Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale

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The Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) was designed by William W. K. Zung, a psychiatrist from Duke University, to quantify a patient's level of anxiety.[1] [2]

The SAS scale is designed similar to a customer service survey questionnaire. It is a 20-item self-report assessment device build to measure anxiety levels, based on scoring in 4 groups of manifestations: cognitive, autonomic, motor and central nervous system symptoms. Answering the statements a person should indicate how much each statement applies to him or her. Each question is scored on a Likert-type scale of 1-4 (based on these replies: "a little of the time," "some of the time," "good part of the time," "most of the time"). Overall assessment is done by total score.

The total raw scores range from 20-80. The raw score needs to then be converted into an "Anxiety Index" score using the chart on the paper version of the test that can be found on the link below. The "Anxiety Index" score can then be used on this scale below to determine the clinical interpretation of one's level of anxiety:

  • 20-44 Normal Range
  • 45-59 Mild to Moderate Anxiety Levels
  • 60-74 Marked to Severe Anxiety Levels
  • 75-80 Extreme Anxiety Levels

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  1. ^ Zung WWK. A rating instrument for anxiety disorders. Psychosomatics. 1971; 12(6): 371-379 PMID 5172928
  2. ^ Zung WW. The measurement of affects: depression and anxiety. Mod Probl Pharmacopsychiatry. 1974;7(0):170-88. PMID 4153516