudo Japan. A brand that was brought back in 2012 by the long running, Shooto promotion.[28][29] The UFC plans on promoting and operating a new tournament series that will focus on 135 and 145 pound divisions. There were plans of a The Ultimate Fighter-like TV show to help promote these tournaments but it's unclear on what the status remains on them.[30][31]

Relationship With Non-MMA Organizations[edit]

Flash Entertainment[edit]

On January 12, 2010, Zuffa sold a minority interest in the company to Flash Entertainment. The company announced the completion of a deal in which a 10-percent interest in the company to the Abu Dhabi government-owned Flash Entertainment. With the sale, company ownership would be 40.5 percent held by Lorenzo Fertitta, the company’s CEO and Chairman, 40.5 percent held by his older brother, Frank Fertitta III, 10 percent by Flash Entertainment and 9 percent by Dana White.[2] Flash Entertainment was formed in 2008 by the Abu Dhabi government’s Executive Affairs Authority.

Ubisoft[edit]

In December 2010, Zuffa filed a lawsuit against video game publisher Ubisoft, for what they claim is a violation of trademark on the game, Fighters Uncaged, packaging.[32] On the packaging of the game the trademarked term, "Ultimate Fighting" is shown in all capital letters. Zuffa claimed that the use of the term is identical or confusingly similar to the use of the UFC's trademarks. While Ubisoft failed to provide any comments on the lawsuit,[33] by August 2011 the two companies announced the dissolution of the lawsuit.[34]

Lone Survivor Foundation[edit]

In May 2011, it was announced that Zuffa would be holding a charity auction featuring more than 100 items to benefit the Lone Survivor Foundation during the last week of May 2011.[35]

All products were autographed by UFC fighters and included, Baseball caps, T-shirt's, MMA gloves, and DVD's among other things. Products generally ranged in price from $50 to a few thousand dollars.

Cleveland Clinic Brain Trauma Study[edit]

In February 2014, Zuffa was one of number of major combat sport promotions to support a major brain trauma study that was being conducted by the Cleveland Clinic.[36][37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45][46]

MMA regulation[edit]

The current rules used in the UFC were first established by the New Jersey Athletic Control Board in 2000, in consultation with the UFC and other MMA promotions in the United States.[47] The first UFC event under the new rules was UFC 28, held before Zuffa's takeover. New Jersey's Unified Rules of Mixed Martial Arts has since been established throughout the country by other state athletic commissions, including Nevada and California.[47] The UFC has however kept close ties with state commissions, especially the Nevada State Athletic Commission, of which Lorenzo Fertitta was a former board member.[48]

Anti-Piracy Efforts[edit]

Zuffa has been one of the largest and most aggressive spenders among anti-piracy political lobbyists in the United States since the end of the 2000's.[49] One thing in particular that sets them apart from other sports leagues is that, in addition to supporting efforts of stricter piracy laws, they have also on numerous occasions gone after selected individuals in addition to pirate hosting websites.[50][51] Some of the most notable cases have included, a well publisticed lawsuit with Justin.tv in 2011[52][53][54] and a $32 million settlement involving a New York man in 2014.[55][56]

Zuffa has always maintained the stance that the large amounts of illegal streams of there events causes massive financial loses.[57] In response to having such a stringent stance it has been extremely controversial and has caused a number of debates within the mixed martial arts community on it's effectiveness.[58][59] As a result the UFC began experimented in a online subscription model known as UFC Fight Pass in 2014. It is unclear how beneficial the service has been since it's emphasis has been largely minimal next to UFC's partnership with FOX and noticeable decline in average PPV buyrates, highlighted by the S&P downgrading Zuffa's credit rating in late 2014.[60]

Insurance policy[edit]

On May 9, 2011 it was announced that Zuffa would be providing year-round customized insurance coverage for any injury suffered by a UFC or Strikeforce athlete.[61][62][63] [64] [65][66][67] The policy covers any injuries that occur during competition, training, and non-training related accidents.

The policy was underwritten by Houston-based specialty insurance group HCC Insurance Holdings and went into effect on June 1, 2011.[67]

The details of the policy include:

  • The policy covers all athletes signed by the UFC or Strikeforce.
  • The policy covers athletes residing both within and outside of the United States.[61]
  • Zuffa will pay for all premiums for the policy, and athletes will not be required to pay anything.
  • The policy allows athletes to use up to $50,000 in annual coverage for any injuries that occur while under contract to Zuffa. This includes services such as, doctor services, laboratory tests, emergency medical evacuation, and physical therapy.
  • The policy covers athletes regardless if they are scheduled to compete.
  • The policy also includes life and dental insurance at no cost to the athletes.[61]
  • The policy does not cover minor illnesses, but does cover training-related illnesses like staph infections.[64]

An insurance policy is not a first for mixed martial arts or combat sports as a whole. Former promotions such as the International Fight League, offered insurance to its athletes. However Zuffa's policy is the first to cover a large group of combat sport athletes.[65]

According UFC president Dana White, the policy was a goal of the company since Zuffa first purchased the UFC in 2001. In addition UFC chairman and CEO, Lorenzo Fertitta stated that the policy took three years to establish while trying to find possible insurers.[61]

Prior to the introduction of this policy, Zuffa provided up to $100,000 for an athlete on each event to cover injuries sustained during competition. However if an athlete was injured outside of competition they would have to pay for their own medical expenses.[67]

Notable incidents where UFC athletes were injured outside of competition include,

  • Frank Mir, who was struck by a car while riding his motorcycle in 2004, and forced out of competition for over 20 months.
  • Brock Lesnar, who was forced out of action for several months while struggling with diverticulitis.

Monopoly Accusations[edit]

The Ultimate Fighting Championship has been accused of monopolistic business practices both in casual criticism[68][69][70][71] and in formal lawsuits for a number of years. There are numerous fighters who have accused the company of various wrong doing's regarding issues including, unequal pay, predatory actions towards rival promotions, lack of a pension or union safety net, and other perceived unethical business practices.

These perceptions have been most highlighted by a Federal Trade Commission investigation that took place between 2011 and 2012. As well as in a series of class action lawsuits filed against the company in late 2014.

Federal Trade Commission Investigation[edit]

In the months following the March 2011 acquisition of rival promotion, Strikeforce by Zuffa rumors began to circulate that a possible investigation by the FTC would take place.[72] These rumors later came to be true when it is officially announced around the end of January 2012 that the FTC had in fact conducted an investigation, and found no wrong doings regarding the UFC being a monopoly.[73][74][75]

Class Action Lawsuits[edit]

On December 16, 2014 a class action lawsuit was filed against Zuffa by fighters Cung Le, Jon Fitch and Nate Quarry.[76][77] Within a few days after this Javier Vazquez and Dennis Hallman filed a second class action.[78] And on December 24, Brandon Vera and Pablo Garza filed a third lawsuit.[79] All three lawsuits are respented by much of the same legal team. And all three lawsuits are still ongoing and have only been addressed by Zuffa shortly after news spread following the first class action with the statement that, "The UFC will vigorously defend itself and its business practices."[80]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Zuffa, LLC". Bloomberg Businessweek. bloomberg.com. Retrieved 2011-08-01. 
  2. ^ a b c "Minority interest sold in UFC parent company". Yahoo! Sports. 2010-01-12. Retrieved 2010-01-12. 
  3. ^ "Zuffa Announces 10% Sale To Abu Dhabi’s Flash Entertainment". MMA Convert. 2010-01-12. Retrieved 2010-01-12. 
  4. ^ "zuffa - Wiktionary". En.wiktionary.org. Retrieved 2012-08-06. 
  5. ^ "IFL Inks Broadcast Deal with Fox Sports Net". Sherdog.com. 2006-03-29. Retrieved 2012-08-06. 
  6. ^ Corey Lorinsky (2008-07-18). "Hope For KO-ed International Fight League (IFLI): UFC Might Buy It*". Business Insider. Retrieved 2012-08-06. 
  7. ^ "Zuffa purchases IFL". Fight Network. Retrieved 1 August 2011. 
  8. ^ [1][dead link]
  9. ^ "Subsidiary of Zuffa, LLC Acquires Assets from World Fighting Alliance, Inc". Ufc.com. Retrieved 2012-09-20. 
  10. ^ "Exclusive: Dana White Announces UFC-WEC Merger". YouTube. Retrieved 2012-08-06. 
  11. ^ [2][dead link]
  12. ^ http://msn.foxsports.com/other/story/6614284
  13. ^ a b c Prophet, Zombie (2011-03-13). "More Details Emerge on UFC Acquisition of Strikeforce". Bloody Elbow. Retrieved 2012-08-06. 
  14. ^ Chiappetta, Mike (2011-03-30). "The Anatomy of the Zuffa-Strikeforce Deal". MMA Fighting. Retrieved 2012-08-06. 
  15. ^ a b c d Josh GrossMMAArchive (2011-03-13). "UFC parent company Zuffa buys rival MMA promoter Strikeforce - ESPN". Sports.espn.go.com. Retrieved 2012-08-06. 
  16. ^ Helwani, Ariel. "Zuffa Purchases Strikeforce". MMA Fighting. Retrieved 2012-08-06. 
  17. ^ Whitman, Mike (2011-03-12). "Zuffa Purchases Strikeforce". Sherdog.com. Retrieved 2012-08-06. 
  18. ^ "UFC purchases Strikeforce; UFC boss says organizations to operate independently". MMAjunkie.com. 2011-03-12. Retrieved 2012-08-06. 
  19. ^ Stupp, Dann (2011-03-14). "UFC officially announces Strikeforce purchase, Fertitta says Coker to run promotion". MMAjunkie.com. Retrieved 2012-08-06. 
  20. ^ "Coker tried, failed to get control of Strikeforce - Mixed Martial Arts News". Mixedmartialarts.com. Retrieved 2012-08-06. 
  21. ^ "Zuffa reportedly paid $40 million for Strikeforce - Mixed Martial Arts News". Mixedmartialarts.com. Retrieved 2012-08-06. 
  22. ^ Chiappetta, Mike (2011-03-14). "Zuffa Purchases Strikeforce Conference Call Twitter Updates". MMA Fighting. Retrieved 2012-08-06. 
  23. ^ Prophet, Zombie (2011-03-14). "UFC Purchases Strikeforce Conference Call Live Updates". Bloody Elbow. Retrieved 2012-08-06. 
  24. ^ [3][dead link]
  25. ^ Leidecker, Tim (2008-09-04). "European Throwdown: Overeem-Goodridge in Works". Sherdog.com. Retrieved 2012-08-06. 
  26. ^ http://www.ufc.com/news/ufc-fight-pass-incivta-deal
  27. ^ http://www.mmafighting.com/2014/6/5/5784496/ufc-inks-distribution-deal-of-all-invicta-events-for-fight-pass
  28. ^ http://www.ufc.com/news/ufc-signs-development-deal-with-shooto-in-japan
  29. ^ http://www.foxsports.com/ufc/story/ufc-signs-developmental-deal-with-shooto-in-japan-062614
  30. ^ http://fansided.com/2014/06/26/ufc-partners-former-shooto-promotion/
  31. ^ http://www.mmafighting.com/2014/6/26/5844564/ufc-partners-with-vale-tudo-japan-for-tv-show-and-tournament
  32. ^ Sieroty, Chris (11 December 2010). "UFC sues video game maker, alleging harm to trademark". Las Vegas Review Journal. Retrieved 26 September 2011. 
  33. ^ December 14, 2010 1:03PM PST (2010-11-04). "UFC parent sues Ubisoft". GameSpot.com. Retrieved 2012-08-06. 
  34. ^ Whitman, Mike (2011-08-25). "Zuffa, Ubisoft Settle Infringement Suit". Sherdog.com. Retrieved 2012-08-06. 
  35. ^ "UFC offers more than 100 items for charity auction to benefit Lone Survivor Foundation". MMAjunkie.com. 2011-05-21. Retrieved 2012-08-06. 
  36. ^ http://cagepages.com/2014/02/07/ufc-help-cleveland-clinics-study-brain-study/
  37. ^ http://www.rgj.com/viewart/20140204/SPORTS/302040038/Boxing-MMA-meet-Harry-Reid-John-McCain-support-head-injury-research
  38. ^ http://ringtv.craveonline.com/news/317079-do-not-run-until-tuesday-brain-health-supported-by-richard-schaefer-todd-duboef-bernard-hopkins
  39. ^ http://www.mmafighting.com/2014/1/27/5351822/mma-and-boxing-luminaries-combine-efforts-help-cleveland-clinic-brain
  40. ^ http://msn.foxsports.com/ufc/story/ufc-teams-up-with-senators-mccain-reid-to-support-brain-health-study-at-the-cleveland-clinic-020114
  41. ^ http://www.lasvegassun.com/news/2014/feb/05/study-head-injuries-boxing/
  42. ^ http://msn.foxsports.com/ufc/story/mma-boxing-rivals-unify-to-support-head-trauma-research-we-owe-it-to-these-athletes-020414
  43. ^ http://www.cleveland.com/open/index.ssf/2014/02/boxers_and_politicians_stop_fi.html
  44. ^ http://espn.go.com/boxing/story/_/id/10402924/boxing-mma-representatives-meet-head-research
  45. ^ http://www.reviewjournal.com/news/boxing-mma-organizations-promise-funding-brain-study-las-vegas
  46. ^ http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2014/feb/4/boxing-mma-groups-back-brain-trauma-study/?utm_source=RSS_Feed&utm_medium=RSS
  47. ^ a b "NJ State Athletic Control Board - Proposed Rules - Rules Governing Boxing, Extreme Wrestling and Sparring Exhibitions and Performance Bond Procedure". State.nj.us. Retrieved 2012-08-06. 
  48. ^ "The Official Website of the Ultimate Fighting Championship®". UFC. Retrieved 2012-08-06. 
  49. ^ http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/sports/mma/post/2012-05-18/ufc-among-sports-big-spenders-with-dc-lobbyists/697054/1
  50. ^ http://combatsportslaw.com/2014/03/10/zuffa-v-piracy-expensive-lessons-in-summarydefault-judgements/
  51. ^ http://www.bloodyelbow.com/2012/3/13/2868272/ufc-piracy-legal-zuffa-streaming
  52. ^ http://www.mmafighting.com/2011/01/21/ufc-sues-justin-tv-says-50-000-people-viewed-ufc-121-illegally
  53. ^ http://www.mmaweekly.com/pirates-beware-zuffa-files-lawsuit-against-justin-tv-for-alleged-illegal-ufc-video-uploading
  54. ^ http://www.mmamania.com/2012/3/22/2893430/ufc-lawsuit-justin-tv-not-guilty-internet-piracy-online-video-stream-sopa
  55. ^ http://www.reviewjournal.com/sports/mma-ufc/ufc-targets-new-york-man-crackdown-piracy
  56. ^ http://www.foxsports.com/ufc/haymaker/zuffa-reaches-settlement-in-32-million-lawsuit-against-ppv-pirate-091214
  57. ^ http://www.bjpenn.com/ufc-confirms-theyre-losing-millions-from-piracy/
  58. ^ http://mmachronicle.com/2014/03/ufcs-policy-on-pirated-streams-only-hurts-themselves/
  59. ^ https://www.techdirt.com/articles/20120320/10225718173/ufc-makes-awful-decision-to-sue-some-its-biggest-fans.shtml
  60. ^ http://www.bloodyelbow.com/2014/10/12/6965831/standard-poors-downgrades-zuffa-credit-rating-after-rough-2014
  61. ^ a b c d Chiappetta, Mike. "UFC Execs, Fighters and Managers Discuss New Insurance Plan". MMA Fighting. Retrieved 2012-08-06. 
  62. ^ Non, Sergio (9 May 2011). "UFC broadens health coverage for fighters". USA Today. Retrieved 30 September 2011. 
  63. ^ "Details About Zuffa’s New Fighter Insurance and Coverage for UFC and Strikeforce". MMAWeekly.com. 2011-05-09. Retrieved 2012-08-06. 
  64. ^ a b Con, Genghis. "Hurts so good: New details emerge about the UFC health insurance plan". MMAmania.com. Retrieved 2012-08-06. 
  65. ^ a b Cordero, Angel R. "UFC Announces Unprecedented Accident Insurance Coverage for Its Athletes". Themmatruth.com. Retrieved 2012-08-06. 
  66. ^ Helwani, Ariel (9 May 2011). "Zuffa to offer accident insurance to all 350 contracted fighters". NBC Sports. Retrieved 30 September 2011. 
  67. ^ a b c "Zuffa Expands Fighter Insurance to Cover Training Injuries". Sherdog.com. 2011-05-09. Retrieved 2012-08-06. 
  68. ^ http://nerdreactor.com/2011/03/12/its-official-ufc-is-a-monopoly/
  69. ^ http://bleacherreport.com/articles/1122107-ufc-opinion-how-having-a-monopoly-can-hurt-mma
  70. ^ http://themmacorner.com/2014/01/24/industry-dominance-the-ufc-and-its-monopoly-in-the-mma-market/
  71. ^ http://www.bloodyelbow.com/2014/6/30/5846330/ufc-monopoly-panel-discussion-paul-gift-david-dudley
  72. ^ http://www.boxinginsider.com/columns/mma-rumors-surge-regarding-an-ftc-investigation-of-zuffaufc/
  73. ^ http://www.sherdog.com/news/news/FTC-Closes-Investigation-of-UFC-Parent-Company-Zuffa-39817
  74. ^ http://espn.go.com/mma/story/_/id/7525483/ftc-closes-probe-ufc-strikeforce-purchase-take-further-action
  75. ^ http://www.mixedmartialarts.com/news/381842/FTC-closes-monopoly-investigation-of-UFC
  76. ^ http://www.sherdog.com/news/news/ClassAction-Lawsuit-Filed-Against-UFC-by-Cung-Le-Jon-Fitch-Nate-Quarry-78853
  77. ^ http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/early-lead/wp/2014/12/18/ufc-fighters-file-class-action-lawsuit-accusing-mixed-martial-arts-promotion-of-violating-anti-trust-laws/
  78. ^ http://mmajunkie.com/2014/12/dennis-hallman-javier-vasquez-join-class-action-lawsuit-against-ufc
  79. ^ http://www.bloodyelbow.com/2014/12/24/7448055/brandon-vera-and-pablo-garza-file-third-class-action-suit-on
  80. ^ http://mmajunkie.com/2014/12/ufc-promises-to-vigorously-defend-itself-against-class-action-suit